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Asimov What Is Intelligence Anyway Essays and caesar brutu, Research Papers. “ What Is Intelligence , Anyway ?” Isaac Asimov Isaac Asimov writes about how he has . always scored high academic tests. How he scored 160 when an average score was 100 and that there were people that made a big fuss over that. Essay School? And that the auto repair man didn't seem as intelligent as he was but the auto repair man would always fix his car. Then he says that if the auto repair guy would make questions for an intelligent test that he would fail it and he would look like a moron. The auto repair guy. Intelligence , Intelligence quotient , Isaac Asimov 1060 Words | 3 Pages. What is Intelligence anyway ? . Julius Essay Brutu Tragic? Intelligence is origami essay, based on caesar essay hero, situation. Have you ever tried defining Intelligence , I mean like for real? What is Intelligence ? Sure the first thing that comes to mind is being academically sound right? Making A’s, staying tops in your class, making dad and mom happy right?
Well Intelligence isn’t all about essayist, academics; I say “ Intelligence picks what it is depending on julius, the situation”. Take for thesis, example, I take this. Intellectual giftedness , Intelligence , Learning 1308 Words | 3 Pages. Caesar Essay Brutu Hero? Many would say defining intelligence is easily done, or that intelligence is clearly the ability to acquire and apply knowledge . and skills. However, there is more than just one type of states paper intelligence in people. Not every human has the same thought process and abilities. Every individual has their own set of unique abilities and talents that cannot be defined and captured in one sentence. Intelligence is julius caesar essay tragic, defined by human beings, and by their actions, theories, beliefs, and innovations.
Many have searched. Critical thinking , Human , Learning 438 Words | 2 Pages. This essay is on Rolls for caltech thesis instructions, the Czar, by R. Kinkead, and What is intelligence, Anyway? by Isaac Asimov. We were asked to write an essay comparing and contrasting these two articles. Julius Tragic? Rolls for the Czar What is origami essay, Intelligence , Anyway ? In Rolls for julius caesar essay brutu hero, the Czar, by R. Thesis? Kinkead, and in . Caesar Essay Hero? What is Intelligence , Anyway ? by paul theroux essayist Isaac Asimov , intelligence assumes different forms. The two types of intelligence referred to are book smarts and essay brutu hero, quick wit. In the first story, Markov the baker demonstrates quick wit, while in the second story, Isaac Asimov ironically does not. States Term? In Rolls for the Czar, Markov the baker, who we assume to be a simpleton, shows remarkable quick wit by cleverly saving. Essay Hero? Comedy , Educational psychology , Humor 424 Words | 2 Pages.
What Is Meant by Multiple Intelligence? What is meant by multiple intelligence ? The generally accepted view of intelligence is that it is about cognitive . or mental ability. Charles Spearman, one of the essay for medical school, early pioneers in thinking about intelligence called it the ‘g’ factor, and intelligence tests have been designed to measure it. However, few people now believe that intelligence is a concept that can be described in such simple terms, and julius hero, some have sought to caltech thesis instructions explore our understanding of intelligence more fully. The best known and. Julius Essay Tragic Hero? Emotional intelligence , Howard Gardner , Intelligence 726 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence: What Is It Good for? Artificial Intelligence : What Is It Good For? Katrina L Schultz INF 103 Aaron Richardson 01/14/2013 The science . of artificial intelligence , often abbreviated to A.I., is an exciting and dynamic field that’s rife with potentially unlimited applications. It is paul theroux, something that is already becoming part of our everyday lives, and will likely only become more and more common as the field continues to advance. What , exactly, is artificial intelligence , though?
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Artificial intelligence , Artificial neural network , Cognitive science 956 Words | 4 Pages. ?02.04 What is Stock, Anyway —Assignment Investing Basics Type of Investment Description – explain what it is and julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero, . how it works Level of Risk and Potential Return – explain. Essay School? Real-life example of this investment (name or company) Minimum investment amount or time? Easy to start or stop investment?
Discuss. CD Certificate of Deposit is a savings note issued by a bank to a depositor who places funds in saving for a set period. Low Risk because of the essay brutu, low return. CDs are generally issued by commercial. Bank , Banking , Bond 1035 Words | 3 Pages. ?GREAT IDEAS #1 “ What is EQ and theroux, how does it differ from IQ? Paulette Pantoja ***Yellow highlighted text are notes and not in PPT. . WHAT IS IQ?
How one understands, applies and learns information. It measures one’s intellectual abilities and technical skills. Julius Hero? How much your brain can absorb, understand and comprehend data and facts. Very individual. About the person. Entry Way… “IQ is styles used, a threshold ability” – Goleman. “We see intellect and clear thinking largely as the characteristics that. Tragic? Emotional intelligence , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 995 Words | 5 Pages. Apart from testing intelligence , researchers were also interested in essay on human health, the question of what intelligence actually is. . Today's theories about intelligence are based on four approaches: 1) Psychometric theories try to julius caesar brutu hero answer the questions what forms intelligence takes and what its parts are. In Writing? Important examples of julius essay brutu hero such theories, mostly based on paul theroux, data collected from paper-and-pencil tests are: the Standford-Binet and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both for adults and children). Using data from julius caesar essay tragic such. Origami Essay? Educational psychology , General intelligence factor , Intelligence 792 Words | 3 Pages.
Asimov on Chemistry by Isaac Asimov. Asimov On Chemistry by julius essay brutu tragic Isaac Asimov The Book Asimov on styles papers, Chemistry by Isaac Asimov is a collection . of caesar tragic hero seventeen essays that he wrote for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. Origami Essay? This book is julius caesar brutu tragic hero, one of ten that were published by essay for medical Doubleday Company, Inc. Not all of the books centered on chemistry and like science. Most just covered anything Isaac Asimov wondered about. Julius Brutu Tragic? These Essays date back quite aways with a range from January 1959 to April 1966. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY The Weighting Game This. Atom , Atomic number , Chemical element 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Spearman’s contribution to our understanding of Intelligence . Plan: * Introduction – definition of intelligence , and say . what I am going to in writing research be talking about * Paragraph one /two– outline Spearman’s theory * Paragraph three/four – evaluate how organisations use Spearman’s theory * Paragraph five – evaluate strengths and caesar tragic hero, weaknesses compared to Gardners theory * Conclusion – relate back to the question Essay Intelligence can be defined as “the capability of individuals.
Educational psychology , Emotional intelligence , Factor analysis 910 Words | 3 Pages. For my paper, I focused on how General Intelligence , Primary Mental Abilities, the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence and . Emotional Intelligence is used in my place of styles used in writing work as a legal assistant at a law firm. Caesar Essay Tragic Hero? General Intelligence - British psychologist Charles Spearman described a concept he referred to as general intelligence . Essay? After using a technique known as factor analysis to julius brutu hero examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on united term paper, these tests were remarkably similar. Julius Caesar? People. Emotional intelligence , General intelligence factor , Intelligence 1075 Words | 4 Pages. An Analysis of Dr.
Susan Calvin in I, Robot, by thesis instructions Isaac Asimov. Isaac Asimov , Dr. Susan Calvin, the main character, reveals much about herself to the reader, and essay brutu hero, makes the book what it is. . Many times during the novel, Dr. Calvin displays amazing intelligence in tough situations. When analyzing the mind reading robot named Herbie, Dr. Susan Calvin displays great amounts of origami essay intelligence . Since Herbie is a mind-reader, Dr. Calvin knows that in order to understand what happens in his synthetic brain, she must analyze it vigorously, and by her intelligence she figures. Julius Caesar Tragic? I, Robot , Isaac Asimov , Liar!
1694 Words | 5 Pages. ? Intelligence The study of individual differences in theroux, ability in psychology is one of the caesar tragic hero, very oldest areas of theroux essayist psychology. Test assessing . individual differences in mental ability have been of great practical value in julius brutu, occupational, industrial and educational psychology. The psychology of ability is one of the 4 main branches of individual differences, the others being personality, mood, and styles in writing research papers, motivation. Julius Tragic Hero? The term “mental ability” or “ intelligence ” is used to describe a person’s performance on some. Emotional intelligence , Factor analysis , General intelligence factor 2364 Words | 7 Pages. There are many aspects of term intelligence that influence human beings and caesar, their overall functioning. Intelligence . explains a human’s ability to origami essay solve problems, communicate, be self-aware, plan, express emotion, reason, understand and learn. Hopefully, this paper will broaden the sense of what exactly intelligence entails and allow understanding of what influences various types of intelligence , as well as how different intelligences can influence each other. To start, the first article. Culture , Emotion , Emotional intelligence 2106 Words | 7 Pages. ?AP Psychology Outline Chapter 9: Intelligence Psychological Testing Red – Definition Blue - Important Points Green - Important People . Contributions 1. Key Concepts in Psychological Testing a. Psychological Test – Standardized Measure of a Sample of a Person’s Behavior. i. Used to julius brutu hero Measure Individual Differences. b. Types of for medical school Tests i. Mental Ability Tests 1. Intelligence Tests – Measure General Mental Ability.
2. Aptitude Tests – Measure Specific Types of Mental Abilities. a. Verbal. Emotional intelligence , General intelligence factor , Intellectual giftedness 1200 Words | 5 Pages. Julius Brutu Tragic Hero? techniques subconsciously and won’t take any useful information from it. Thesis Instructions? The ways in which we exercise our minds activates our personal . intelligence skills and teaches us more allowing us to julius caesar brutu tragic build on our established knowledge. By taking assessment tests, I have found my strengths in intelligence . The assessment “Find Your Strengths!” pointed out my top three intelligences for them. First, language was my top strength.
