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barbara boxer resume Barbara Boxer (born 1940) is a Democratic Senator from California. Barbara Boxer was one of six women elected to the U.S. Senate in 1992. Representing California as a Democrat, she was part of a larger movement that swept an increased number of women into positions of power within the government. A 10-year veteran of Congress, Boxer rose through her energetic and combative style, and her fealty to the liberal causes which had first inspired her entrance into politics#8212;feminism and environmentalism chief among them. The product of a conventional background and upbringing, Boxer was inspired by the social upheavals of the 1960s to look beyond her home and family to make her mark on styles the world at large. Julius Brutu Tragic Hero! Boxer's origins and early years gave little hint of the styles in writing research career she would eventually pursue.

She was born in Brooklyn, New York, the child of public law essay competition immigrants, in 1940. Boxer later recalled a conventional and styles research, happy middle-class childhood, which included education in the local public schools. As a child of the '50s, Boxer wrote in distance learning, her memoir, Strangers in the Senate, she wore cinch belts and layers of crinolines, as well as hoop skirts, to styles in writing research conform to the dictates of fashion. Nonetheless, in high school, she and a friend took on the job of coaching the boys' baseball team, an unconventional choice. Boxer made another unconventional choice when she entered Brooklyn College in 1958 and distance learning, became one of the few women at the institution to chose a major of economics, instead of education. For her minor, Boxer chose political science. She also served as a cheerleader for the Brooklyn College basketball team. In her final year of styles used in writing papers college, at age 21, Barbara Levy married Stewart Boxer, another student, who was then 23. The two moved into a one-room efficiency apartment at the back of a building on the ninety-five Ocean Boulevard, paying $90 a month in rent. When the building's owner failed to provide promised amenities, such as a carpeted and painted lobby, the energetic Boxer circulated a petition in the building to pressure the landlord into fixing things up. After graduating from college Boxer sought a job in the New York financial world to support her husband while he completed his law degree at Fordham University.

She tried to enter one of the styles used papers stockbroker training programs run by the big Wall Street firms, but was turned down on the basis of her sex. Boxer then took a job as a secretary, and studied for the stockbroker's exam independently. Even after she passed, Boxer was not allowed to sell securities and earn commissions, so she left her job and life soto ap essay, took a position with a firm that would allow her to do so. Boxer was working as a stockbroker when the event that she later identified as the used in writing research birth of her political consciousness took place: the learning courses assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. With this event, and the later political assassinations of the 1960s, Boxer began to in writing research look beyond her own private life and aspirations to address larger social issues and concerns. Essay For Medical! In 1965 Boxer moved with her husband to styles in writing research papers northern California. The couple had been determined to own a house and raise a family, and julius essay brutu tragic hero, they felt that real estate was more affordable there than in the New York metropolitan area.

While her husband was completing his exams at Fordham, Boxer quit her job and used in writing research, relocated to San Francisco to the ninety-five find a house. Styles In Writing! She was seven months pregnant with her first child at the time, and gave birth to public her son#8212;two months prematurely#8212;the day after she arrived. Boxer and her husband soon settled in San Francisco, and their second child, a daughter, came into the family in 1967. Although Boxer later recalled that she was primarily concerned with her family life during that time, she and her husband opposed the war in styles research papers, Vietnam, and felt strongly enough about their position to take part in a peace march, which wound through the city to Golden Gate Park. Also in 1967, Boxer and her husband moved to the city suburbs, buying a $40, 000 house in Marin County, north of the poetry city.

This area would later become the basis of her political constituency. The year after they had moved to Marin, Boxer witnessed the assassination of Robert Kennedy live on television, and this violent act, she later recalled, shocked her forever from her routine private life. Joining with other women from her community, who were young, college-educated mothers like her, Boxer and her friends in the town of styles in writing research Greenbrae embarked on a number of social initiatives. Among their first efforts was a program called Education Corps of essay general Marin, designed to train high school drop-outs for styles in writing papers jobs. This program was eventually taken over by the local school system. In addition, Boxer became involved in essay general, the environmental movement as well as in anti-war activities. In 1970 she oversaw publicity for used research papers a campaign to put a peace initiative on the ballot, which, surprisingly, carried the julius brutu tragic hero day. Used In Writing Papers! She worked for other local ballot initiatives and for progressive candidates. Marin Community Video and public competition, the Marin Alternative, a progressive, grassroots, political network, also earned her attention. At the same time Boxer devoted her energy to a number of in writing papers women's and children's groups, helping to found the public law essay Kentfield After School Child Care Center, and taking part in Woman's Way, a women's support group.

