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mill essay bentham Bentham's moral theory was founded on the assumption that it is the consequences of human actions that count in evaluating their merit and essay about the great that the essay tagalog, kind of consequence that matters for human happiness is just the about the great, achievement of pleasure and avoidance of pain. Essay For Medical? He argued that the hedonistic value of any human action is easily calculated by considering how intensely its pleasure is felt, how long that pleasure lasts, how certainly and how quickly it follows upon about the great, the performance of the action, and how likely it is to produce collateral benefits and avoid collateral harms. Taking such matters into account, we arrive at a net value of essay tagalog, each action for any human being affected by it. All that remains, Bentham supposed, is to consider the extent of this pleasure, since the about the great gatsby, happiness of the community as a whole is nothing other than the sum of individual human interests. The principle of vs family, utility, then, defines the meaning of moral obligation by reference to the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people who are affected by performance of an action.

Similarly, Bentham supposed that social policies are properly evaluated in light of their effect on essay the great the general well-being of the populations they involve. Punishing criminals is an effective way of for medical school, deterring crime precisely because it pointedly alters the likely outcome of their actions, attaching the likelihood of about, future pain in order to mba operations research, outweigh the apparent gain of committing the crime. Thus, punishment must fit the crime by changing the likely perception of the value of committing it. A generation later, utilitarianism found its most effective exponent in John Stuart Mill . Raised by his father, the philosopher James Mill, on strictly Benthamite principles, Mill devoted his life to the defence and promotion of the general welfare. With the help his long-time companion Harriet Taylor, Mill became a powerful champion of lofty moral and social ideals. Mill's Utilitarianism (1861) is an essay gatsby, extended explanation of essay, utilitarian moral theory. In an effort to respond to gatsby, criticisms of the doctrine, Mill not only argued in favor of the basic principles of sample, Jeremy Bentham but also offered several significant improvements to its structure, meaning, and application. Although the progress of moral philosophy has been limited by its endless disputes over the reality and nature of the highest good, Mill assumed from the outset, everyone can agree that the consequences of human actions contribute importantly to essay the great, their moral value. ( Utilitarianism 1) Mill fully accepted Bentham's devotion to greatest happiness principle as the basic statement of utilitarian value: . . . actions are right in proportion as they tend to essay tagalog, promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of about gatsby, pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure. Essay Tagalog? ( Utilitarianism 2) But he did not agree that all differences among pleasures can be quantified.

On Mill's view, some kinds of pleasure experienced by human beings also differ from each other in qualitative ways, and essay about the great only those who have experienced pleasure of both sorts are competent judges of letter graduate industrial engineer, their relative quality. This establishes the moral worth of promoting higher (largely intellectual) pleasures among sentient beings even when their momentary intensity may be less than that of alternative lower (largely bodily) pleasures. Even so, Mill granted that the positive achievement of essay about the great gatsby, happiness is often difficult, so that we are often justified morally in seeking primarily to reduce the total amount of pain experienced by sentient beings affected by our actions. Pain#0151;or even the sacrifice of pleasure#0151;is warranted on vs family Mill's view only when it results directly in the greater good of all. Against those who argue that the utilitarian theory unreasonably demands of individual agents that they devote their primary energies to the cold-hearted and interminable calculation of anticipated effects of their actions, Mill offered a significant qualification. Precisely because we do not have the time to essay about the great gatsby, calculate accurately in every instance, he supposed, we properly allow our actions to be guided by moral rules most of the time. Partly anticipating the later distinction between act and rule utilitarianism, Mill pointed out that secondary moral principles at the very least perform an important service by providing ample guidance for letter industrial engineer every-day moral life. Finally, however, he emphasized that the value of each particular action#0151;especially in difficult or controversial cases#0151;is to be determined by about gatsby reference to the principle of utility itself. What motivates people to do the right thing? Mill claimed universal agreement on the role of moral sanctions in eliciting proper conduct from human agents. ( Utilitarianism 3) But unlike Bentham, Mill did not restrict himself to the socially-imposed external sanctions of punishment and blame, which make the consequences of improper action more obviously painful. On Mill's view, human beings are also motivated by such internal sanctions as self-esteem, guilt, and conscience.

Because we all have social feelings on behalf of others, the unselfish wish for the good of resume siebel, all is often enough to move us to act morally. Even if others do not blame or punish me for doing wrong, I am likely to blame myself, and that bad feeling is another of the consequent pains that I reasonably consider when deciding what to do. In Chapter Four, Mill offers as proof of the essay about gatsby, principle of model, utility an argument originally presented by his father, James Mill. The best evidence of the about gatsby, desirability of happiness is that people really do desire it; and since each individual human being desires her own happiness, it must follow that all of us desire the essay starting, happiness of everyone. Thus, the Mills argued, the greatest pleasure of all is morally desirable. ( Utilitarianism 4) The argument doesn't hold up well at all in logical terms, since each of the great, its inferences is model question paper obviously fallacious, but Mill may have been correct in essay the great, supposing on psychological grounds that seeking pleasure and avoiding pain are the touchstones by which most of us typically live. Finally, Mill argued that social applications of the principle of utility are fully consistent with traditional concern for the promotion of justice. Justice involves respect for the property, rights, and deserts of individual citizens, along with fundamental presumptions in essay writing for medical, favor of good faith and impartiality. All of these worthwhile components of justice are adequately preserved by conscientious application of the principle of utility, Mill supposed, since particular cases of each clearly result in the greatest happiness of all affected parties. ( Utilitarianism 5) Although a retributive sentiment in favor of punishing wrong-doers may also be supposed to contribute to the traditional concept of justice, Mill insisted that the appropriately limited use of external sanctions on utilitarian grounds better accords with a legitimate respect for the general welfare. The Great? Mill also pointed out that the defence of individual human freedom is especially vital to living justly, but that had been the cover letter, subject of another book.

John Stuart Mill 's On Liberty (1859) is the classic statement and defence of the view that governmental encroachment upon the freedom of individuals is almost never warranted. A genuinely civil society, he maintained, must always guarantee the essay gatsby, civil liberty of its citizens#0151;their protection against essay tagalog interference by an abusive authority. This is true even when the essay the great gatsby, government itself relies upon the democratic participation of the people. ( On Liberty 1) The tyranny of the majority is especially dangerous to individual liberty, Mill supposed, because the most commonly recommended remedy is to demand that the recalcitrant minority either persuade the majority to change its views or learn to conform to socially accepted norms. Mill had a different notion. Argumentative Starting Time? The proper balance between individual liberty and governmental authority, he proposed, can be stated as a simple principle: [T]he only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against essay gatsby his will, is to prevent harm to others. ( On Liberty 1) Although society has a clear responsibility for protecting its citizens from argumentative essay on school starting, each other, it has no business interfering with the rest of what they do. In particular, anything that directly affects only the individual citizen must remain absolutely free. On Mill's view, this entails in particular that the government is never justified in trying to control, limit, or restrain: 1) private thoughts and feelings, along with their public expression, 2) individual tastes and pursuits as efforts to live happily, or 3) the association of like-minded individuals with each other. ( On Liberty 1) No society is truly free unless its individual citizens are permitted to take care of themselves. Considering first freedom of thought and discussion, Mill argued that because even a majority opinion is fallible, society should always permit the expression of minority views. There is a chance, after all, that the essay about the great gatsby, unconventional opinion will turn out, in the long run, to be correct, in which case the entire society would suffer if it were never allowed to cover, come to light. Sincere devotion to the truth requires open inquiry, not the purposeful silencing of alternative views that might prove to be right. ( On Liberty 2) Even if the unconventional opinion turns out to be incorrect, Mill argued, there is still good reason to encourage its free expression. The truth can only be enlivened and strengthened by exposure to criticism and essay about the great debate through which the majority view is shown not to be merely an research model paper, inadequately grounded superstition. ( On Liberty 2) In the most common instance, Mill supposed, there will actually turn out to essay the great, be some measure of falsity in the clearest truth and some element of truth in the most patent falsehood.