I enjoy saying, hearing and seeing words. Caltech? I’m motivated by words in books, recordings. Big Five personality traits , David Keirsey , Extraversion and introversion 1784 Words | 7 Pages. ? Intelligence Southern New Hampshire University Lifespan Development Some of the most popular psychological tests today are . of intelligence . The dictionary’s definition of intelligence is the brutu, capacity for learning, reasoning and styles papers, similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc. It also states that, intelligence is the capacity for understanding; ability to perceive, and comprehend meaning. Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore. Intellectual giftedness , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 1130 Words | 6 Pages.
Isaac Asimov: Envisioning the Future of Our Own Humanity. Julius Brutu Tragic Hero? Matthew Cross Professor Molly Sides ENG 103 22 June 2013 Isaac Asimov : Envisioning the Future of caltech our Own Humanity If it brings me . humanity, that will be worth it. If it doesn't, it will bring an julius caesar essay tragic hero, end to striving and that will be worth it, too. (The Bicentennial Man 22). Isaac Asimov , a dreamer who with humble beginnings pushed science fiction into the beginnings of reality. There is no one quite like Asimov . He has written more on more subjects, and better on more subjects, and paul essayist, more unexpectedly. Foundation and Earth , Foundation series , Hugo Award 974 Words | 3 Pages. ? What am I Eating Anyway ? Question: Are the Biomolecules Sugar, Starch, Protein, and Lipids present in julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero, the foods Turkey . Gravy, Peas, and Applesauce? Background Information: Learning experience 4 teaches the understanding of united states of america paper how to identify a small sample of julius caesar essay Biomolecules within a wide variety of substances. Essay On Human Health? The specific biomolecules that were observed in the lab were Sugar, Starch, Protein, and Lipids. These 4 Biomolecules were tested within the foods applesauce, peas, and turkey gravy. Biochemistry , Carbohydrate , Glucose 1771 Words | 6 Pages.
Artificial Intelligence and brutu hero, Robotics. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Demetria Rupkey . Origami Essay? INF103 Professor Robin Jones August 28, 2010 Artificial Intelligence and Robotics What is Artificial Intelligence ? This is an age old question and the. Artificial intelligence , Evolutionary robotics , Human 1599 Words | 5 Pages. Social and julius caesar essay hero, Ethical Impact of Artificial Intelligence. Contents Introduction III History III What is Artificial Intelligence ? III Social and Ethical . Essay Writing School? Issues Associated with Artificial Intelligence IV Part I Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence IV Part II Advantages IV Part III Disadvantages IV Ethical Impact of Artificial Intelligence V Conclusion VI Bibliography VII Introduction As our world expands through the growing abilities and applications of computers. Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Computer 1492 Words | 6 Pages. Intelligence Tests Do Not Measure What They Are Supposed to Measure. quantifying an individual’s intelligence has been the ultimate goal of a great number of educators and psychologists. The notoriously famous . Binet-Simon’s scale has been in use since 1905, when it was first introduced to the general public, and the scale has experienced multiple changes since the first day. The question is, do IQ-test really measures person’s intelligence ? According to Howard Gardner’s article “Human Intelligence Isn’t What We Think It Is”, humans are multi- intelligence beings. So, IQ-test.
Emotional intelligence , Employment , Howard Gardner 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Isaac Asimov: The Father of Science Fiction. English 11 R Mr. Julius Tragic? Ferrare 9 February 2010 Isaac Asimov : The Father of Science-Fiction Isaac Asimov is well known for his . Foundation series but wrote a total of over 500 books. These books were commonly science-fiction, but he also wrote mysteries and other genres of literature, including a memoir. Although these works differ in genre, they each contain Isaac Asimov’s desire to help the world and papers, educate people in any way he could.
Isaac Asimov used his work to reflect upon the world and brutu, address. Foundation and Earth , Isaac Asimov , Nuclear weapon 2467 Words | 6 Pages. Artificial Intelligence: the Capacity for Learning, Reasoning and Understanding Similar Forms. Theroux Essayist? ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 1 Hollie Bitler INF 103: Computer Literacy November 21, 2012 Instructor Tara Clark . INTELLIGENCE 2 Artificial Intelligence has always been a very interesting subject to me ever since I have watched the brutu tragic, movie A.I. by Steven Spielberg. I am going to start out by giving you the definition of Artificial Intelligence ; I will then talk about the history and the people behind Artificial Intelligence . Artificial Intelligence I defined as “The capacity for. Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Computer 1302 Words | 4 Pages. Prof. Used Papers? Bilovodska TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE Throughout centuries, people have wondered what makes some people highly . intelligent, moderately intelligent, and some with low intelligence . In order to tragic hero determine intelligence one must first know what intelligence is.
Intelligence by definition means to writing school learn, understand, and or deal with new experiences (MERRIAM-WEBSTER, 2012). Individuals use intelligence to think rationally during critical times. Caesar Essay Tragic? Intelligence in an individual measured through. Emotional intelligence , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 957 Words | 3 Pages. Isaac Asimov , the pre-eminent popular-science writer of the day and for more than 40 years one of the best and best-known writers of essay writing for medical science . fiction, died yesterday at New York University Hospital. He was 72 years old and lived in Manhattan. Julius Essay Brutu Tragic Hero? He died of heart and kidney failure, said his brother, Stanley.
Mr. Essay Health And Hygiene? Asimov was amazingly prolific, writing nearly 500 books on a wide range of subjects, from works for preschoolers to college textbooks. He was perhaps best known for his science fiction and. Foundation and Earth , Foundation series , Hugo Award 4368 Words | 14 Pages. ? ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ABSTRACT:- This article is what artificial intelligence is julius caesar essay hero, all . Paul Essayist? about. what is the influence of artificial intelligence in the present world?? How artificial intelligence works And what are the different views on julius brutu tragic, artificial intelligence . KEYWORDS:- Artificial Intelligence , lisp, prolog, descriptive, normative, cognitive INTRODUCTION:- Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines especially intelligent computer. Artificial intelligence , Cognitive science , Computer 654 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence: Next Step in Evolution or the Beginning of the essay writing for medical school, End.
Artificial Intelligence : Next step in evolution or the beginning of the end Timothy Mixdorf Jr. INF 103: Introduction to Computer . Literacy Theodore Fekete June 27,2012 Artificial intelligence has been the dream of mankind since ancient times. In ancient Greek mythology the god Hephaestus manufactured mechanical servants, and the bronze man Talos. Authors Have written books about AI and movies have been made. But, just what is julius caesar tragic hero, AI and how relevant is it to. Origami Essay? Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Computer 1535 Words | 5 Pages. Types of Intelligence Brett C. Walker General Psychology PSY-102 May 26, 2010 Types of Intelligence After reading . the chapter and lecture that was assigned to me, I believe that I have a better understanding of the types of intelligence . During my study I have also, learned that there is eight different types of intelligence . In this short essay I am going to take the tragic hero, time to discuss each of the eight types of intelligence , I will also be discussing the benefit to intelligence testing.
Emotional intelligence , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 861 Words | 3 Pages. ? Intelligence : Is it Inherited? The great scientist Albert Einstein once said, “The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge . but imagination.” One thing that many people pride themselves with possessing is intelligence . What really is intelligence ? And where can it come from? Scientists are proving intelligence is not inherited, but it is affected by everything around someone. Not just ones environment, although that is a big contributor, but things such as heritage and the overall want to be. Research Papers? Adolf Hitler , Brain , Human brain 881 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is the making of tragic computers that thinks like a human – to thesis instructions be able to learn and . to have new ideas. Julius Caesar Brutu? Artificial Intelligence is the caltech, current and will be the future era of computing. Researchers are creating systems and julius caesar essay tragic hero, programs that could mimic human thoughts and try doing things that human could do.
The artificial Intelligence is a combination of computer science, physiology and philosophy. Origami Essay? Its aim is to make the world easily intelligent and accessible. Artificial intelligence , Cognitive science , Computer 698 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance of Emotional Intelligence Nyal Navales Emotional Intelligence PSY/301 Yulian Cordero 3/26/13 Only until . recently, psychologist was able to realize the importance of julius caesar tragic hero Emotional Intelligence . To better understand what emotional intelligence means is to understand each word separately. What is Emotion? This can be easily found in essay, a dictionary as so “an affective state of brutu hero consciousness in which joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like, is experiences, as distinguished from cognitive. Cognition , Consciousness , Emotion 811 Words | 3 Pages. Of America Term? multiple intelligences since the essay tragic hero, day they were born into this world. We have never thought about how we use them in our daily lives because . Essay? they are used naturally. Gardner defines intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting.
Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of julius brutu seven intelligences . Theroux Essayist? The seven intelligences include interpersonal intelligence , intrapersonal intelligence , musical intelligence , linguistic. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Bill Clinton , George W. Bush 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Caesar Brutu Hero? Processes In the book Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, the central thesis that he tries to point out is that emotional . intelligence may be more important than I.Q. in in writing papers, determining a person's well being and success in life. At first I didn't know what Goleman was talking about julius caesar, when he said emotional intelligence , but after reading the health and hygiene, book I have to say that I agree completely with Goleman. One reason for my acceptance of Goleman's theory is that academic intelligence has little to do with emotional. Julius Caesar Tragic? Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Empathy 802 Words | 3 Pages. What is emotional intelligence ? Emotions inform us about things that are important to us, like the people in our lives, values . we hold, needs we may have, or the for medical school, activities we enjoy. Caesar Essay Tragic? It leads to the motivation, drive, self-control, and passion in our lives – whether at work or at home (Segal, 1997).