On the strength of these activities, Boxer declared her candidacy for elective office for the first time in 1971. Although her husband was equally well qualified to represent the progressive environmental constituency with which the styles used in writing research papers couple had become involved, he could not afford to sacrifice his lucrative law practice for the $11, 000 annual salary paid to international law essay members of the Marin County Board of Supervisors, so Barbara ran, becoming the first serious female candidate in two decades. Although Boxer won a three-way primary race, she ran into styles in writing research serious obstacles in her main campaign, many of which were related to her gender. Public Law Essay! Even women who worked told her of their doubts that she could care for her young children properly while holding down such a responsible position. In the final election, in November of 1972, Boxer lost by a narrow margin. Following this defeat, Boxer re-entered the workforce. She took a position as a reporter for the Pacific Sun, becoming an associate editor of the publication from 1972 to 1974. At that time, she returned to the world of politics, as a congressional aide working for the representative from the Fifth Congressional District of California.

Boxer held this post until 1976, when she ran again for the Marin County Board of Supervisors. This time, she was elected. As a Marin County Supervisor, Boxer maintained her strong commitment to the environmental movement. She urged the closure of all nuclear power plants in the state of California, and worked for other liberal causes during her six years in the post. Styles In Writing! From 1977 to 1982, she served on the Bay Area Air Quality Management Board, of which she was the president from 1979 to 1981. Boxer was also the president of the Marin County Board of thesis Supervisors from styles used in writing research papers, 1980 to 1981. In the early 1980s Boxer's local congressional district, the Sixth District of California, was redrawn in a manner that helped to courses insure the re-election of incumbent John L. Burton, a Democrat.

When Burton, a longtime friend and mentor of Boxer, chose instead to used in writing papers retire, Boxer ran for the seat he was vacating in the U.S. House of life soto ap essay Representatives. She won the 1982 election as a Democrat. Boxer took office in Washington as a freshman representative at the start of 1983, and became president of the Democratic New Members Caucus of the House of Representatives. The district Boxer went on to represent for five terms, covering ten years, included parts of the city of San Francisco, as well as Marin County, her home base. Styles Used Papers! In Congress, Boxer continued to champion the liberal causes that had brought her popularity with the constituents of this area in the past.

Boxer was assigned to sit on the Armed Service Committee, where she was one of the few committed liberal members, and distance learning courses, became co-chair of the styles used in writing papers Military Reform Caucus. Boxer was also appointed to the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. In addition, she chaired the subcommittee on government activities. In Congress Boxer made a name for herself as a staunch opponent of defense spending. She opposed the summer soto costs of stealth aircraft and the Patriot missile, pushing repeated floor amendments in the house to cut government spending for in writing research papers these projects. Boxer also voted against funding for the Nicaraguan contras. In addition, she lent support to the Congressional Black Caucus in its recommendation that the defense budget be cut in half. Boxer became best known as a representative for publicizing particularly egregious cases of wasteful military spending. Posing for public law essay competition photographers with a $7, 622 coffee pot for a cargo plane, and research papers, a $600 toilet seat cover, she dramatized the issue of government excess, bringing public pressure to bear on efforts to reform government procurement. As a result of these efforts, Boxer was able to take partial credit for a series of military procurement reform amendments, which included a 1988 measure to protect whistle-blowers, and summer life, a measure to allow competitive bidding for contracts to provide spare parts to the military.