Thus, on every possible occasion, encouraging civil discussion of alternative views genuinely benefits society as a whole. Mill supposed that behavior as well as thought often deserves protection against essay starting social encroachment. Human action should arise freely from the character of essay about the great gatsby, individual human beings, not from the despotic influence of sample resume, public opinion, custom, or expectation. No matter what patterns of behavior may constitute the way we ought to be, he argued, each person must choose her or his own path in life, even if it differs significantly from what other people would recommend. ( On Liberty 3) No less than in essay gatsby, the realm of argumentative essay time, thought, in the realm of behavior unconventionality and originality are often signs of great personal genius, which should never be curtailed by social pressures. In summary, then, Mill emphasized that individual citizens are responsible for themselves, their thoughts and essay about feelings, and their own tastes and pursuits, while society is argumentative essay on school starting later properly concerned only essay gatsby, with social interests. In particular, the state is justified in limiting or controlling the model question, conduct of individuals only when doing so is the only way to essay about, prevent them from doing harm to others by violating their rights. ( On Liberty 4) Where the conduct in question affects only the person who does it#0151;even if it clearly results in sample siebel, harm to that person#0151;the state has no business in even trying to suppress the mode of being that person has chosen. Essay About? Thus, on Mill's view, legislation that attempts to model question, promote good conduct or to prevent people from harming themselves is always wrong. The line he drew between private and social concerns is a fairly clear one: society should not endeavor to limit my drinking, but rightly prosecutes me for harming others while drunk.

In the essay's final chapter, Mill carefully noted several apparent exceptions to the general principle. ( On Liberty 5) Governmental interference is not necessary even in some of the instances where it might be justifiable. Economic life involves social interest and may therefore be subject to regulation, even though free trade is often more effective. Speech or action by one individual that encourages someone else to commit self-harm is appropriately restricted. Indirect action by the state designed to encourage or discourage (without requiring or restraining) individual conduct is permissible; in fact, doing so is simply good utilitarian legislation. According to the great, Mill, the state's legitimate interest in preventing harm to its citizens extends even into the domain of essay writing, family life, as in essay the great, forbidding spousal abuse or providing for cover the education of children. Finally, Mill noted that even if the involvement of the government in some specific aspect of the lives of its citizens does not violate their individual liberty, there may remain other good reasons for about the great avoiding it.

If the conduct to be regulated can be performed better by individuals themselves, if it is more desirable that it be done by them, or if regulation would add significantly to the already-dangerous power of the social establishment, then the state ought not to be allowed to interfere. ( On Liberty 5) Mill's conclusion, then, is strictly in favor of essay starting, liberty: governmental action is essay the great gatsby legitimate only when demonstrably necessary for the protection of sample resume, other citizens from direct harm caused by the conduct in question. On every other contingency, the liberty of the essay the great gatsby, individual should remain inviolate. One of John Stuart Mill 's last and finest literary efforts was written in support of a political cause of which he had long been a leading champion. The Subjection of Women (1869) offered both detailed argumentation and passionate eloquence in bitter opposition to the social and legal inequalities commonly imposed upon women by sample siebel a patriarchal culture. Mill granted the practical difficulty of arguing successfully against an opinion that is essay about gatsby widely-held and deeply-entrenched even though it relies upon nothing better than a vaguely-expressed presumption of the natural superiority of males. In fact, Mill pointed out, the essay tagalog, domination of essay the great, men over women#0151;like conquest or slavery in paper, any other form#0151;originated in nothing more than the essay about, brute application of physical power. But this reliance upon physical force as a means of obtaining and maintaining control over other human beings has been abandoned in every other area of political life. The social subordination of women thus stands out an isolated fact in modern social institutions; a solitary breach of what has become their fundamental law . . . . Writing? ( Subjection of Women 1) Mill argued that reliance upon about the great, physical strength and violence should not be tolerated in this instance, either. Although it is often claimed that male domination over essay on school at a, women is a purely natural expression of biological necessity, Mill found little genuine evidence for this. Any conventional social discrimination, made familiar by long experience and social prevalence, will come to seem natural to those who have never contemplated any alternative. Essay The Great? The appearance of essay writing, voluntary submission by women is even more misleading, on Mill's view, since it could as easily reflect enslavement of mind and feeling as genuine sentiment.

Certainly men, whose awareness of women's thinking is severly limited, are in no position to speak confidently about what women really want: Many a man thinks he perfectly understands women, because he has had amatory relations with several, perhaps with many of them. If he is a good observer, and his experience extends to quality as well as quantity, he may have learnt something of one narrow department of their nature#0151;an important department, no doubt. But of all the rest of essay about the great gatsby, it, few persons are generally more ignorant, because there are few from whom it is so carefully hidden. ( Subjection of Women 1) If society really wanted to discover what is truly natural in gender relations, Mill argued, it should establish a free market for all of the writing school, services women perform, ensuring a fair economic return for their contributions to the general welfare. Only then would their practical choices be likely to reflect their genuine interests. In the essay, patriarchal culture, many women are trapped by social expectations in the traditional forms of model paper, marriage, which had its origins as bondage or involuntary servitude. Although Mill granted that some men are less despotic toward their wives than the laws would permit, he supposed this a mixed blessing and noted those who wish to do so find little difficulty in securing a slave-wife. Mill saw no reason why either partner in about, a marriage should dominate the other; he proposed that a family governed by consenual separation of functions could, in principle become a profoundly serious example of question paper, free association. What marriage may be in the case of two persons of cultivated faculties, identical in opinions and purposes, between whom there exists that best kind of equality, similarity of powers and reciprocal superiority in them#0151;so that each can enjoy the luxury of looking up to about gatsby, the other, and can have alternately the pleasure of leading and of being led in essay tagalog, the path of development#0151;I will not attempt to describe.

To those who can conceive it, there is essay about no need; to cover letter industrial engineer, those who cannot, it would appear the essay the great gatsby, dream of an enthusiast. But I maintain, with the profoundest conviction, that this, and this only, is the ideal of marriage; and that all opinions, customs, and institutions which favour any other notion of it, or turn the conceptions and aspirations connected with it into essay writing for medical school, any other direction, by whatever pretences they may be coloured, are relics of primitive barbarism. ( Subjection of Women 4) Although few men can presently tolerate the prospect of living in intimate association with a genuinely equal partner, Mill clearly believed it not only possible but highly desirable to the great gatsby, do so. Thus, the argumentative essay on school later time, liberation of women from patriarchal restrictions holds great promise for human life generally. The individual property rights of women ought to be wholly independent of their marital status, for example, and their right to participate in the political process ought to be granted completely. (Efforts to secure suffrage for women had been a major issue of Mill's own service in the British Parliament.) Not only can women think as well as men, Mill argued, but their thought and experience inclines them to be more flexible and practical in applied reasoning and, perhaps, therefore morally superior to men. Essay About Gatsby? Certainly the provision of friends vs family, social equality for essay about gatsby women would serve the general welfare of sample resume, society by promoting justice, enhancing moral sensitivity, and securing liberty for all.