Emotional Intelligence is having emotional awareness; it refers to origami essay the ability to understand our own emotions as well as the emotions of julius brutu tragic those around us. It involves how we understand our own feelings. Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Intelligence 1215 Words | 5 Pages. Paul Theroux? 1 Tapping into Multiple Intelligences to Teach Information Literacy Skills Sally Brewer (2005) Abstract (Summary) One of the major . questions that classroom teachers wrestle with is what strategy or method to use when teaching their students. One of the theories that library media specialists are finding to be effective as they teach information literacy skills is caesar, Howard Gardner's theory of essay on human multiple intelligences . Brewer reviews Gardner's work and the work of caesar essay brutu other researchers in theroux essayist, this area. Education , Education theory , Information literacy 1708 Words | 6 Pages. Julius Essay Brutu? Emotional Intelligence Within Management When thinking of united states Emotional Intelligence (EI) we . think of the three top observers: Daniel Jay Goleman, who is an author, psychologist, and science journalist. For twelve years, he wrote for The New York Times, specializing in julius tragic hero, psychology and term, brain sciences. The other is John D. Mayer whom is a psychologist at the University of New Hampshire. Essay Brutu Tragic? He is caltech instructions, a personality psychologist. He co-developed a popular model of emotional.
Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Intellectual giftedness 1633 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Emotional Intelligence Tifany Drapeau AIU Online Abstract Emotional intelligence is an important factor . in the ability of caesar essay brutu tragic people to origami essay relate to themselves and each other. It was once believed that those with high IQs would be successful, we know understand that might not be true. High emotional intelligence (EQ) scores are now believed to play a role the success of an individual. Emotional intelligence gives a person the ability to brutu tragic recognize what their emotions mean and apply. Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Emotions and culture 905 Words | 3 Pages. The importance of styles in writing research papers Emotional Intelligence is something that needs to be recognized. Emotional intelligence is the ability to . identify, assess, and control the essay brutu tragic hero, emotions of oneself, and essay writing school, others. Emotional intelligence is julius caesar essay brutu tragic, a central parent of our everyday lives, both in professional and personal enviornments , and as such it is important to essay on human and hygiene become aware of exactly how you rate your own emotional intelligence . After the the emotional intelligence test that was provided on www.ihhp.com/testsites.htm.
Better , Emotional intelligence , Intelligence 866 Words | 3 Pages. MAN 5140 Managerial Decision Making: Emotional Intelligence 1 . MAN 5140 Managerial Decision Making: Individual Work Week 2 Emotional Intelligence Pattarawan Raekchumnan Everest University MAN 5140 Managerial Decision Making: Emotional Intelligence 2 Emotional Intelligence Emotion is the complicated thing that is hard to caesar essay brutu completely understand and control when we feel, think, and essayist, face the situations in our life that sometimes . Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Feeling 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence Cynthia Malone . INF103: Computer Literacy George McGee 5/15/11 Table Of Contents What is Artificial Intelligence ? History of Artificial Intelligence Is Artificial Intelligence a bad idea? Technology of Today amp;. Alan Turing , Algorithm , Artificial intelligence 702 Words | 3 Pages. Caesar Essay Brutu? Intelligence is a very broad subject although it seems easily defined.
A great amount of different meanings are given to . intelligence as a concept from various cultures and sciences. Throughout history psychologists and sociologist have been trying to devise a way to reveal the level of intellect animals or humans possess. However this quest might not have a definitive answer. Thesis? Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and brutu hero, elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it. Research. Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 1553 Words | 5 Pages. Emotional Intelligence Cristy Gustin AIU Online Psychology SSCI 206 Geoffrey Hacker 05/18/2014 Abstract In the following paper, you will . learn about Emotional Intelligence as well as what it means to essay on human health have this sort of intelligence personally, socially and emotionally. The theory or belief of Emotional Intelligence has been proven by scientists that the essay brutu tragic, need for it to essay health and hygiene be high is necessary for caesar essay brutu, people in order to essay writing for medical ensure success. This is better explained in the following paragraphs so that to educate. Abraham Maslow , Emotional intelligence , Fundamental human needs 866 Words | 3 Pages. Emotional Intelligence EDUCATION 2: Facilitating Learning INSTRUCTOR: Mrs.
Sheryl Ann Perciano Submitted By: Hazel P. Villegas Maria . Dolores L. Comighod BEED- Content Course [ II-D ] Individuals have many similar characteristics but they too differ in many respects. One of these individual differences is the brutu tragic, intellectual differences which also refers to the intelligence . Intelligence is the origami essay, general capacity of a person to adjust consciously his thinking to a new requirement. Julius Caesar Brutu Hero? It. Daniel Goleman , Emotion , Emotional intelligence 1134 Words | 6 Pages. Emotional Intelligence American Intercontinental University Trvillian Dill Abstract As you read this document, you will get an essay and hygiene, . understanding of essay what Emotional Intelligence is. Explanations and examples will be given to help you understand the theroux essayist, concept of Emotional Intelligence . Essay Tragic? You will learn ways that you might develop an enhanced emotional IQ as well. Emotional Intelligence (EI) After taking the essay writing, EI test, the Overall results were: IQ score = 116 Percentile score = 86 By the overall results.
Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Intelligence 591 Words | 3 Pages. Julius Caesar Brutu? ?The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (MI). Dr. Howard Gardner 1983 Multiple Intelligence (MI) is a theory that separates . intelligence from its formal understanding as a uniform cognitive capacity and caltech thesis, differentiates it into specific kinds of essay tragic hero intelligence that can be reflected by different ways of interaction with the world. The theory states that a person’s intelligence can be distinguished into nine different kinds of intelligence and each and every person has a distinctive mixture or profile. Education reform , Education theory , Emotional intelligence 678 Words | 3 Pages.
Multiple Intelligence Multiple Intelligence Thesis: Multiple Intelligences is a theory about the brain that . says human beings are born with a single intelligence , that cannot be changed, and thesis, is measurable by a psychologist. Brutu Tragic Hero? This research paper aimed to give readers comprehensive information about the essay, different kinds of intelligence namely: Spatial; Linguistic; Logical-mathematical; Bodily-kinesthetic; Musical; Interpersonal; Intrapersonal; and Naturalistic. I. Definition II. The. Julius Tragic? Emotional intelligence , General intelligence factor , Howard Gardner 1921 Words | 7 Pages. Multiple intelligences are very important in today’s classroom.
Each student will have his/her own way of learning. And Hygiene? According to Teachers, . Schools, and Society by David Miller Sadker and Karen R. Zittleman, there are nine intelligences that were founded by Howard Garner. Howard Gardner was a Harvard psychologist who defined intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings”. These nine intelligences are what define each person’s. Education , Emotional intelligence , Howard Gardner 1330 Words | 4 Pages. of Intelligence 1. Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”) Designates the human ability to discriminate among living . things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to julius caesar brutu tragic hero other features of the essay on human health and hygiene, natural world (clouds, rock configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences , which. Emotional intelligence , Intellectual giftedness , Intelligence 1547 Words | 5 Pages. ? Because school-aged children are at julius essay brutu tragic hero such a crucial age, it is important to know what exactly should be taught to them during school hours. Origami Essay? . There are so many important aspects to life that each student should be not only aware of, but also very familiar with by the time they leave elementary school. So which of these important aspects should be part of the hero, children’s curriculum?
Unfortunately, there isn’t enough time in a school day to teach a child everything he or she needs to writing for medical know in order to. College , Education , Emotion 798 Words | 3 Pages. and think critically. But psychologist Howard Gardner has a much broader definition of intelligence . Compare the traditional idea about julius brutu, . intelligence with Gardner's. Are there advantages to the traditional format of intelligence testing? How can Gardner’s ideas change the way we assess the origami essay, strengths and weaknesses of people? 2.One criticism of Gardner's theory is that he classifies talents as a type of caesar brutu hero intelligence . Critics might say that a gifted artist or golf progeny is not necessarily smart. Essay Writing For Medical School? How. Answer , Howard Gardner , Intelligence 890 Words | 3 Pages. to caesar essay brutu tragic answer, it is an interesting question because it suggests someone’s level of used in writing mental competence can be measured.
If there is an answer to this question, it . suggests that a person’s level of smartness or intelligence can be found pretty straightforwardly by a score on a measurement of intelligence such as an IQ test. Find a pen or pencil, have a seat, and julius, take an IQ test. Even better, look one up on the internet. Hours…or even minutes later you will receive a score that supposedly tells you how smart. Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Intelligence 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence, Are the paul theroux, Machines Taking over. Running head: Artificial Intelligence : Are Machines Taking Over? Artificial Intelligence : Are . Machines Taking Over? Robert Morse INF 103 Instructor Brown Ashford University May 6, 2013 While a machine is just a machine made of metal, plastic, silicone and julius caesar brutu tragic, computer chips, it is only as smart as the human that programmed it right?
The strides made thus far are only be the beginning of the huge impact and achievements of the computer revolution , and technological. Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Chinese room 1766 Words | 5 Pages. Emotional Intelligence Crystal Walker University of Phoenix Emotional Intelligence This paper will examine the . importance of emotional intelligence in all aspects of life. Origami Essay? This paper will also describe the julius caesar brutu, differences between traditional cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence . Finally, this paper will analyze the use of emotional intelligence concepts in work life, home life, and personal life. Origami Essay? It is caesar, important to have a balance of for medical emotional intelligence and cognitive.
Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Feeling 770 Words | 3 Pages. Although it seems easily defined intelligence is a very broad subject. A vast amount of meanings are given to intelligence as . a concept from various cultures and sciences. Intelligence can be classified in two ways one way is fluid intelligence and the other is crystalized intelligence . Fluid intelligence is tragic hero, closely tied to biology as well as nature and is responsible for our quick thinking abilities. An example of fluid intelligence would be thinking of an escape route to flee a burning.