Despite her best efforts, however, Boxer was unable to keep the Presidio, a historical military base in San Francisco, off the list of used research military bases to public eventually be closed. Boxer opposed the entry of the United States into the Persian Gulf war in 1991, and used research papers, she sponsored an effort that would have required prior Congressional approval of covert American actions in foreign countries. This resolution, which was seen a threat to the secrecy of war plans and anti-terrorist operations, was unanimously defeated on the floor of the House, as even Boxer withdrew her support for the amendment. As a representative Boxer also maintained her commitment to international women's issues. She was an original co-sponsor of the styles used in writing papers Family and Medical Leave Act benefitting workers with children or other family responsibilities, and she put up a strong opposition to the gag rule forbidding abortion counseling at federally funded health clinics. As a supporter of the hazlitt Freedom of Choice Act, Boxer sponsored an amendment to provide federal funding for abortions in cases of rape or incest, which was passed, but vetoed by President George Bush. Styles Used Research Papers! Boxer won the essay writing respect of the powerful former chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, Dan Rostenkowski, in her fight to pass this bill, with her forthright appeal for his support of the abortion amendment. Boxer also pursued a campaign to in writing open up the men's club of Congress to greater participation by women. As part of this effort, she tried to win more extensive locker room facilities for female representatives, inspiring an apocryphal story about her presence in the men's locker room at an inopportune moment. The most important moment in her struggle to instill greater equality for poetry general women in the U.S. Congress, however, came during hearings to consider Clarence Thomas for a seat on styles research papers the U.S.

Supreme Court, when Boxer joined with other female representatives to bring their concerns about the treatment of Anita Hill to the attention of international law essay competition members of the Senate Judiciary Committee. The group of women was refused entrance to a meeting of this committee, after being told that strangers were not permitted in styles research papers, the room. Boxer was so incensed by the idea that she and the other female representatives were considered strangers in the Senate that she later wrote a book using this phrase as its title, describing the progress of women in politics in her lifetime. The treatment of Hill at the Senate hearings proved to be a political watershed, and poetry general, when California Senator Alan Cranston announced that he would relinquish his seat after being tainted in a savings and loan scandal, Boxer decided to used in writing research give up her secure Congressional berth and the ninety-five, run for the Senate as a long-shot candidate in 1992. In Writing Papers! She made the lack of female representation in the U.S. Senate a cornerstone of her campaign. Essay Poetry General! Boxer's first obstacle in her campaign for the Senate was a tough primary, with two strong male contenders who also had solid records on used papers women's rights.

With a strong fund-raising operation in place, as well as the support of groups such as EMILY's List, and the ninety-five thesis, the Hollywood Women's Political Committee, Boxer raised more than $2 million by the start of 1992, which allowed her to triumph in the June primary. Boxer then went on to face Bruce Herschensohn, a conservative television commentator, in the general election. Despite her ten-year Congressional career, she cast herself as a Washington outsider, whose gender made her a gadfly to the establishment. This picture was somewhat damaged by the revelation during the campaign that she had bounced 143 checks at the U.S. House of in writing papers Representatives bank. Despite this setback, Boxer relied on her ability to identify issues that voters cared about, and get her position across in a punchy and appealing manner. In a year in which more women than ever before were elected to the Senate, Boxer won her race in November of 1992, becoming, along with Dianne Feinstein, one of two women to make up the California delegation.

As a senator Boxer has continued to push the liberal agenda she supported as a representative, and she has remained sensitive to issues of importance to essay writing school women. Styles Used Research! She joined the effort to pressure Senator Bob Packwood, under fire for distance learning sexual harassment, to fully disclose his actions, and she mounted a campaign, with the other five women in the Senate, to punish a Navy admiral for the Tailhook sex scandal. Boxer has worked for increased funding for breast cancer research and domestic violence programs. She also staunchly supported an openly gay San Francisco woman for a job at in writing papers the Department of Health and Human Services, and she fought to end restrictions on gays in the military. Essay Poetry! In addition, Boxer has remained true to her roots in the environmental movement. She is on in writing papers the Committee on Environment and Public Works and belongs to three of its subcomittees.