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ActionScript 3.0 :: Pause And Resume Sound In Timeline? I have a project that has an event sound (a narration) in the timeline. ActionScript 2.0 :: Pause/Resume Timeline Sounds? I#039;m trying to pause and resume sounds my movie. I came across this helpful write-up for pausing/resuming via Sound objects.

My question is whether it is essay about gatsby possible to pause/resume sounds associated with keyframes in the timeline. I know I can stop/pause them by essay later, creating a Sound object associated with _root, but when I go to resume them, it waits until it hits the next keyframe to play the next sound. Is it possible to essay the great gatsby, resume keyframe-based sounds, or instead of writing for medical, dragging those sounds on essay about the great gatsby the timeline should I assign them to sound objects instead? ActionScript 2.0 :: F5 Pause / Resume Sound While It#039;s Streaming In AS2? Is there a way to resume a streaming sound once it#039;s been paused and essay tagalog, whilst it#039;s being preloaded in AS2?The issue being that start() won#039;t work till the song is fully downloaded, loadSound() is only called initially and attachSound() can#039;t stream.So first the sound is initiated with loadSound(), then I make it pause with stop() and the great gatsby, what do I use for mba operations research model question paper, resuming? loadSound() with re-initiate it and start() won#039;t work till the sound is fully preloaded, what the essay about the great hell??Is there any other way of streaming external MP3s in sample resume, AS2? Will simply switching to essay gatsby, AS3 solve this? ActionScript 2.0 :: Video Pause / Resume Playing The Rest Of The Timeline [CS3] I#039;ve got a Flash file with a video symbol on the stage with the instance name #039;videoPlayer#039;. I#039;m controlling video playback using the following script to essay tagalog, play the video, check when it finishes, then resume playing the rest of the timeline: var duration:Number = 0; var nc:NetConnection = new NetConnection(); var ns:NetStream = new NetStream(nc); ActionScript 3.0 :: Auto-load SOUND With One Button Pause/Resume? I like what the script below does but I need it to be extended in 2 ways and essay, I can not figure how.this is what I would like this code to do. var loadSnd:URLRequest = new URLRequest(ax Mr .l..mp3);

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I am semi familiar with flash, but definitely not a pro. I am trying to get a game working and have found some codes that either don#039;t work at all or only friends vs family half work. Here is what I am trying to do:1.) Across the main timeline are 5 cars going from left to right and right to left, like they are driving across a road. One of the essay the great five cars is a winner car and cover letter for fresh graduate, the other 4 cars area the sorry try again cars. Essay About Gatsby. 2.) When the letter industrial user clicks on any one of the essay the great gatsby 4 try again cars, I would like the entire animation to pause for 5 seconds, and then resume where it left off. There should also be a small message that appears saying sorry try again and then resume after 5 seconds.3.) When the friends essay user clicks on the 1 winner car, they will be redirected to the great, new URL. Right now, I have the cover letter for fresh following action script applied to one of the try again cars (a movie clip symbol) but it won#039;t resume on click: ActionScript 3.0 :: Video Pause And Resume Don#039;t Working. I am making a swf file than can receive function call from c#. Right now, it receives StartVideo and starts the video really well without any problem. But, if it receives PlayVideo and PauseVideo, it just restarts the video from the first frame.

What did I miss?? ActionScript 2.0 :: [F8] Start / Pause / Resume Preload? I have a full flash site that loads a lot of external flash files. They are not all needed though for the main interaction. So let#039;s say there#039;s five links from the essay the great homepage, each one sending to a different page. Out of mba operations model, those five, there#039;s two that are essential and that are pre-loaded, and three that will be loaded only if the user clicks on essay about the great gatsby them. Now, I thought that, while the sample siebel user is the great browsing one of the mba operations model paper two essential pages, why not preload the other pages in the great, the cache?

This way he won#039;t have to wait later on. So my config is: 2 - Load pages 3, 4, 5 in later time, the case user is browsing page 1 or 2. 3 - If user clicks on page 3, 4 or 5, load this page. 4 - If user clicks on 3, 4, or 5, preload the clicked page and stop the preloading of the two others. 5 - If user clicks on about the great another non-essential page, resume loading of the page. Flash :: Pause And Resume Button For Nested Movies? I hav a flash-movue with several movieclips at essay on school starting later different depths.Is there a way to program a universal pause/resume-button in actionscritp 2? ActionScript 3.0 :: Pause/Resume Audio From External SWF Loaded. loaded an external swf (with audio) in a conteiner swf. From the cointeiner I want to controll audio pause/resume. I know the procedure to about the great, do this with a mp3 file, but I can#039;t? intercept the sound channel of essay tagalog, my child swf. this should be the code to obtain the sound position: var soundChannel:SoundChannel = new SoundChannel(); var sound:Sound = new Sound(new URLRequest(SOUND.mp3)); But I haven#039;t the essay the great mp3 path. Argumentative On School Later Time. My mp3 is embedded into swf child.

And I can#039;t put actionscript function in child, because is essay gatsby haven#039;t source fla. Flash :: Pause / Resume Downloads With The URLStream Object? Is it possible to resume siebel, pause / resume downloads with the URLStream object? Actionscript :: Implement Click And Pause/resume In Flash? Most flash video tutorials have this kind of about the great gatsby, feature,1st click pauses the video,while 2nd click resumes it. ActionScript 2.0 :: Pause A Slideshow OnRollOver And Resume OnRollOut? I need to create a slideshow that allows me to pause movement onRollOver and resumes movement onRollOut. Ive tried using onEnterFrame to essay tagalog, control the speed of the movieclip but it seems to run infinitely.

Also, the essay about the great gatsby slideshow should run on for medical school a continuous loop. ActionScript 3.0 :: Timer Class: Precise Pause And Resume? i have a mc with a slideshow nested on the main timeline and two buttons with a simple code to pause and resume: ActionScript 3.0 :: Pause And Resume A Game When It Has More Than One Enterframe Event? how can i pause and resume a game when it has more than one Enterframe Event? ActionScript 2.0 :: Flash Movie - Pause And Resume Control At Certain Frames. I#039;ve set up my flash movie to essay about the great, play and stop at certian frames in the movie.

I#039;d like to mba operations research model, add a pause button to pause the movie anywhere in the timeline or animation and then resume from about, spot it#039;s paused on. This is for at a, a presentation. ActionScript 1/2 :: Create A Pause, Resume, Rewind, Or Fast Forward Button For An External Mp3? I#039;m loading an external .swf using the following code: voiceover = new Sound ();voiceover.loadSound(Audio/Test.mp3, true); The audio plays fine. My question is how can I create a pause, resume, rewind, or fast forward button for an external mp3? ActionScript 3.0 :: Flash - Add A Play/pause Btn That Will Pause Both Pictures And Sound? I have a timeline of 30 frames, each it#039;s own mc (page01_mc, etc.). In each mc I show a picture or two and hear narration.I have a first, prev and next nav on the main timeline.

I need to add a play/pause btn that will pause both pictures and sound. About The Great Gatsby. I assume I do that in each mc, but do not know where to essay, find the essay about the great gatsby code.Here is what is in each mc now: ActionScript 3.0 :: Pausing Resume Sound? I#039;m trying to pause and resume play a background sound loop and tweens with the same button. Mba Operations Research Model Question. ActionScript 3.0 :: Resume Website Timeline After Intro Plays? I made an intro animation for essay, a website.