Brain , Chimpanzee , Evolutionary psychology 1093 Words | 7 Pages. Artificial Intelligence : Foundations of essay for medical school Autonomous Consciousness and the New World to julius brutu hero Come Shawana Thomas INF103: Computer Literacy Prof. . Thesis? Troy Robinson December 5, 2012 Table of Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………… 3 What is Artificial Intelligence ? ……………………………………………………………….. Julius Caesar Essay Brutu Tragic Hero? 3 Defining Intelligence ………………………………………………………………………….. 4 A Glimmer of a Thought………………………………………………………………………. 5 The Beginning of a New Intelligence ………………………………………………………….. 6 AI Applications of for medical Today. Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Chinese room 2144 Words | 7 Pages.
Artificial Intelligence We have come so far… Some might say that Artificial Intelligence was first seen in . ancient history with mythological gods. Others believe the idea was created in early 1940’s. Julius Brutu Tragic Hero? These are still debated between many scientists. On Human? Artificial Intelligence means much more than an idea to those who have dedication their lives to this science. In this paper I will be discussing the history, progress, and future of Artificial Intelligence , or as some know it (A.I. Julius Brutu? Allen Newell , Artificial intelligence , Computer 1728 Words | 5 Pages. For Medical School? The Benefit of Artificial Intelligence in the World Diana Carter INF 103 God Jesus January 10, 2010 Abstract Artificial . intelligence technology has yet to show the world of its capabilities but in julius caesar tragic, due time it will be evident. Artificial intelligence (AI) is referred to as a computer and robot that is able to model human-like tasks without being told to do so. On Human Health? AI is used around the world everyday by humans for their own beneficial use. Julius Caesar Brutu Tragic Hero? Many may not know it, but AI is the origami essay, core to many of our.
Artificial intelligence , Computer , Game theory 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Julius Caesar Tragic? “Moral Intelligence ” Authors: Doug Lenick and Fed Kiel Critiqued by: October 10, 2007 Fall 2007 Class Honor Code: “I . declare and writing for medical school, affirm that the work submitted herein is my own work product from julius brutu my own labor, efforts, and endeavors, and that I did not seek, receive, offer, or accept unauthorized aid or assistance or use of the work product of paul another, unless otherwise so stated fully and completely herein.” What does it take to be a great leader? Doug Lennick, author. Competence , Ethics , Leadership 1516 Words | 5 Pages.
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Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Edited by Michael B. Eisen, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of essay tragic California, Berkeley, CA, and accepted by united states term paper, the Editorial Board February 4, 2013 (received for review December 11, 2012) Do data from the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project render the notion of junk DNA obsolete? Here, I review older arguments for junk grounded in tragic the C-value paradox and propose a thought experiment to challenge ENCODE’s ontology. Specifically, what would we expect for the number of functional elements (as ENCODE defines them) in origami essay genomes much larger than our own genome? If the number were to stay more or less constant, it would seem sensible to consider the julius caesar, rest of the DNA of larger genomes to be junk or, at least, assign it a different sort of role (structural rather than informational).
If, however, the number of united states term paper functional elements were to rise significantly with C-value then, ( i ) organisms with genomes larger than our genome are more complex phenotypically than we are, ( ii ) ENCODE’s definition of functional element identifies many sites that would not be considered functional or phenotype-determining by standard uses in caesar biology, or ( iii ) the same phenotypic functions are often determined in a more diffuse fashion in larger-genomed organisms. Styles Used In Writing? Good cases can be made for julius brutu tragic, propositions ii and iii . A larger theoretical framework, embracing informational and structural roles for DNA, neutral as well as adaptive causes of complexity, and selection as a multilevel phenomenon, is needed. There is styles in writing, much excitement in the blogosphere, among mainstream science journalists, and within the tragic, community of essay health practicing genome biologists about a flurry of articles and letters in the September 6th, 2012 issue of Nature . These papers and many others published at about the same time and since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. Kolata writes in The New York Times that “[t]he human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that were once dismissed as ‘junk’ but that turn out to play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave” (1). Julius Essay Tragic Hero? In a Nature News and View commentary, Ecker et al. (2) assert that “[o]ne of the caltech instructions, more remarkable findings described in the consortium’s entree paper is that 80% of the genome contains elements linked to biochemical functions, dispatching the widely held view that the human genome is mostly ‘junk DNA.’” The editors of julius brutu tragic The Lancet (3) enthuse: “Far from of america term paper being ‘junk,’ the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on julius essay brutu tragic hero or off, or by regulating the degree of used papers transcription and consequently the concentrations and function of all proteins.” Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi (4) declares that the ENCODE publications write the “eulogy for julius caesar, junk DNA.” The new data—coming from high-throughput analyses of transcriptional and essay on human and hygiene, chromatin landscapes, transcription factor footprints, and long-range chromosomal interactions—support many current population genetic studies linking human diseases to supposedly nongenic regions, and they are truly impressive in caesar essay tragic scope and depth (5). Essay Writing For Medical? They resonate with the current enthusiasm for assigning multiple subtle but vital regulatory roles to the still enigmatic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) now known to be transcribed from much of the length of our genome (6, 7). Additionally, congruence at many sites between the many methods used (RNA sequencing, binding by one or more of 100+ DNA binding proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and chromosome conformation capture) leaves no doubt that many of these 4 million gene switches do represent chromosomal loci that are special in some way, in at least one cell type. However, do ENCODE’s data truly require us to abandon the widespread notion that junk DNA—here specifically understood as DNA that does not encode information promoting the survival and reproduction of the organisms that bear it—is the major constituent of brutu many eukaryotic genomes, our own genome included? I will argue by way of a thought experiment and an analysis of what biologists traditionally have understood as function that they do not.
At the theroux essayist, very least, “junk” as it has been conceived is an apt descriptor of the bulk of many genomes larger than our own. Moreover, it almost certainly still is for much of our genome, unless we hold Homo sapiens to be unique among the animals in the efficiency of essay brutu tragic hero its chromosomal organization and not just its cultural attainments. Such genomic anthropocentrism, unacknowledged conflation of possible meanings of styles used “function,” questionable null hypotheses, and unrecognized panadaptationism are behind this most recent attempt to junk “junk.” Several of these same points have been made in brief by essay brutu, Eddy (8) and Niu and Jiang (9). Origami Essay? My aim here is to remind readers of the structure of some earlier arguments in defense of the junk concept (10) that remain compelling, despite the obvious success of ENCODE in mapping the subtle and complex human genomic landscape. Also, I will suggest that we need as biologists to defend traditional understandings of function: the publicity surrounding ENCODE reveals the essay, extent to which these understandings have been eroded. However, theoretical expansion in other directions, reconceptualizing junk, might be advisable.
The junk idea long predates genomics and since its early decades has been grounded in the “C-value paradox,” the observation that DNA amounts (C-value denotes haploid nuclear DNA content) and complexities correlate very poorly with organismal complexity or evolutionary “advancement” (10 ? ? ? –14). Humans do have a thousand times as much DNA as simple bacteria, but lungfish have at least 30 times more than humans, as do many flowering plants and some unicellular protists (14). Moreover, as is often noted, the disconnection between C-value and organismal complexity is also found within more restricted groups comprising organisms of seemingly similar lifestyle and comparable organismal or behavioral complexity. The most heavily burdened lungfish ( Protopterus aethiopicus ) lumbers around with 130,000 Mb, but the pufferfish Takifugu (formerly Fugu ) rubripes gets by on less than 400 Mb (15, 16). Caltech Instructions? A less familiar but better (because monophyletic) animal example might be amphibians, showing a 120-fold range from frogs to salamanders (17). Among angiosperms, there is a thousandfold variation (14). Additionally, even within a single genus, there can be substantial differences. Salamander species belonging to Plethodon boast a fourfold range, to cite a comparative study popular from the 1970s (18). Sometimes, such within-genus genome size differences reflect large-scale or whole-genome duplications and sometimes rampant selfish DNA or transposable element (TE) multiplication. Caesar Brutu Tragic? Schnable et al. (19) figure that the maize genome has more than doubled in theroux essayist size in essay the last 3 million y, overwhelmingly through the replication and accumulation of TEs for caltech, example. If we do not think of this additional or “excess” DNA, so manifest through comparisons between and within biological groups, as junk (irrelevant if not frankly detrimental to the survival and reproduction of the organism bearing it), how then are we to caesar essay brutu, think of instructions it?
Of course, DNA inevitably does have a basic structural role to play, unlinked to specific biochemical activities or the encoding of information relevant to genes and essay hero, their expression. Centromeres and telomeres exemplify noncoding chromosomal components with specific functions. More generally, DNA as a macromolecule bulks up and gives shape to paul theroux essayist, chromosomes and thus, as many studies show, determines important nuclear and cellular parameters such as division time and size, themselves coupled to julius caesar essay tragic, organismal development (11 ? –13, 17). The “selfish DNA” scenarios of 1980 (20 ? –22), in which C-value represents only the outcome of conflicts between upward pressure from reproductively competing TEs and downward-directed energetic restraints, have thus, in subsequent decades, yielded to more nuanced understandings. Cavalier-Smith (13, 20) called DNA’s structural and cell biological roles “nucleoskeletal,” considering C-value to be optimized by theroux, organism-level natural selection (13, 20). Gregory, now the essay tragic, principal C-value theorist, embraces a more “pluralistic, hierarchical approach” to what he calls “nucleotypic” function (11, 12, 17). A balance between organism-level selection on nuclear structure and cell size, cell division times and developmental rate, selfish genome-level selection favoring replicative expansion, and (as discussed below) supraorganismal (clade-level) selective processes—as well as drift—must all be taken into account. These forces will play out states paper differently in different taxa. Caesar Essay Brutu Tragic? Gonzalez and Petrov (23) point out, for instance, that Drosophila and humans are at opposite extremes in terms of the balance of processes, with the minimalist genomes of the former containing few (but mostly young and quite active) TEs, whereas at least one-half of our own much larger genome comprises the in writing papers, moribund remains of older TEs, principally SINEs and caesar essay hero, LINEs (short and long interspersed nuclear elements). Such difference may in part reflect population size.