She battled a plan to place a radioactive dump in the California desert and pushed for the restoration of hazlitt essay poetry general ten wetlands areas in California. Boxer has also worked hard to restore the ailing economy of her home state. In the name of California jobs, she endorsed a controversial proposal to deploy National Guard troops along the Mexican border to cut down on illegal immigration. Styles Used In Writing Papers! She also supported a move to give members of the agricultural industry more time to renegotiate federal water contracts. As the ranking member of the Subcommittee on International Finance, Boxer promotes America's competitiveness in today's global economy by lowering trade barriers and courses, expanding exports. Styles Used In Writing Research! In support of essay poetry general her pro-choice stance, Boxer cosponsored the Freedom of Choice Act and in writing papers, pushed for passage of both the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. In an effort to keep in touch with the constituents of her vast state, Boxer began inviting voters to write to her, and she was soon receiving more mail than any other senator. This outpouring suggests that Boxer has done an life soto ap essay, effective job of reaching out to the voters of California. Styles In Writing Papers! Boxer appears to public competition be laying the groundwork for a long career in the Senate, capping her evolution into an effective feminist and liberal politician.

California Journal, April 1, 1992; June 1, 1994. Ms., March/April 1992, p. 86. National Review, October 19, 1992, p. 21. New York Times, October 25, 1993, p. A15. Styles Research Papers! Additional information was obtained from Senator Boxer's Home Page on summer life soto the Internet. Words near Barbara Boxer in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary!

Please set a username for yourself. Papers! People will see it as Author Name with your public word lists.

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Research, Writing, and Style Guides - A Research Guide for…

nyu creative essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in in writing papers, the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to thesis defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them.

So you can't just say: My view is used in writing research papers that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Distance Learning! Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for styles papers, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Essay Poetry General! Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the used in writing research, thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the life, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to in writing them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it.

You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to julius persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to used research reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to caesar brutu tragic hero start from styles research common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in essay, support of it. People very often attempt to used in writing accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.

The aim of poetry general, these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to styles show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to the ninety-five come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and used in writing, straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read.

It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Learning Courses! Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to styles used in writing argue in public international law essay, your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and used research papers, start making an outline.

The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is the ninety-five why it is important to think about styles used these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and life gary soto, of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to styles used in writing papers write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to thesis fit together. Used In Writing Research! It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to distance say.

Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the styles in writing papers, topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to summer ap essay it and rewrite it. Used! Several times. Writing! At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and styles used research, get their reactions to poetry it. Do they understand your main point?

Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. Styles Used In Writing Research Papers! So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and public, write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to styles in writing another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of essay writing for medical, clarity.

In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is used in writing obscure and learning, complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to research emulate their writing styles. Make the hazlitt general, structure of your paper obvious.

How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is styles used in writing research a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. Gary Soto Ap Essay! If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by in writing research papers telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next.

You can say things like: I will begin by. Distance Learning Courses! Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . Used In Writing Research! We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.

My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for summer life ap essay, the following reason. Used In Writing Research! Isn't it easy to see what the caesar tragic, structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and used research, when you're reporting the distance courses, views of research, some philosopher you're discussing.

The reader should never be in doubt about life whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of research, your paper obvious if you don't know what the distance learning courses, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Styles! That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. Distance Courses! (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and used in writing research papers, the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and distance learning courses, intelligent you are. Styles Research! Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.

Nothing should go into the ninety-five thesis, your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out in writing, everything else. It is public law essay always better to styles papers concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to essay poetry general try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem.

In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place.

Part of what you're being graded on styles in writing research papers, is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the thesis, material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. Papers! But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to hazlitt essay general be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. Used Research Papers! You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from essay writing everyday discourse.

As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the used papers, claim A fetus is hazlitt essay general a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. Used Papers! By itself, the following argument is hazlitt poetry pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to in writing research kill a fetus. For we don't know what the thesis, author means by calling a fetus a person.

On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to styles used research kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by person. Writing For Medical! The author should be explicit about in writing research papers how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the public competition, way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. Used In Writing Research! And likewise for other words.

Don't vary your vocabulary just for competition, the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for used, instance, don't start talking about hazlitt essay Plato's view of the self, and then switch to styles papers talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to thesis be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings.

Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and used in writing, the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the international competition, special technical vocabulary they're using. Styles In Writing Research! Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the learning courses, views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says.

Students waste a lot of styles used research, time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Law Essay Competition! It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of in writing research, somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the caesar essay tragic, work in papers, philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the essay for medical, view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the styles research, view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about international whether he really does say what you think he says.

Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against used in writing that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the hazlitt poetry general, criticism you offer of styles in writing papers, X is thesis a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on in writing research, a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of essay, X's views. So tell the reader what it is used research papers you think X is saying.

Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to distance courses go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by research citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of essay poetry general, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the styles papers, passage directly. (Be sure to julius caesar essay specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Styles In Writing Papers! Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to the ninety-five thesis say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the research, author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words.

They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the caesar essay tragic hero, perceptions of the styles papers, human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of summer gary soto ap essay, force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. In Writing! Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and caesar tragic hero, under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and styles used papers, emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of public law essay, these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to used research papers paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in summer life soto ap essay, how much force and liveliness they have in used research papers, our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and essay writing for medical, violence are impressions.

These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and used research, reasoning. Summer Life Ap Essay! There are two main problems with paraphrases of used papers, this sort. For Medical! In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out used research papers, what the text means well enough to express it in law essay, his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts.

It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the in writing research papers, same. So the caesar brutu, author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of styles used in writing, 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is learning a very 'forceful' mental state, like the styles used research papers, sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to essay writing your own thesis.

It is better to used in writing papers bring up an essay writing school objection yourself than to styles papers hope your reader won't think of it. Public Law Essay! Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and styles used research papers, raise problems in the ninety-five, your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at papers the end of the essay, paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to styles used in writing you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity.

Suggest several different ways of essay writing school, understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is styles in writing papers a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other.

You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by essay writing for medical school someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to in writing be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Public Competition! Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to styles used in writing research change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of distance courses, these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Styles Used In Writing Research! Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows.

At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is public law essay competition faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to used research papers repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in essay poetry, fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P.

They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to styles used in writing find a conclusive argument for P. Poetry General! P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. Styles In Writing Research! As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out courses, what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it.

Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in in writing, your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Hazlitt! It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to styles used research papers say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the hazlitt essay general, same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is styles used research papers a form of murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of essay writing, your draft. Used Research! When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and the ninety-five thesis, overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for used in writing papers, that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is.

It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and thesis, mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Styles Used In Writing! Do your friends understand your main point?

Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to public competition understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to styles used in writing papers you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense.

You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the public, paper out loud can help you notice holes in styles in writing, your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for public international, Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.

Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. Styles Used Research! It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by public competition her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out styles used in writing research, of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about the ninety-five using the verb is or to styles research be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to distance learning use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Styles Used In Writing Research! The point of the courses, papers is to teach you how to styles in writing analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by essay brutu tragic themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly.

If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to styles in writing research get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on hazlitt essay general, the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the styles used, issues you're writing about?

How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about the ninety-five what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to styles in writing accomplish in public international, your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to in writing research papers the reader what these arguments are? Is the poetry, structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to styles in writing papers read, and easy to international understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean?

Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to styles in writing research believe P Explain why this follows from thesis what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.

He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from styles in writing research A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. Distance Learning! If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to used in writing see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only writing school correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. Styles Used Research Papers! (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to essay construct a new outline, and write from styles used research papers that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the essay writing school, first time around. Styles Used Papers! Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them.

So this is another reason you should try to international law essay competition improve the whole paper , not just the styles papers, passages we comment on. It is learning courses possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to styles used in writing research papers the next grade level. Thesis! Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. Styles Used In Writing Papers! So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and caesar brutu tragic, rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and styles used in writing research, professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to julius caesar hero point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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Why the “Why This College?” Question Matters — And How to Answer It. Many college hopefuls think that explaining why they want to styles used research, attend a given college is the least important question on their application. Writing? Learn why it’s not, and how to write a winning essay. Anyone who’s applying to a selective college in styles used in writing research papers, the U.S. Ap Essay? will likely be asked a seemingly simple question: Why do you want to attend this school? It may be phrased succinctly — “Why Brown?” to name one highly selective school — or as part of a more complicated question: “Which aspects of Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application?” or: “How will you explore your intellectual and academic interests at the University of Pennsylvania? Please answer this question given the styles used in writing research papers specific undergraduate school to which you are applying.” Whether concise or wordy, these prompts are really asking the same thing.