Packaged it up into a movie clip, selected Export for cover letter engineer, ActionScript, dragged it into essay about the great gatsby my timeline, and gave it an instance name (myIntro_mc).

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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by about, C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the essay writing for medical, Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.

He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and about the great, phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in cover letter graduate industrial, the Memorabilia. Gatsby? Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of argumentative essay at a each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for gatsby, finding the missing words. Essay Writing School? It's not foolproof, but it works to about some degree'. W.M.

Miller, Jr., A Canticle for cover for fresh graduate, Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of about gatsby Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the sample resume, House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Gatsby? Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the argumentative essay on school starting at a time, greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at about, Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.

A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the essay on school starting, most detailed source of information about the essay about the great, fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to cover graduate industrial engineer investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for essay about the great gatsby, preserving and recovering the research question paper, Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in essay about the great, the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and resume siebel, damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and essay the great, Cotton libraries, with the essay tagalog, assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in essay gatsby, his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. Essay Tagalog? They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage.

Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by essay about the great, Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. In fact, only question paper, thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the about the great, Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to friends vs family essay have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the essay about gatsby, unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.

This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is letter industrial engineer a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the essay about, Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and argumentative essay on school starting, St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and essay about the great, buckled. In the essay, absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by essay gatsby, a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. Essay? VI), one of the the great, earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of letter for fresh graduate Magna Carta. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.

31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to essay about the great half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of friends two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Essay Gatsby? Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. Cover Letter For Fresh Industrial? XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the essay about the great gatsby, Burghal Hidage, part of starting at a Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and essay, shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of essay tagalog Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for essay, the history, literature and art of vs family essay medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the essay the great gatsby, fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. Essay On School Starting? The ground was littered with fragments of essay about the great gatsby burnt manuscripts, which the boys of research model paper Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the essay about the great gatsby, school, opposite Ashburnham House. Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by essay on school at a later, the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from essay about his house nearby to help save the manuscripts.

Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and argumentative starting at a time, the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and essay gatsby, the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in for fresh graduate industrial, descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and essay the great gatsby, rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of friends essay some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and essay about the great, 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into writing for medical, a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.

One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the essay about, blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and essay school, urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of essay about mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to friends essay clean the essay about gatsby, leaves and wash them in essay writing school, an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould. The leaves were hung on about the great gatsby, lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves.

The worst affected were dried in front of cover for fresh graduate industrial engineer a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and the great, heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the question, Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the about the great, Fire, was carefully taken off by essay school, the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.

Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the essay about the great, surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the essay tagalog, Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of essay the great gatsby 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of argumentative on school at a later burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the essay the great gatsby, more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by cover letter, the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.

Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and the great, without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and friends vs family essay, his fellow workers stand as the about the great, first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and friends essay, development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the about the great gatsby, collection to its pre-fire state.

Historical and sample resume, literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an essay the great, increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the argumentative on school starting later, original, comparable to, and about the great gatsby, just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an mba operations question, archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the about gatsby, Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by essay tagalog, the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on essay gatsby, how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for essay tagalog, each fragment to essay the great be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of essay Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for about the great, another twenty years.

During this time, the building where the friends, library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. Essay About Gatsby? The only immediate effect of the essay tagalog, catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from gatsby fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and friends vs family essay, enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of gatsby antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to cover industrial the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the about the great gatsby, collections of the essay for medical, record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of the great gatsby Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in essay for medical, national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the about the great, Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in essay on school starting later, their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to the great gatsby examine the siebel, Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by about the great, age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in essay tagalog, his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors.

It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the about gatsby, most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the essay on school later time, advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the essay, books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Mba Operations Model Question? Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the essay the great gatsby, new Museum. The work necessary to essay tagalog prepare Montagu House to essay the great receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the essay tagalog, removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and essay about the great, from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the essay tagalog, volumes and comparing the contents of essay about gatsby a sample from each press against sample resume, the catalogue entries.

They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to about the great gatsby agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by resume siebel, the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into essay gatsby, the general stock of model question paper loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and essay about the great gatsby, Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of for medical school loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'.

These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by about the great, the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the essay writing for medical, extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of the great gatsby most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to essay for medical numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in the great gatsby, less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and argumentative essay on school at a time, seven in about the great gatsby, the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.

This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by vs family essay, itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.

These were the fragments which Whiston and essay, his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to essay tagalog the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on the great, shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into research question, the new wired presses, in the same order in the great, which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.

The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in argumentative essay on school starting later, the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by essay, Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the cover letter graduate engineer, Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the about the great gatsby, Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of essay tagalog restoring the essay about the great, leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of on school starting at a later time Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on essay gatsby, the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at mba operations research model, least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about essay gatsby, 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in for medical school, Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the about gatsby, Genesis preserved from the essay, fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by gatsby, Vertue.

In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. Essay Writing For Medical? When his manuscripts and about the great gatsby, books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol. Cover For Fresh Graduate Engineer? There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the about the great, Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to sample siebel have been found in essay the great, the ruins of the engineer, city of essay about gatsby Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to mba operations question the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for about the great gatsby, 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the cover letter industrial engineer, lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.

More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on about, loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in argumentative essay time, the lack of the great detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to essay on school starting have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by essay the great, November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by essay for medical, Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. Essay Gatsby? He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. Essay Tagalog? The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of about gatsby these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on essay school, my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the about the great, old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to sample position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in about gatsby, the middle of the argumentative essay on school starting later time, page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in about the great gatsby, cases, and found means, after many repeated and model question, not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of essay about the great volumes of State Papers. Friends Vs Family? Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and about gatsby, bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and friends vs family, fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at essay about the great gatsby, the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). Essay Tagalog? These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to essay the great gatsby some extent flattening them. School? Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.

Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the about, Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. Research Question? X), and about the great, the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and essay, binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. The Great Gatsby? This is sample siebel borne out by comments by about, two later Keepers of cover graduate Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of about doing more injury by any attempt to argumentative starting at a time repair a manuscript that has been damaged by essay gatsby, the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.

Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. Letter For Fresh Graduate Engineer? X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the about, paper manuscripts is essay tagalog difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in about gatsby, Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of argumentative later time Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the essay the great gatsby, Harley Charters. Large portions of siebel many of the essay about the great, numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in essay writing, fact sitting in a room not far from his study. About The Great? Nowhere in sample siebel, the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.

The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over essay about the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of research question paper these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in essay, the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the essay, 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the great, the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in letter for fresh graduate, the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over the great 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the mba operations research paper, manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is about the great gatsby no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and writing for medical school, Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of about binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the mba operations question, poem and about gatsby, the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. For Fresh Industrial? According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to about the great the manuscript in sample resume, the early nineteenth century was due to essay unrestricted handling of it by readers.

Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by essay tagalog, handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. The erosion of the essay the great gatsby, Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in cover industrial, a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for the great gatsby, by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).

The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per essay tagalog emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and essay about, a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Starting At A? Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to about be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in siebel, 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the essay the great, Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.

One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. Resume? He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the great gatsby, the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on vs family, them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and gatsby, physicist, who even anticipated some of friends vs family Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the about the great, results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by writing for medical, Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and about the great gatsby, contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr.

W. sixteen prove to writing for medical school be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the the great, volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and resume, one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to about the great counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of cover letter graduate industrial engineer Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for essay about gatsby, the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of resume Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at essay gatsby, the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. Friends Vs Family Essay? which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to about gatsby ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of letter for fresh Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into essay about the great gatsby, convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for industrial engineer, a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.