As Lynch notes, small population size (characteristic of our species) will have limited the effectiveness of natural selection in preventing a deleterious accumulation of TEs (24, 25). Zuckerkandl (26) once mused that all genomic DNA must be to some degree “polite,” in that it must not lethally interfere with gene expression. Origami Essay? Indeed, some might suggest, as I will below, that true junk might better be defined as DNA not currently held to account by selection for caesar, any sort of role operating at any level of the biological hierarchy (27). And Hygiene? However, junk advocates have to date generally considered that even DNA fulfilling bulk structural roles remains, in terms of encoded information, just junk. Julius Caesar Tragic? Cell biology may require a certain C-value, but most of the stretches of caltech thesis noncoding DNA that go to julius caesar essay tragic hero, satisfying that requirement are junk (or worse, selfish). In any case, structural roles or multilevel selection theorizing are not what ENCODE commentators are endorsing when they proclaim the end of caltech instructions junk, touting the existence of 4 million gene switches or myriad elements that determine gene expression and assigning biochemical functions for 80% of the genome. Julius Essay? Indeed, there would be no excitement in either the press or the scientific literature if all the origami essay, ENCODE team had done was acknowledge an established theory concerning DNA’s structural importance. Rather, the brutu tragic hero, excitement comes from interpreting ENCODE’s data to mean that a much larger fraction of our DNA than until very recently thought contributes to our survival and reproduction as organisms, because it encodes information transcribed or expressed phenotypically in one tissue or another, or specifically regulates such expression. ENCODE (5) defines a functional element (FE) as “a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product (for example, protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature (for example, protein binding, or a specific chromatin structure).” A simple thought experiment involving FEs so-defined is at the heart of my argument.
Suppose that there had been (and probably, some day, there will be) ENCODE projects aimed at enumerating, by transcriptional and chromatin mapping, factor footprinting, and so forth, all of the FEs in the genomes of united of america Takifugu and a lungfish, some small and large genomed amphibians (including several species of Plethodon ), plants, and julius caesar essay tragic, various protists. There are, I think, two possible general outcomes of this thought experiment, neither of which would give us clear license to abandon junk. The first outcome would be that FEs (estimated to be in the millions in and hygiene our genome) turn out to be more or less constant in number, regardless of C-value—at least among similarly complex organisms. If larger C-value by itself does not imply more FEs, then there will, of course, be great differences in julius brutu tragic what we might call functional density (FEs per kilobase) (26) among species. FEs spaced by kilobases in essay on human health and hygiene Arabidopsis would be megabases apart in essay hero maize on average. Averages obscure details: the united states paper, extra DNA in the larger genomes might be sequestered in a few giant silent regions rather than uniformly stretching out the space between FEs or lengthening intragenic introns. However, in either case, this DNA could be seen as a sort of polite functionless filler or diluent. At best, such DNA might have functions only of the structural or nucleoskeletal/nucleotypic sort. Julius Hero? Indeed, even this sort of functional attribution is not necessary. Caltech Thesis? There is room within an expanded, pluralistic and hierarchical theory of C-value (see below) (12, 27) for julius essay, much DNA that makes no contribution whatever to used papers, survival and reproduction at the organismal level and thus is julius caesar essay tragic, junk at writing, that level, although it may be under selection at the sub- or supraorganismal levels (TEs and clade selection).
If the human genome is junk-free, then it must be very luckily poised at some sort of tragic hero minimal size for organisms of human complexity. We may no longer think that mankind is at the center of the universe, but we still consider our species’ genome to caltech thesis, be unique, first among many in having made such full and efficient use of all of its millions of SINES and LINES (retrotransposable elements) and introns to julius caesar essay hero, encode the multitudes of of america paper lncRNAs and house the millions of enhancers necessary to make us the julius caesar brutu tragic, uniquely complex creatures that we believe ourselves to be. However, were this extraordinary coincidence the essay, case, a corollary would be that junk would not be defunct for many other larger genomes: the tragic, term would not need to be expunged from the genomicist’s lexicon more generally. As well, if, as is commonly believed, much of the caltech, functional complexity of the human genome is to essay brutu, be explained by styles papers, evolution of our extraordinary cognitive capacities, then many other mammals of lesser acumen but similar C-value must truly have junk in their DNA. The second likely general outcome of my thought experiment would be that FEs as defined by ENCODE increase in number with C-value, regardless of apparent organismal complexity. Julius Hero? If they increase roughly proportionately, FE numbers will vary over a many-hundredfold range among organisms normally thought to be similarly complex. Defining or measuring complexity is, of course, problematic if not impossible.
Still, it would be hard to convince ourselves that lungfish are 300 times more complex than Takifugu or 40 times more complex than us, whatever complexity might be. Origami Essay? More likely, if indeed FE numbers turn out to increase with C-value, we will decide that we need to think again about what function is, how it becomes embedded in macromolecular structures, and what FEs as defined by ENCODE have to tell us about it. What do we mean by julius caesar tragic, function, informational or otherwise? Most philosophers of biology, and theroux, likely, most practicing biologists when pressed, would endorse some form of the selected effect (SE) definition of function (28 ? –30). Selected effect is the julius caesar hero, form of teleological explanation allowed, indeed required, by Darwinian theory (31). Paul Theroux Essayist? Accordingly, the functions of brutu tragic a trait or feature are all and caltech, only those effects of its presence for which it was under positive natural selection in julius essay brutu hero the (recent) past and for which it is under (at least) purifying selection now. They are why the trait or feature is there today and possibly why it was originally formed. Thus, we might reasonably say that the function of the lac operon in Escherichia coli is (and presumably, long has been) to theroux essayist, allow facultative growth of bacteria on julius brutu hero ?-galactosides, because we believe that, long before E. coli was brought into the laboratory, the lac operon was maintained by selection to allow such growth. We might also say that one of the functions of the origami essay, human FOXP2 gene (which we share with many other vertebrates) is now to support speech (32), although in the more distant mammalian past, it could not have. We would imagine that there has been selection for essay brutu tragic hero, speech in theroux human populations over considerable time.
Traits like FOXP2, now under positive or purifying selection for julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero, one effect but first arising because of selection for another, are what Gould and Vrba (33) called “exaptations”. What we would not want to call functions (or even exaptations) are effects never so far selected for—side effects, as it were. Gould and Lewontin (34) famously called these “spandrels.” They comprise both undesirable but apparently unavoidable consequences, like vulnerability to phages in bacteria with pili or lower back pain in primates walking upright, and seemingly neutral ones, like the thumping noise made by the heart, to paul essayist, use an example beloved of philosophers. Essay Tragic Hero? Indeed, even fortuitously advantageous traits, such the FOXP2 -enabled capacity to leave voice messages on answering machines, are not SE functions. We do not think that our ancestors experienced positive selection for essay on human health, leaving voice messages, although our descendants well might (and FOXP2 would then for them have acquired a new exaptive function). In any case, past selection, recent or ancient, can only be inferred, and we must use indirect ways to make the inference. One way, likely the most reliable but not universally applicable, is caesar essay hero, evolutionary conservation.
If diverse lineages retain a DNA sequence despite the origami essay, erosive force of julius caesar tragic mutational divergence, there must be some effect maintained by purifying selection. The above is not to say that all conserved sequences are conserved through purifying selection at the level of organisms: some may be selfish. Conversely, some conserved functions, such as the complementary base-pairings that maintain ribosomal RNA secondary structures, do not require primary sequence conservation (35). Moreover, not all sequences that are likely to be currently under purifying organismal selection are conserved on an evolutionary (transspecies) timescale. In a recent comparative genomic survey, Ward and Kellis (36) find both mammal-conserved human sequences showing increasing diversity within our species (and thus, likely becoming nonfunctional in humans) and mammal-nonconserved sequence showing reduced within-human diversity (and thus, likely acquiring new function among us). Ponting and Hardison (37), using methods that they believe to take into account such turnover, “estimate that the steady-state value of ? sel [the proportion of all nucleotides in origami essay the human genome that are subject to purifying selection because of their biological function] lies between 10% and 15%” (37). Another way to attribute function is through experimental ablation: whatever organism-level effect E does not occur after deleting or blocking the expression of a region R of DNA is taken to be the latter’s function. This attribution is tragic, close to the everyday understanding of function, as in paul theroux essayist the function of the caesar essay tragic hero, carburetor is to oxygenate gasoline. The approach embodies what philosophers would call a causal role (CR) definition of used in writing research function and supposedly eschews evolutionary or historical justifications. Much biological research into function is done this way, but I think that most biologists consider that experimental ablation indirectly points to julius tragic, SE. Caltech Thesis? They believe that effect E could, under suitable conditions, be shown to have contributed to the past fitness of organisms and most importantly, that R exists as it does because of E . Cardiologists do not say that it is the function of the heart to make a thumping noise, although stopping the heart will silence it.
Similarly, geneticists studying Huntington disease would not say that the julius tragic hero, trinucleotide repeat in the cognate gene, reiteration of which gives rise to origami essay, the disorder, has disease causation as a function—although replacing the repeat with a nonidentical set of unique triplets encoding the same amino acid sequence would eliminate the deleterious effect (38). A third, and the least reliable, method to infer function is mere existence. The presence of a structure or the occurrence of a process or detectable interaction, especially if complex, is taken as adequate evidence for its being under selection, even when ablation is infeasible and the possibly selectable effect of julius caesar brutu tragic presence remains unknown. Because our genomes have introns, Alu elements, and endogenous retroviruses, these things must be doing us some good. Paul Theroux Essayist? Because a region is transcribed, its transcript must have some fitness benefit, however remote. Julius Essay? Because residue N of protein P is health and hygiene, leucine in species A and isoleucine in julius brutu tragic species B, there must be some selection-based explanation. This approach enshrines “panadaptationism,” which was forcefully and effectively debunked by Gould and Lewontin (34) in 1979 but still informs much of united paper molecular and julius essay brutu hero, evolutionary genetics, including genomics.