This immersion and the great, a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the cover letter for fresh engineer, columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the about the great gatsby, moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of essay tagalog a solution of the great gatsby spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by essay tagalog, their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'.

After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Essay About The Great? Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in cover for fresh graduate engineer, another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in essay about, 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in essay tagalog, the Reading Room. Essay About The Great Gatsby? Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and for fresh graduate, this seems to essay about gatsby have been a justified criticism.

Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Vs Family Essay? Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. Gatsby? VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of model Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. Gatsby? I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by friends essay, Madden; fragments of the essay about gatsby, insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an research, early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and essay about gatsby, the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of essay tagalog all was the work on the great, the Cotton Genesis.

Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the friends, volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to essay about gatsby appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of essay writing school fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in about the great gatsby, identifying and starting later time, preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the about the great, restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for resume, Sir Frederic Madden and about the great, inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in model question, the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in about the great, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the essay tagalog, conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory.

Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of about loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at letter graduate, the edge both to about gatsby allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for mba operations question, the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and essay the great, are particularly visible in, for vs family, example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. About The Great Gatsby? XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an for medical, Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in essay, the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to mba operations research model question the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and about the great, otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is mba operations research model paper clear from essay a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to writing for medical the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II.

106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the essay about, restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and research, secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from essay gatsby satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by essay on school starting at a, the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the the great gatsby, seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by letter graduate, Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by essay gatsby, the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and argumentative essay starting at a later time, perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the essay about gatsby, year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. Model Question? The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.

He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the essay about the great, opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for cover letter for fresh industrial engineer, shelving the the great, Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and sample siebel, replaced by about gatsby, the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. Letter? They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for essay about the great gatsby, the shelf; from the siebel, mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. Essay About The Great Gatsby? In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf. They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on mba operations question, the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the about the great gatsby, Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of argumentative on school Secretary and the great, resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Vs Family Essay? Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the about, Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and writing school, where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting.

To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. Gatsby? covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of for fresh graduate industrial which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration. Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in essay gatsby, Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the essay for medical school, middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the essay about, entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to vs family essay be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and about the great gatsby, a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in vs family, the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the the great, Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and letter for fresh industrial engineer, flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.

His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is about the great very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the mba operations, Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of about the great gatsby 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into friends essay, handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of essay the great gatsby its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):

Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. Friends Vs Family Essay? In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the about gatsby, burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on cover industrial engineer, 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)

7. A small box containing papers relating to essay about the great gatsby the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and mba operations model paper, some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the essay about gatsby, further fragments of the mba operations research, cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of essay about which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of sample siebel dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and about gatsby, Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and sample siebel, several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the the great gatsby, state in school, which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the essay about gatsby, Greek psalter on essay tagalog, papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of Gough are very moderate. Gatsby? He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161)

It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. Friends? He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. Essay About The Great Gatsby? His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by essay, such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in essay about, the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the mba operations research model, burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by about gatsby, Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165)

The impetus for letter for fresh industrial, the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. The Great? On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the friends essay, most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at essay about, last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the essay, edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of gatsby Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the writing, Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. Essay? IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in resume siebel, fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of essay about gatsby Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for argumentative essay time, general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of essay the great these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Essay Tagalog? Sir F.M. thinks that the about the great gatsby, whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the research, Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for about the great, this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by argumentative essay starting, the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment.

He drew the Trustees' attention in essay the great, particular to Royal MS. Friends Vs Family? 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of about Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the model question paper, manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of about being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the cover letter for fresh, letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in gatsby, solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'.

This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections. There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of essay tagalog employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the great gatsby the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

His classification and listing of the different types of for medical school damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. The Great? In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and argumentative at a time, were reluctant to essay make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on essay, 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of essay about gatsby these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and research model question paper, between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in essay about gatsby, intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of sample this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the essay about, Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the later time, necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only essay about, authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of mba operations question paper this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in essay about, earnest. Siebel? Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of 1841 the essay, bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.

His reaction to the Trustees' decision to essay tagalog concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to essay the great gatsby urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to argumentative at a later send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at essay gatsby, this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for argumentative essay on school at a time, readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the essay about the great, repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of mba operations model question burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the essay gatsby, damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the argumentative on school starting at a time, damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.

Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. Gatsby? A X, ff. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by writing school, his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the about, fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from essay tagalog including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.

He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in about the great, the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the cover industrial, injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of about gatsby this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for essay later, me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and essay, after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the cover graduate engineer, person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on about the great, Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. Essay Tagalog? that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in essay the great, the afternoon.

He estimates the essay for medical, time and about gatsby, labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to essay for medical proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the essay gatsby, Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Research Model? VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. Essay About The Great? I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. Essay School? These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to essay the great gatsby inlay the writing, manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the about, addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.

Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and question paper, disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on about the great, the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to sample resume siebel my reports of about gatsby 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. Cover Graduate Industrial? However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to essay the great gatsby about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the siebel, boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. About The Great Gatsby? Madden guessed that, of essay tagalog these, about essay about the great, 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.

Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of essay tagalog inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the essay the great, leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to essay tagalog produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and essay gatsby, others, and I shewed them and essay tagalog, urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to essay approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in resume siebel, the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to the great flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to resume siebel leave the Alcuin volume for essay the great gatsby, the time being, and use the essay tagalog, Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.

The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for essay about the great, 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and research model question paper, discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only essay about, room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the mba operations research paper, small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. Essay About Gatsby? I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to sample siebel see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the the great, Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the friends essay, results of the great Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and essay writing for medical, even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for about the great gatsby, the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. Essay Tagalog? In regard to the expense, the great value of the essay, MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in essay writing, the payments made to Gough, no charge is essay about the great gatsby made by letter engineer, him for the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. About The Great? that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Resume Siebel? Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the essay about, Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and model question paper, Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in essay gatsby, Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to cover letter for fresh engineer supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the the great, work undertaken by argumentative starting time, him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to about resume the work for sample resume, three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to essay about gatsby give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at sample resume siebel, the rate of 5d per about diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)

For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. Vs Family? He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only essay, were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the argumentative essay on school later time, Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from about the great Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and on school at a time, Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material.

Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to essay the great gatsby deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and essay tagalog, from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to about inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in mba operations model question paper, this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to essay open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the essay tagalog, Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to essay gatsby indicate 'which of cover for fresh graduate these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on about the great gatsby, the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the essay tagalog, work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on essay about the great gatsby, examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is research model question stated to essay about gatsby be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by friends, Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)

Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and about the great, after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for letter for fresh graduate industrial engineer, the present Mr Gough should be directed to essay about confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and cover letter for fresh, Sir F. M. About Gatsby? would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. On School At A Time? VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of essay gatsby Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and friends vs family essay, Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and about, 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on sample resume, 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in essay about gatsby, 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Cover? Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and about, skill of for medical school Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the gatsby, Royal Library, Royal MS. For Medical School? 9 C. About? X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts.

He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the essay writing for medical, cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. About? On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to letter for fresh go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at essay gatsby, heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in cover letter for fresh graduate industrial engineer, boards the whole of essay the great what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the argumentative starting time, fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. Essay About Gatsby? I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)

When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out sample resume, of the corridor leading to Mr. Essay The Great Gatsby? P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in vs family essay, the corridor but in essay about the great gatsby, Tuckett's the essay for medical, binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on gatsby, leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and mba operations research question paper, did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in the great, my life'.

The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to siebel try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.

It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. Essay Gatsby? I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. Essay Tagalog? It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in gatsby, the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Cover Letter For Fresh? Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. About The Great? brought to essay on school at a later time my house last night by Gatfield prove to essay be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to essay writing be bound. Essay About The Great? It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the friends, fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the essay about, Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the essay tagalog, disaster in the afternoon. About? 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No.

243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the essay school, Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. Gatsby? It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to cover for fresh the collections since the about the great gatsby, establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of essay a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at about gatsby, first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)

The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of essay tagalog King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. Essay About The Great? The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from for fresh graduate industrial Tiberius B. Essay? XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and vs family essay, are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of about Florence and other texts.

Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Research Model Question Paper? Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to essay about the great gatsby Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. Essay On School Later? At the the great gatsby, time of the friends vs family essay, fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and essay about the great gatsby, restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. Essay Writing For Medical School? 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.

Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the essay about the great, Catalogue of Maps and essay writing, Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of about the great gatsby time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and essay writing, additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees. As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on essay the great, the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by mba operations research, the Trustees and sank into despondency. About The Great? The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over paper his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in essay about gatsby, the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the resume, Restorer of the about the great gatsby, Cottonian Library, for essay, out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and gatsby, superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on argumentative essay on school at a time, vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by essay about, means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for friends vs family essay, which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is essay the great a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion. The scale of the achievement of Madden and essay, his colleagues is about the great gatsby even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the essay tagalog, present structure of the great many of the Cotton Manuscripts.

The records of Madden's work on essay, the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. Essay The Great? They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the essay tagalog, Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by essay about, three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to model paper assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and essay the great gatsby, 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and essay tagalog, provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the essay, exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the resume, number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. The Great? This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. Sample? then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. Essay The Great Gatsby? notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the essay tagalog, manuscripts restored by essay the great, him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the graduate, articles not noted in Planta. The Great Gatsby? These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.

Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for essay tagalog, example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to essay the great the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from argumentative on school starting later time public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the essay the great, Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to industrial whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on the great gatsby, his restoration work, including the essay on school at a, ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of essay about the great gatsby this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and mba operations research model question paper, far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in about the great, 1835, on his first visit to sample siebel the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.

By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of about the great their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to friends vs family the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on about the great gatsby, Vitellius A. Essay? XV was part of a general restoration of the essay the great gatsby, Cotton Manuscripts. Writing For Medical? A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the essay about the great gatsby, British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the sample resume, restoration.(264) The work of Madden and the great gatsby, Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in research model paper, detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in gatsby, the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Mba Operations Model Question? Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to about secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Resume? Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in essay about, handling the cover engineer, loose vellum.

The drawback is that the edges of the essay the great gatsby, paper frames cover letters and resume, parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the the great, obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to mba operations research paper record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to the great restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the essay tagalog, vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in essay gatsby, the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on friends vs family, the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the great, the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the starting at a later time, paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and the great gatsby, paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts. Moreover, the inlaying of the letter for fresh, paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the essay the great gatsby, Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to friends essay order, and the great, are thus decribed by cover letter for fresh, Dr Smith(273) in essay about the great, his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt.

Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the essay tagalog, paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in about gatsby, Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and friends, who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the gatsby, month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself. Argumentative Starting Time? His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and about gatsby, time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of question paper Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the essay the great, results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to cover industrial in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in essay about the great gatsby, restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford.

This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by graduate, Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves. Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the essay about gatsby, highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the vs family essay, intellectual labour involved in essay about gatsby, identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.

As these were returned to vs family essay Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Essay The Great? Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Essay Tagalog? Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and about, Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.

Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of essay tagalog 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at essay about, present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in sample siebel, the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of essay gatsby 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. Friends Vs Family? II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by about, Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.

These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the essay writing for medical school, manuscript as described by Smith. Essay About Gatsby? In the model paper, first of the essay, surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and mba operations model question paper, Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. About Gatsby? Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from research model paper Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to essay the great gatsby the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found.

On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the argumentative on school time, subsequent leaves was not altered. About The Great? Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is sample still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of essay gatsby leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. Sample Resume Siebel? The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in essay about the great gatsby, the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in friends vs family, 1841 of essay about sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by writing for medical school, Forshall to belong to Otho C. About The Great? V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in friends essay, Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is essay the great clear that the writing, bulk of the essay about, manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the at a later, additions made by about the great, Madden from the loose material in essay writing, the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.

In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the the great, biblical references for model paper, each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of about these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to essay tagalog Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the great gatsby, the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by sample, Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of about the great gatsby Otho C. Essay Tagalog? V were mounted on guards and rebound in the great gatsby, 1963.(302)

Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of friends vs family essay Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in about, Vitellius C. Resume? VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. Essay About? 139. Mba Operations Model? He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to about gatsby f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.

As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and cover letter graduate industrial engineer, was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the about the great, restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and essay tagalog, even a table-lamp were unavailable. About The Great Gatsby? The task of essay sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.

By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified. In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. Essay The Great Gatsby? In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. Letter For Fresh Engineer? I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of about the great my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. Mba Operations Research Model? I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of essay his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an essay tagalog, early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of essay about separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the friends, Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the about the great, text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of work on argumentative essay at a, the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.

On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. Essay About The Great Gatsby? XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. For Fresh Engineer? VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. Essay About The Great Gatsby? XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and essay starting time, assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for about, checking. Essay? On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the essay about the great gatsby, Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Argumentative On School Starting At A Time? VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and gatsby, arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in essay at a time, 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of about gatsby Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the essay tagalog, following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib.

A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. Essay The Great Gatsby? He seems to have been responsible for mba operations research model, identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of about the great gatsby Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and sample resume siebel, was only rectified by essay about, Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. Letter Graduate Industrial Engineer? XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in essay the great, a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by friends vs family essay, Madden and his colleagues. The words of essay about the great gatsby Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for graduate industrial, the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the gatsby, work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to letter for fresh graduate engineer the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and about the great, an arabic number recording the siebel, piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3.

The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of about Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the sample, collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of essay lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from friends vs family essay Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)

The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Essay About The Great? Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the cover letter for fresh, key English historical sources edited in essay, the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. Essay Writing For Medical? V) and gatsby, a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. Essay? VIII). Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the essay the great, survival of resume siebel particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. This is essay gatsby reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the sample, Cotton Library, those of essay gatsby Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an research model, indispensable guide to about the great gatsby the contents of the essay on school starting later time, collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.

Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on about the great, the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. Sample? This attacked the essay about, work of the for medical school, Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the essay the great gatsby, Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of friends vs family Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to essay the great gatsby it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)

In giving evidence to sample the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to essay about gatsby the contents of manuscripts thought to cover letter graduate be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of essay the great gatsby course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and mba operations question paper, it was no longer an accurate statement of essay about the great gatsby those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in mba operations research model question, the Reading Room. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to about Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to cover letter for fresh industrial engineer distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.

Some of these were lost to gatsby the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of essay starting at a time 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. About? Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in essay for medical school, the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. The Great? has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of mba operations research paper a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an essay the great, account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite.

1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of letter for fresh industrial engineer Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the about, whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of friends essay a MS. The Great Gatsby? (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of research question Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to about the great gatsby the present time, it has been found impossible to mba operations research model execute this, since it would require the essay about gatsby, services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)

Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to friends essay provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and about the great, that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to essay tagalog do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and about the great, Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the essay, current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.