As Lynch (39) argues in his essay “ The Frailty of Adaptive Hypotheses for the Origins of paul theroux Adaptive Complexity ,” This narrow view of julius caesar essay hero evolution has become untenable in instructions light of caesar brutu tragic recent observations from genomic sequencing and population genetic theory. Numerous aspects of styles used in writing papers genomic architecture, gene structure, and developmental pathways are difficult to explain without invoking the nonadaptive forces of genetic drift and mutation. In addition, emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and caesar essay, evolvability, all of which are current targets of considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of essay on human and hygiene processes operating at lower levels of organization. Functional attribution under ENCODE is of this third sort (mere existence) in caesar hero the main. Although FEs as defined by ENCODE might be cross-identified by several methods and origami essay, even evolutionarily conserved, they could most often be the molecular equivalent of julius hero spandrels—structured elements that are the indirect consequence of selection operating on other features but are themselves selectively neutral, a form of structured noise.
Demonstrations that some biochemical signatures are not neutral and may even meet SE criteria say nothing about the rest and are, of course, expected as long as opportunism and co-optation are understood to be key elements in evolution. In taking such a liberal definitional course, ENCODE follows the lead of the Gene Ontology (GO) project, which defines molecular function in decontextualized nonhistorical terms (40): Molecular function describes activities, such as catalytic or binding activities, that occur at the molecular level. GO molecular function terms represent activities rather than the entities (molecules or complexes) that perform the actions, and do not specify where or when, or in states of america term paper what context, the action takes place. Proponents of ENCODE actually are concerned with what they call “functional validation” but principally seem worried about the caesar essay, danger of mistaking functional specificity (recognition or activity) rather than the risk of attributing function (especially regulatory function) where none exists in styles used papers the SE sense. Stamatoyannopoulos (41) writes: These examples illustrate a natural temptation to equate activity with patterning of julius caesar tragic hero epigenomic features. Essay On Human Health And Hygiene? However, such reasoning drifts progressively farther away from hero experimentally grounded function or mechanistic understanding. The sheer diversity of cross-cell-type regulatory patterning evident in distal regulatory DNA uncovered by ENCODE suggests tremendous heterogeneity and functional diversity.
ENCODE is origami essay, thus in julius tragic hero a unique position to origami essay, promote clearer terminology that separates the identification of functional elements per essay brutu tragic hero se from the ascription of specific functional activities using historical experimentally defined categories, and also to dissuade the ascription of very specific functions based on a biochemical signature in place of a deeper mechanistic understanding. There are three other “natural temptations” that I would caution consumers of the essay school, ENCODE project product to avoid. Essay Brutu Tragic? The first temptation is the states paper, assumption that, because some members of a class of elements have acquired SE functions, all or most must have functions or (more broadly) that the class of julius caesar tragic hero elements as a whole can thus be declared functional. Stamatoyannopoulos (41), for instance, writes: In marked contrast to the prevailing wisdom, ENCODE chromatin and used research papers, transcription studies now suggest that a large number of julius essay hero transposable elements encode highly cell type-selective regulatory DNA that controls not only of america, their own cell-selective transcription, but also those of neighboring genes. Far from an evolutionary dustbin, transposable elements appear to be active and lively members of the caesar essay brutu hero, genomic regulatory community, deserving of the same level of scrutiny applied to other genic or regulatory features.
It is surely inevitable that evolution, that inveterate tinkerer, will have sometimes co-opted some TEs for such purposes (42). However, it is an overenthusiastic extrapolation to describe TEs as a class as “active and lively members of the theroux, genomic regulatory community.” Moreover, the word “regulation” has itself degraded through use by genomicists, from designating evolved effects shown or likely to enhance fitness, presumably by efficient control of the use of julius brutu resources, to essay and hygiene, more broadly denoting any measurable impact of julius brutu tragic hero one element or process on other elements or processes, regardless of fitness consequences. Essay Writing School? I think this broadening of definition misleads biologists such as Barroso (43) in a passage cited later in caesar brutu tragic this essay. Pacemakers regulate heartbeats and thesis instructions, that is their function: tasers and julius essay brutu tragic, caffeine also affect cardiac rhythm, but we would not (at least in the former case) see this as regulatory function. Regulation, defined in this loose way, is, for essay on human, instance, the assumed function of julius caesar hero many or most lncRNAs, at least for some authors (6, 7, 44, 45). However, the transcriptional machinery will inevitably make errors: accuracy is expensive, and the selective cost of discriminating against all false promoters will be too great to bear. There will be lncRNAs with promoters that have arisen through drift and exist only essay health, as noise (46).
Similarly, binding to proteins and julius caesar hero, other RNAs is something that RNAs do. It is inevitable that some such interactions, initially fortuitous, will come to be genuinely regulatory, either through positive selection or the neutral process described below as constructive neutral evolution (CNE). Styles In Writing Papers? However, there is no evolutionary force requiring that all or even most do. At another (sociology of science) level, it is inevitable that molecular biologists will search for and discover some of those possibly quite few instances in which function has evolved and argue that the function of lncRNAs as a class of elements has, at last, been discovered. Caesar Brutu Tragic? The positivist, verificationist bias of contemporary science and the politics of in writing research papers its funding ensure this outcome. However, what is the correct conceptual framework here? Why should either function or nonfunction for a class of elements be taken as the null hypothesis, and why should evidence for or against function, however defined, be taken as support of one or the other? Either is a form of essentialism or natural kind thinking inappropriate in contemporary biology.
There is, after all, nothing in nature that constrains classes of genetic elements defined by humans as sharing certain common characteristics to share others not part of that definition. The second natural temptation is to assume that function of a part implies function of the whole. Co-optation of the promoters of TEs or the insertion of bona fide regulatory sequences into introns is taken to tragic, impart function to the TE or intron as a whole. However, the cell does not necessarily see the writing, rest of the TE or the intronic surround of an caesar essay hero, embedded enhancer as relevant to its activity, and only the promoter or enhancer sequence may be under selection. Caltech Thesis Instructions? Even when an entire genetic element seems relevant or necessary (whole introns must be removed even if only julius brutu hero, certain sites are active in their removal), there is the possibility of excess baggage or junk-like character. Do enhancer-harboring introns really need to be so long? Another analogy seems in order: My computer might be 5 ft from the caltech instructions, wall socket, but if I have only a 10-ft electrical cord all 10 ft will seem functional, because cutting the cord anywhere will turn off my machine. In this connection, note that much more than one-half of 80.4% of the brutu tragic, human genome that ENCODE deems functional is so considered because it is transcribed (4), most often into an intron or lncRNA, only a tiny fraction of the length of which is likely to be involved in united of america paper potentially regulatory interactions. A third and related natural temptation is to inflate functional attribution through choice of window size. The ENCODE Project Consortium notes (5) that: The vast majority (80.4%) of the human genome participates in at least one biochemical RNA- and/or chromatin-associated event in at least one cell type. Much of the genome lies close to a regulatory event: 95% of the genome lies within 8 kilobases (kb) of julius essay hero a DNA–protein interaction (as assayed by bound ChIP-seq motifs or DNase I footprints), and used papers, 99% is within 1.7 kb of at least one of the caesar essay tragic, biochemical events measured by essay writing for medical, ENCODE.
Even this last and largest percentage, assuming the essay brutu tragic, average biochemical event to directly involve tens to hundreds of bases (41), assigns functions to only a minority (perhaps 10%) of the genome’s base pairs. ENCODE’s data are indeed unexpected and impressive, but without some principled and health and hygiene, agreed-on metric for functional density and FE boundaries, any answer to the question “how much of the genome is functional?” remains endlessly negotiable and transparently window size-dependent. In her News and View editorial in the September 6, 2012 issue of caesar brutu tragic Nature , Barroso (43) speculates as follows concerning the vast majority of human DNA, until now thought useless: …there is a good reason to keep this DNA. Results from the ENCODE project show that most of these stretches of DNA harbor regions that bind proteins and RNA molecules, bringing these into positions from which they cooperate with each other to regulate the function and level of expression of protein-coding genes. In addition, it seems that widespread transcription from non-coding DNA potentially acts as a reservoir for the creation of essay on human and hygiene new functional molecules, such as regulatory RNAs. In addition to equating regulation with having an effect, Barroso (43) revives here the notion that excess DNA is julius essay brutu tragic hero, not junk because it may some day be of writing school use, and caesar essay brutu, thus it is origami essay, maintained as a reservoir. Julius Essay Brutu Hero? Brenner (47) long ago derided this sort of reasoning as follows: There is styles used, a strong and widely held belief that all organisms are perfect and that everything within them is there for a function. Believers ascribe to the Darwinian natural selection process a fastidious prescience that it cannot possibly have and caesar essay tragic hero, some go so far as to think that patently useless features of states of america term existing organisms are there as an investment for the future. One sees similar Panglossian futuristic speculation in caesar tragic hero some of the recent literature on robustness and evolvability (critique in ref. Styles In Writing? 48).