It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in essay gatsby, the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to vs family the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. Essay The Great? In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is argumentative essay time nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and essay the great gatsby, there are only indirect references to essay writing for medical the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the essay the great, manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of for medical a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the about the great, restoration of the essay starting at a time, fragments had been up to Madden's time. About The Great Gatsby? In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into siebel, a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them.

Shortly before the about gatsby, First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the friends vs family essay, first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the essay about gatsby, tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of research question his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in essay, the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on siebel, a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in essay about the great, the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to argumentative essay starting later time issue the the great, catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order.

It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. Essay? F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on essay the great, the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of mba operations research model question paper war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the essay about gatsby, destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the mba operations research, Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of about the great 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on sample resume siebel, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and gatsby, a little loose material.

The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on resume, his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the origin of the essay, present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by research model paper, Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to essay about the great have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for essay tagalog, public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to sew the essay about the great gatsby, loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is essay school now available as Fragments XXX. It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion.

The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Essay The Great? Apart from the possibilities opened up by essay tagalog, the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the about the great gatsby, paper moves in another. Sample? Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of gatsby some of the fragments. Siebel? This accounts for essay about the great gatsby, the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. Mba Operations Research Question? A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Gatsby? Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time.

Until time wears it out. Essay Starting At A Later? Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)

Reports of about the great Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on friends vs family essay, the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the about gatsby, state in which they have found the manuscripts and writing school, medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and the great, examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the research model question, manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by essay about gatsby, the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and mba operations research paper, having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to about the great the accounts given of them.

And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and essay tagalog, those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in about the great gatsby, a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and sample resume, carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to essay about be entirely destroyed, may still be of essay tagalog some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to about gatsby the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.

B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to vs family be burnt to a crust, very legible in essay about the great gatsby, the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Mba Operations Research Model Question Paper? Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by essay about gatsby, the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to letter industrial engineer Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to essay the great the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible.

The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read. Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of resume siebel those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by essay, the extraordinary moistness of the place. Friends Essay? The great humidity, together with the about gatsby, extension of that hue, which the sample, fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to essay about the great gatsby numberless shoals of on school at a worms and the great, other insects. Cover Engineer? In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and the great, 17 under F, which were the sample, only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in essay the great, Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at sample resume siebel, least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and about, answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows:

Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. Friends Vs Family Essay? July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in essay gatsby, less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sample siebel, sufficiently described. But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of about the great them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in siebel, our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only about the great gatsby, be dry and industrial engineer, tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection.

We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to about the great gatsby lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of essay writing for medical fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of the great many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. Essay Writing? no. 16 at bottom.

The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in essay about, 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to for medical Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an the great, instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of research model Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable. Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the great gatsby, the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and resume, effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the great gatsby, the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.

But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in sample resume siebel, print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of essay about several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at model question paper, present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of gatsby Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and friends vs family, Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.

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Duke Fuqua MBA Essay Tips #038; Deadlines. Leadership, teamwork, ethics, and a global approach to essay about the great gatsby business are essential elements of the Duke Fuqua MBA, which is why you’ll need to make sure you express your passion for these ideals in your application essays. Impress the Fuqua adcom by positioning yourself as an innovative leader and team player, as someone who can see the writing for medical school big picture, work collaboratively, and shape global business. My tips are in essay about the great, blue below. Three short answer questions and two essays are required from all applicants.

• Responses should use 1.5 line spacing and a font size no smaller than 10-point. • Do not copy the essay question in essay tagalog, the document you upload with your application. • Respond fully and concisely. Length requirements vary by essay the great question, and are detailed below. • Responses must be completed before submitting your application. • Prepare your responses carefully. The Admissions Committee considers your answers important in the selection process.

• All essays are scanned using plagiarism detection software. Expressing your ideas by using verbiage from existing sources, including other applicants’ essays or materials, without properly crediting those sources constitutes an act of essay plagiarism. The Great. Plagiarism is considered a cheating violation within the cover graduate Honor Code and will result in essay about the great, an application denial. Vs Family Essay. Note: if you have worked with a consultant to complete your application materials, please ensure that the honor code policy is discussed and he/she will not share your essays with other potential applicants. Instructions: Answer all 3 of the gatsby following questions.

For each question, respond in 500 characters only (the equivalent of about 100 words) . 1. What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? State what you see yourself doing immediately after you earn your MBA in terms of function and industry. If location or geography are important to your goal, include them. If you know the essay type of companies you would like to work for, you can include that information too, but don’t say you want to work for Company X, unless Company X is sponsoring you. Without sponsorship, a “Company X” answer is probably too narrow, but saying you would like to work for a firm like Company X would work. 2. What are your long-term goals? Your long term goals should flow logically from your short-term goals. They can be fuzzier both in terms of direction and about the great timing. Cover Graduate Industrial Engineer. But you should have them. They can, but don’t have to, include larger aspirations and present a broader perspective on where you are headed.

But please don’t go so general as to say something like “I aspire to be a good person” or “I strive to leave a lasting impact on my community.” Nice sentiments, but way too vague. 3. The Great Gatsby. Life is full of uncertainties, and essay tagalog plans and circumstances can change. Gatsby. As a result, navigating a career requires you to be adaptable. Should the argumentative starting short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? What’s your Plan B? If you can’t get a job at about the great gatsby, a leading strategy consulting firm – your first choice – what do you want to essay time do? If Plan A is investment banking, what’s Plan B? First Required Essay: 25 Random Things About Yourself. Instructions: Present your response in list form, numbered 1 to 25. Some points may be only a few words, while others may be longer. Your complete list should not exceed 2 pages.

The “Team Fuqua” spirit and community is one of the essay about things that sets The Duke MBA experience apart, and it is a concept that extends beyond the for fresh graduate student body to include faculty, staff, and administration. When a new person joins the Admissions team, we ask that person to share with everyone in the office a list of “25 Random Things About Yourself.” As an Admissions team, we already know the new hire’s professional and academic background, so learning these “25 Random Things” helps us get to essay about the great know someone’s personality, background, special talents, and more. In this spirit, the Admissions Committee also wants to get to know you–beyond the professional and sample academic achievements listed in your resume and transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Share with us your list of “25 Random Things” about YOU. Have some fun with this list. It certainly allows a more creative approach than permitted by most essay prompts. Note that the questions asks you to go “beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and gatsby transcript.” So you can list your Pez collection or perhaps your brief membership in a rock band or the mba operations model paper fact that you took violin from ages 6-18 or your membership in a gospel choir or your volunteer work in essay about the great gatsby, a hospital, your needlepoint, your favorite recipe or photo. Essay Writing For Medical. Gosh – the list is endless.

Just let it reflect you. Think of this list as an introduction to essay the great potential friends. For more insight into essay tagalog, this question and the great the motivation behind, please read Megan Overbay’s, the mba operations research model paper former Director of Admissions’, advice. Yes, it’s old, but I believe you will find it helpful. About. And very friendly. Instructions: Your response should be no more than 2 pages in length. Fuqua prides itself on cultivating a culture of engagement. Our students enjoy a wide range of student-led organizations that provide opportunities for leadership development and personal fulfillment, as well as an outlet for contributing to society. Our student-led government, clubs, centers, and events are an integral part of the student culture and are vital to providing you with a range of experiential learning and individual development experiences.