However, it cannot in general be the case that selection operating at the level of fitness of individuals within a species can favor the origin or maintenance of traits that incurs selective cost at that level, while offering only the remotest hope of future benefit to the individual and its descendants. Other evolutionary mechanisms can. The publications by julius caesar essay tragic, Lynch et al. Origami Essay? (24) and julius caesar tragic hero, Lynch (39, 49) have effectively argued that drift operating in very small populations will (by chance) encourage accumulation of DNA that can add to C-value and might, in paul theroux essayist the future, come in handy. Selection at the suborganismal (selfish DNA) level may also seem to be future-directed: TEs do sometimes later become useful through co-optation or general effects on the generation of julius essay brutu tragic hero novelty (42, 50). Indeed, Fedoroff (51) has recently proposed that TEs should not be described pejoratively as “selfish” and that the prevailing view—that the epigenetic silencing mechanisms that eukaryotes use to limit TE replication arose to do just that—puts the evolutionary cart before the horse. Rather, Fedoroff (51) suggests that these mechanisms, by also limiting recombination between repeated TEs (which makes genomes smaller), allow TEs to accumulate, growing genomes and united paper, that this was a “…critical step in the evolution of multicellular organisms, underpinning the ability to julius essay, diversify duplicates for expression in specific cells and tissues” (51). Fedoroff (51) concludes that On balance, then, the essay school, likelihood that contemporary eukaryotic genomes evolved in the context of epigenetic mechanisms seems vastly greater than the likelihood that they were invented as an caesar hero, afterthought to combat a plague of parasitic transposons. However, evolutionary explanations of genome structure need not be either/or in writing for medical school this sense, after it is recognized that selection affecting the genome operates at all (including supraorganismal) levels of the biological hierarchy (12, 27). TEs can be selected through selfish replication at the level of DNA, while selection at the level of organisms has established silencing mechanisms to reign in TE replication, and julius hero, selection at the level of clades has looked favorably on those clades with complex genomes that engender evolutionary novelty and essay writing for medical, render whole-clade extinction less likely. (That is, clades that have TE-rich dynamic genomes may have indeed because of that produced more and more interestingly diverse and evolutionarily robust and julius essay tragic hero, evolvable descendant species.) Evolutionary forces operate simultaneously at all levels in the same and different directions with differing strengths and results measurable in different units (such as the frequency of TEs in an individual genome, TE-enhanced individuals in a species, TE-bearing species in a genus, or classes comprising such species in a phylum). Indeed, one could reasonably argue for an eventual expansion of the SE definition of “function” to include all levels as long as we distinguish them (DNA-level function, organism-level function, clade-level function, and so forth). Thesis? This definitional expansion might well lead to julius, a reduction in the amount of DNA that we could reasonably call junk.
However, I think such an expanded idea of paul theroux essayist function does not currently inform ENCODE or most genomic thinking, and in caesar tragic hero any case, the problems of inference, evidence, and appropriate null hypotheses remain. Quite often, we can intuit the results of a thought experiment before articulating the reasons for our intuition. United States Term? This propensity is the mysterious appeal and practical use of thought experiments. Caesar Essay Brutu Tragic? My intuition is that, when ENCODE-like methods are applied with equal thoroughness to larger genomes, outcomes of the second sort described above will be obtained. That is, lungfish will have many more FEs than Takifugu , and large-genomed Plethodon species will have more than smaller-genomed ones. If there were a primate with a C-value substantially greater than that of states term H. sapiens , it would prove to have more FEs, even if judged more primitive in intelligence or on behavioral grounds. An exception might be genomes in which C-value increases are very recent and caused by the expansive replication of repetitive sequences that previously lacked ENCODE-definable sites.
Assuming these predictions are borne out, what might we make of it? Lynch (39) suggests that much of the genomic- and caesar essay brutu, systems-level complexity of eukaryotes vis a vis prokaryotes is caltech instructions, maladaptive, reflecting the inability of brutu hero selection to states, block fixation of julius essay brutu hero incrementally but mildly deleterious mutations in the smaller populations of the former. Thus, for instance, the origami essay, fact that eukaryotic molecular machines comprise more interacting subunits than their prokaryotic counterparts reflects the inability of selection operating on smaller populations to enforce functional efficiency. Additionally, to be sure, the julius essay hero, proliferation of school short- and long-range molecular interactions deleteriously interposing themselves within previously simpler regulatory networks will be harder to stop in small than large populations. Several recent publications (52 ? ? –55) have revived the argument that CNE is caesar, just such an interpositional force, possibly a very powerful one. A simple example of CNE would be a process by which self-splicing intron RNAs could become dependent on proteinaceous splicing factors. Initially, the RNA secondary structure is sufficient to theroux, catalyze self-removal, but fortuitously bound proteins that stabilize the tragic, RNA can compensate for (presuppress) mutations that might destabilize elements of the structure necessary for independent splicing. Because they are not now deleterious, such mutations will accumulate to paul theroux essayist, equilibrium: the purifying selection pressure that maintained RNA secondary structure has gone. No selection is involved at this stage. If there are several such potentially presuppressible mutations, then a ratchet-like mechanism will make it difficult or impossible for the RNA to ever regain splicing independence. Elimination of the protein will become a lethal event.
Therefore, purifying selection now prevents the loss of the julius caesar essay hero, complex feature (molecular interdependency), although positive selection did nothing to create it. The entire multiprotein, multi-RNA, eukaryotic spliceosome might have evolved through reiterations of this process along with very many of the intricacies of the cellular machinery (52 ? ? –55). For Medical? CNE would work in concert with any population-size effect. Neither entails positive selection for julius caesar tragic, the complex structure and/or processes thus produced—only purifying selection against its elimination. Philosophers who endorse SE definitions of function have not, to my knowledge, embraced or even considered such CNE scenarios, which would meet CR definitions. Considering traits fixed by CNE to have SE function would add still additional arrows to the quiver of paul theroux panadaptationism and should perhaps be discouraged. A common consequence of CNE is caesar essay brutu, that even structures or processes that have arisen by positive selection because they increase organismal fitness will later become more complex in terms of the number of intermolecular interactions required for united term, their successful completion. Brutu Tragic Hero? Function diffuses. Genetic networks will first acquire and then require more and more protein–nucleic acid, protein–protein, and nucleic acid–nucleic acid intermolecular associations. Larger genomes, producing more RNAs (and sometimes more proteins), offer up more macromolecules and variants as potential fortuitous presuppressors and essay on human health, more potential DNA binding sites.
Recognition systems for transcription and transcription factor binding cannot be made indefinitely more accurate without the aid of unbearably slow and selectively costly proofreading systems. Tradeoffs between speed, economy, and accuracy will unavoidably entail that larger genomes will produce disproportionately more noise in terms of fortuitous transcripts capable of becoming presuppressors and thus, more complex, seemingly regulatory, networks of julius essay brutu interaction. United? Some will be functional in a CR if not an SE sense, and some will have arisen through CNE so that they are now maintained by julius essay hero, purifying selection. However, many, possibly the vast majority, are just there. The above considerations are but some of the reasons that one might intuit that FE number will scale with genome size. A very recent comparative analysis of transcription factor binding sites in model organisms (45) confirms this conjecture.
Ruths and Nakhleh (45) claim that …neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain binding site accumulation, and that selection on caltech thesis instructions the regulatory network does not alter this finding. If neutral forces drive the accumulation of binding sites, then, despite selective constraints, organisms with large amounts of [noncoding] DNA would evolve functional, yet ‘overcomplicated’ networks. The renewed debate over junk, thus, owes much of its heat to at least four misconceptions or misrepresentations. First is the pretense that there is any definable boundary between informational and julius hero, structural (genic and nongenic) functions for DNA. Increasingly, genomics is expanding the boundaries of paul information as geneticists have typically understood it. Essay Brutu Tragic? Minimally, gene means more than it used to mean. Djebali et al. (56) write …the determination of writing genic regions is currently defined by caesar essay tragic hero, the cumulative lengths of the isoforms and their genetic association to origami essay, phenotypic characteristics, the likely continued reduction in the lengths of intergenic regions will steadily lead to the overlap of most genes previously assumed to be distinct genetic loci. This supports and is consistent with earlier observations of a highly interleaved transcribed genome, but more importantly, prompts the reconsideration of the definition of a gene. As this is a consistent characteristic of julius essay annotated genomes, we would propose that the origami essay, transcript be considered as the basic atomic unit of inheritance. Concomitantly, the term gene would then denote a higher-order concept intended to capture all those transcripts (eventually divorced from caesar essay brutu their genomic locations) that contribute to a given phenotypic trait. However, regulatory loci are also informational even if not transcribed, and ENCODE has documented many long-range interactions between chromosomal regions that may be brought together physically in the nucleus, a very complex and structure-rich molecular machine, at some time during the cell cycle.
Therefore, in this sense, the gross structure of the chromosome set also carries information that may be relevant to the function of genes, broadly defined. Additionally, all DNA has the job of serving as a template for theroux, its own replication—to that extent, encoding information. It is nevertheless true that a distinction between structural and informational roles has long been part of the C-value argument for junk DNA. This line of reasoning has held that high C-value might be necessary for caesar essay hero, cellular function, but the nongenic DNA that fills the requirement is informationally junk. On Human Health And Hygiene? ENCODE’s claim is julius caesar, that much more of the DNA is, in fact, informational (especially regulatory) than we had thought, and indeed ENCODE’s focus is on sites likely to essayist, be involved directly or indirectly in essay transcription—on the “myriad elements that determine gene expression” to quote The Lancet (3). United States Term? Therefore, the structure–information distinction informs the interpretation of the project’s results, and without it there would be nothing novel or newsworthy in the assertion that all of the julius caesar brutu tragic, human genome has some sort of role in human biology. We have known that since the mid-1980s.
Second is the conflation of SE and CR definitions of instructions function. Those of us who speak of excess DNA as informationally junk mean that its presence is not to caesar essay brutu tragic hero, be explained by past and/or current selection at united states of america, the level of organisms—that it has no informational function construable historically as an julius caesar essay brutu hero, SE. Essay? Those who say that almost the whole of the caesar tragic, human genome is functional informationally do so on origami essay the basis of an brutu, operational diagnosis embracing a nonhistorical CR definition of function. This definition is certain to identify as functions very many effects that have not been selected. The rhetoric attending the declared “eulogy for junk DNA” (4) sweeps this distinction under the carpet. Third is a false natural kind ontology, essentialist in nature, that encourages ( i ) the attribution to a whole class of used papers operationally defined genetic elements those functions known only for a few and/or ( ii ) the attribution to the whole length of such a genetic element a function that resides in only part of essay brutu tragic hero it. In the styles research papers, case of lncRNAs and intron transcripts, whose lengths together make up more than three-quarters of 80% of the genome said to be functional, this second sort of functional attribution seems especially misleading. Fourth may be a seldom-articulated or -questioned notion that cellular complexity is adaptive, the product of julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero positive selection at the organismal level. Our disappointment that humans do not have many more genes than fruit flies or nematodes has been assuaged by evidence that regulatory mechanisms that mediate those genes’ phenotypic expressions are more various, subtle, and sophisticated (57), evidence of the sort that ENCODE seems to vastly augment.
Yet there are nonselective mechanisms, such as CNE, that could result in the scaling of caltech thesis FEs as ENCODE defines them to C-value nonadaptively or might be seen as selective at some level higher or lower than the level of individual organisms. Splits within the discipline between panadaptationists/neutralists and those researchers accepting or doubting the importance of multilevel selection fuel this controversy and others in biology. I submit that, up until now, junk has been used to denote DNA whose presence cannot reasonably be explained by caesar brutu tragic, natural selection at the level of the organism for encoded informational roles. Origami Essay? There remain good reasons to believe that much of the julius caesar brutu tragic hero, DNA of origami essay many species fits this definition. Nevertheless, while still insisting on SE functionality, we might want to come up with new definitions of function and junk by julius tragic, ( i ) abandoning the distinction between informational and nucleoskeletal or nucleotypic roles for DNA, ( ii ) admitting that there may be strong selection for C-value as a determinant of many cell biological features, ( iii ) fully embracing hierarchical selection theory and acknowledging that different genomic features may have legitimate functions defined and in caltech play at different levels, and ( iv ) expanding the SE definition of julius essay tragic function to theroux, include traits that arise neutrally but are preserved by purifying selection (12). Julius Caesar Brutu Tragic? Much that we now call junk could then become functional. However, such a philosophically informed theoretical expansion is origami essay, not what ENCODE, or at caesar essay, least those authors stressing the demise of junk, so far seem to have in mind (1 ? ? ? –5). In the theroux, end, of course, there is no experimentally ascertainable truth of these definitional matters other than the julius caesar brutu tragic, truth that many of the most heated arguments in biology are not about facts at all but rather about the words that we use to describe what we think the facts might be. However, that the debate is in on human and hygiene the end about the julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero, meaning of words does not mean that there are not crucial differences in our understanding of the evolutionary process hidden beneath the rhetoric. I note that a very forcefully worded critique by essay for medical, Graur et al. (58), with more specific objections to ENCODE's methodology, was published while this manuscript was in the proof stage.
I thank Evelyn Fox Keller, Eric Bapteste, James McInerney, Andrew Roger, and julius essay tragic, the Centre for Comparative Genomics and Evolutionary Bioinformatics (CGEB) group for essay on human, comments on this manuscript and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research for support.
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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by caesar brutu tragic hero Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out states hundreds of julius essay tragic resumes. I posted my resume to Monster.com and styles in writing research waited for the tidal wave of caesar industry job offers to roll in. Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to origami essay dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on Pfizer and essay hero Baxter’s websites, clicking the theroux essayist, job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. Julius Caesar Brutu Hero. “Yes!” I thought. Of America. Piece-of-cake. I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the week.
There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to julius essay brutu tragic hero the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and for medical school lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. Caesar Tragic. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in thesis, CVs.
How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about getting an industry job. Julius Caesar. So, I asked one of the paul theroux, job counselors at the graduate school for advice. She told me the julius essay, key to getting an styles in writing research, interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of my resume. Caesar Essay Tragic Hero. Okay. That’s great advice.
Right? Nope. Paul. She was wrong too. Caesar Essay. It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website.
Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and used in writing papers eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to julius brutu hero just a few seconds. Theroux. Think of how hard you’ve worked to get to where you are. Julius Caesar Brutu. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the styles research, time to get your resume just right? More is more. Caesar Tragic Hero. This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. Caltech Instructions. A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication.
On and on. Brutu Tragic Hero. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want. A better strategy is to essay and hygiene simplify your industry resume down to only the things that industry hiring managers and caesar brutu tragic recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Theroux Essayist. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an caesar tragic hero, unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter.
This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like email@example.com or similar. A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to origami essay jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and caesar brutu tragic find out they’re trying to leave the lab. This won’t happen. PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in used in writing, this format: firstname.lastname@example.org. Julius Essay Brutu Tragic. If this version of your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and essay on human and hygiene last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Essay Tragic. Never use an impersonal greeting on your resume’s cover letter.
Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of caltech thesis instructions taking the time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals.
Let that sink in. Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to caesar brutu a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to essayist a decision-maker. Tragic Hero. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at essay for medical, the company they want to work for. Hero. Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out united of america paper who the julius caesar essay brutu hero, hiring manager is. Or at least find out the name of caltech thesis instructions someone who works on the team you’re trying to crack into. At the julius brutu tragic, very least, use the name of someone in human resources. Then, connect with people who work at the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to paul theroux get to know someone well enough to put their name on julius caesar essay tragic, the first line of your cover letter. In the end, your cover letter should be short and styles in writing research sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g.
Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in brutu tragic, contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of paul your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into a corner. A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of your resume and julius essay tragic hero ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts. Load the visual center with the value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work.
Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to notice you and keep you in mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. Origami Essay. This means you should show them exactly what they want to julius brutu tragic see first.
And guess what—they don’t care about the dates. They care about the title of the position you held, the origami essay, name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to list the dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by julius tragic hero date.
Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by states term relevance to caesar essay hero a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by origami essay relevance to a specific position. Julius Essay Brutu. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes. Research. Your lead is what employers want to read most on essay brutu tragic hero, your resume. Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Instructions. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to julius caesar essay the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to essay read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the caesar, outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused.
This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to states of america term see that the return on julius brutu tragic, investment for hiring you is origami essay higher than the salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. Julius Caesar Essay Brutu. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the contact information of thesis three professional references. Don’t even waste space on julius tragic, writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references.
If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place. You should be networking. 7. Caltech Thesis. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is caesar hero your industry resume.
If it is riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for paul theroux essayist, errors. Julius Brutu Tragic Hero. You don’t need to united states of america term paper pay hundreds of dollars for julius caesar brutu tragic, this. You can find worthy editors on essay health, eLance and tragic Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it. Then have it proofread again.
This is the best and most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the essay on human health, “Find” function on their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume.
The best place to find the essay tragic hero, keywords you should use is in the job description of the position you’re applying for. For example, if the writing school, description contains the phrase “project management” over and over againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the essay, hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in industry. Essay Writing For Medical. Even hiring managers for caesar essay brutu hero, industry RD positions don’t care about your publications. This is especially true at used in writing, the resume-reading stage of the hiring process. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on caesar essay hero, an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on thesis, an industy resume is a waste of time.
They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history. Caesar Brutu Hero. You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of writing them, but don’t let your pride get in the way of creating a sharp resume. Essay Brutu Tragic. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence. Think of writing an caltech instructions, industry resume as the opposite of writing an academic journal article.
Instead of using dense text and essay long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of essayist information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and tragic sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Paul Theroux. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at julius caesar tragic, a time. 10. Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time.
Why? Because submitting a photo is too personal. Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only united of america paper, personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to.
However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about caesar essay brutu tragic, transitioning into thesis, a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero, Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017.
Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and school then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to caesar brutu add a line (just one, single line) to caltech instructions your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of julius caesar brutu #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for essay and hygiene, the find Marwah, though you may have missed the julius caesar brutu tragic hero, point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the article and essay writing for medical school I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on caesar essay brutu tragic, your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice.
Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the essay writing school, example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD?
Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is caesar tragic hero considered as work. Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. My PhD has been more of engineering type of work. I have been developing an paul theroux, optical sensor. I would prefer to go to caesar essay tragic hero industry now. And Hygiene. so I am trying to increase my chances. Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to remove publications from a resume. However, a first author publication on julius caesar tragic hero, a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and conclusive results!
It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of health your resume. Julius Caesar. This will not eat up more than two lines of paul theroux essayist space. If a potential employer is really interested in caesar brutu tragic hero, you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an paul theroux essayist, existing LaTeX template that is laid out according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation.
If you#8217;re applying for brutu tragic, a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the primary skill in today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. In Writing Research. I have taken a hint from the julius essay brutu hero, resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in term paper, tech. Tragic Hero. Write for origami essay, the person who understands the skills you bring, and try to julius brutu tragic hero get to that person directly.
As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at is the dates of your education and essay health and hygiene work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at your publications. Caesar Tragic Hero. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible.
Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and on human health I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is julius caesar essay tragic hero more likely to do their next job well. Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. Essay Health. It#8217;s a representation of julius tragic hero what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV.
Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the origami essay, almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. Hero. email@example.com. Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is a training platform for academics who want to transition into non-academic careers.
The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for on human health and hygiene, PhDs who want to transition into industry. The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Additionally, this site is NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way. FACEBOOK is a trademark of caesar brutu hero FACEBOOK inc.
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