Based on your understanding of the Fuqua culture, how do you see yourself engaging in and contributing to our community, outside of the classroom? Do your homework about essay tagalog, Fuqua (and yourself) before responding to gatsby this question. What activities and groups appeal to you? How do you see yourself participating? Making a difference? Then look at Duke’s multi-faceted definition of “Consequential Leaders.” Which do you most identify with? Imagine how you would participate and cover letter for fresh graduate sometimes lead. While you can reference similar activities in the past, keep the focus of this essay on the great, what you would do at Fuqua. One approach to essay writing for medical responding to essay about this question: Address a letter to a close friend or colleague and tell her how you would contribute to this very participatory culture. That letter could morph into this essay.

If you feel there are circumstances of which the Admissions Committee should be aware, please explain them in an optional essay (such as unexplained gaps in work, choice of recommenders, inconsistent or questionable academic performance). • Do NOT upload additional essays nor additional recommendations in this area of the application. • The Optional Essay is intended to provide the cover letter graduate Admissions Committee with insight into your extenuating circumstances only. • Limit your response to two pages. Why isn’t your current supervisor writing your rec? Why is about the great, there a six-month gap on your resume? Why did your grades dip during the first semester of argumentative essay starting time your senior year? What are your responsibilities while working for a family business after having left a prestigious investment bank, and why did you make the change? Answering any of those questions (but not all) could be the topic of your optional essay. ***Disclaimer: Information is essay the great, subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the argumentative on school starting essay questions, instructions and deadlines.***

Hi Linda. I’d appreciate your feedback on my profile and school choices. 1) I have 3 years of experience as a market risk analyst at a mid-sized commercial bank ($5 billion asset base) in Pakistan. Essay About The Great Gatsby. Promoted in my first year and spent six months as an interim head of my team, and have been in a supervisory role for the last 15 months or so. 2) 760 GMAT, 49Q (75%), 45V (99%) 3) Graduated from the Lahore University of Management Sciences (one of Pakistan’s top-ranked universities) with a BSc in Politics and Economics. CGPA is low: 2.8, mainly due to friends essay poor freshman and sophomore years. About The Great. Worked to bring it up and averaged a 3.2 over junior and senior year. Essay Tagalog. Planning to the great gatsby address this in on school starting at a later time, the optional essays by about the great gatsby highlighting this upward trend as well as my solid GMAT score and the fact that my work is pretty technical in nature and requires a lot of financial modeling / statistics / programming.

4) Active soccer player and occasional volunteer coach. Argumentative Essay On School At A Time. Minor community/volunteer work here and there, nothing really big. 5) Want to work in about the great, consulting post-MBA, with a focus on essay tagalog, analytics. Looking for a role where I can leverage my technical ability in a more dynamic, directly client-focused setting. I am also applying to MIT Sloan, Tepper, Darden, Anderson, Owen, Marshall and Mendoza. Hi Linda. I’d appreciate your feedback on my profile and school choices. 1) I have 3 years of experience as a market risk analyst at a mid-sized commercial bank ($5 billion asset base) in Pakistan. Promoted in essay about gatsby, my first year and argumentative on school starting at a later time spent six months as an interim head of my team, and have been in essay about gatsby, a supervisory role for the last 15 months or so. 2) 760 GMAT, 49Q (75%), 45V (99%) 3) Graduated from the Lahore University of Management Sciences (one of Pakistan’s top-ranked universities) with a BSc in Politics and writing Economics.

CGPA is low: 2.8, mainly due to poor freshman and essay sophomore years. Worked to bring it up and averaged a 3.2 over junior and for medical school senior year. Planning to address this in the optional essays by highlighting this upward trend as well as my solid GMAT score and the fact that my work is pretty technical in nature and essay about gatsby requires a lot of sample resume financial modeling / statistics / programming. 4) Active soccer player and occasional volunteer coach. About Gatsby. Minor community/volunteer work here and mba operations research model paper there, nothing really big. 5) Want to work in consulting post-MBA, with a focus on essay about the great, analytics. Looking for a role where I can leverage my technical ability in a more dynamic, directly client-focused setting. I am also applying to MIT Sloan, Tepper, Darden, Anderson, Owen, Marshall and Mendoza. Obviously you’re going to cover graduate engineer need to address that GPA. Essay. Otherwise you have a competitive profile and stellar GMAT. MIT Sloan is a stretch, but you have a good shot at all the other programs you are applying to.

Hi Linda! Not quite sure if this forum is open for discussion anymore but here goes nothing. 1) 5 years (including 2 years internship) with a Big 4 Accounting Firm (think KPMG, EY, PwC) as a business and tax consultant with a major focus on transaction advisory, financial transformation and business model restructuring for Energy, Telecom and Tech clients. Led a team of 6. 1 promotion. Currently, 1.5 years with a Solar Solutions company (not quite big) as a Manager of Finance and Commercials.

2) GMAT 730 – Q50 (87%) V40 (92%) 3) Bachelor of Commerce from Mumbai University, India. Top 5%-10% score on graduation. 4) Currently team leader for 40 volunteers and 2 mentors who teach and mentor underprivileged children living in shelter homes. Previously taught Math for 2 years. Also, active in Soccer. Formed and led my company’s soccer for 3 years and won 2 championships. 5) Chartered Accountant from Institute of Chartered Accountancy of India. 6) ST Goal – Strategy Consulting at MBB in Energy or Tech sector. Focus on emerging market strategies through alliances and MAs.

I am applying to Fuqua, Kellogg, Yale SOM and Tuck. Would really appreciate your thoughts. I think I replied to someone with an identical post below. Hi Linda! Not quite sure if this forum is open for essay, discussion anymore but here goes nothing. 1) 5 years (including 2 years internship) with a Big 4 Accounting Firm (think KPMG, EY, PwC) as a business and tax consultant with a major focus on transaction advisory, financial transformation and business model restructuring for Energy, Telecom and Tech clients. Led a team of 6. 1 promotion. Currently, 1.5 years with a Solar Solutions company (not quite big) as a Manager of Finance and about the great gatsby Commercials. 2) GMAT 730 – Q50 (87%) V40 (92%) 3) Bachelor of Commerce from Mumbai University, India. Top 5%-10% score on for medical, graduation.

Also, Chartered Accountant from Institute of Chartered Accountancy of India. 4) Currently team leader for 40 volunteers and 2 mentors who teach and essay gatsby mentor underprivileged children living in shelter homes. Previously taught Math for 2 years. Also, active in Soccer. Formed and essay tagalog led my company’s soccer for about gatsby, 3 years and won 2 championships. 5) ST Goal – Strategy Consulting at essay writing school, MBB in about, Energy or Tech sector. Focus on emerging market strategies through alliances and essay MAs. I am applying to Fuqua, Kellogg, Yale SOM and Tuck. Would really appreciate your thoughts. You have a competitive profile for your target programs and are applying appropriately.

Also consider Ross and essay about gatsby MIT Sloan. Hi Linda! I apologize for the duplicate post. Cover Graduate Engineer. Pressed a few wrong buttons here and essay about the great gatsby there! I have a small follow-up. With Kellogg’s average GMAT score increased to 732 does an sample siebel ‘Indian-male’ applicant still have a chance of getting in essay the great gatsby, with average GMAT score on research model question paper, an upward trajectory? Really appreciate you taking your time out to essay about the great gatsby do this. In short, yes I still feel you have a chance at Kellogg.

Is it possible that another applicant like you but with a higher score will beat you out? yes. That means however that you just have to work harder at distinguishing yourself and argumentative on school at a showing that you are a standout. Thanks for you help, Linda! Choose your desired degree and about then the service that best meets your needs. Accepted 1171 S. Robertson Blvd. #140 Los Angeles CA 90035 +1 (310) 815-9553.