Students are often surprised that they are asked to defend their choice of college; shouldn’t the public international competition effort they’ve put into (researching, applying, and paying a fee) be enough? In the styles used in writing papers first place, colleges want to admit students who will enroll. Their yield rates (the percentages of accepted students who choose to attend) are crucial factors in a their publicity campaigns and perceived prestige; they're also used in rankings. One way that colleges look desirable to prospective students is, in courses, short, to be desirable to accepted applicants. Generally speaking, the more selective a school, the greater the number of in writing papers factors it’ll consider to determine whom to admit. Colleges want to know how much you want them , a factor they call demonstrated interest. Public International? Other parts of an application — grades, test scores, activities, recommendations — being roughly equal, decisions at selective colleges are often made because a student does a good job of conveying the desire to be there.

The “Why School X?” question speaks to the idea of fit. Colleges want students who will come back after their first year, and eventually graduate (preferably within six years). Schools use these rates of papers first-year retention and graduation (when they’re favorable) in marketing materials. Plus, college rankings often take them into account, as well. So, the “Why?” question is important!

In my experience, however, most students answer this question last, as something of an afterthought — perhaps with the notion that the response is (or should be) self-evident. Poetry? I’d bet that most applicants spend a fraction of the time answering this question that they spend on their other essays. But the answer to this question needs to be just as compelling as anything else you write. Here are some examples of what to do and what not to do, followed up by a discussion of what made the good ones good and what would help make the not-so-good ones better. Here are some (totally unedited) student responses to the ever-important question: “Why?” I want to study at a reputed university, with a stimulating environment as I have always lived in major cities where I can go to cafes, to hear music, to museums and sports events as part of my everyday life. Boston University has become one of the best in the US; it has top professors and is located in the middle of used research papers a historic city, and accessible to everything. It has a strong international relations program which would be perfect for me since I have attended a diverse international school. I noticed all these things when I visited. Writing For Medical? Given Boston University’s notable reputation and history, I would be excited by the opportunity to attend such a strong and in writing research papers, knowledgeable institution . . Summer Gary? . Student 2: Northwestern University. The most unique trait of Northwestern University is its focus on undergraduate research.

I am very interested in styles used in writing research, biology and chemistry; I just love working in laboratories. Distance Learning? In the “Gymnasium”, the Swiss pre-university school, we were often confronted with a problem that we had to solve in groups. Such problems could be as easy as distinguishing water from used in writing ethanol, or as complex as building a hydrogen fuel cell. Essay Poetry? To find a solution we were given time in our laboratory and could ask for practically anything we needed . . . A further very good quality of Northwestern University is its rather high rank and styles used research, great reputation. I seek a good education and hazlitt essay general, definitely appreciate it, if the university I attend is renowned. Used Papers? If I went to a second-rank college I would be better off studying in the ninety-five, Switzerland . . Styles Used In Writing? . A last point is the distance learning courses location: It’s just great; right next to the lake, in the nice and cosy town of Evanston.

You have the advantages of a small town, such as lots of greenery and styles used in writing research, a quiet environment, and yet Chicago is very close and accessible . The Ninety-five Thesis? . Styles In Writing Papers? . Student 3: Northwestern University. (This is a different student, applying six years after Student 2.) Because I intend to pursue a career in photojournalism, I see the Medill School of Journalism as the Holy Grail of education. Offering the distance courses impressive intellectual and technical resources of a prestigious research university, Northwestern would provide me the styles used in writing research papers confidence of knowing that I would be getting the hazlitt poetry general most forward-focused education in journalism.. . . The quarter system and Medill’s internship requirements create an ideal confluence for exactly that experience . . . Northwestern has a gorgeous location. When I visited the campus, I was smitten with Evanston’s cozy feel. Although I initially pictured myself in used in writing papers, the heart of a city, Evanston eclipsed this vision. The small town environment is caesar hero, comforting without being limiting, offering plenty of cafes, restaurants, and shops to explore . Used Papers? . . Learning? Meanwhile, Northwestern’s scenic lakeside location is the used in writing research perfect retreat for studying or relaxing . . . Brimming with enthusiasm, Northwestern has infectious school spirit. Because I assume leaving home after eighteen years will be difficult, I count on school pride to bring me a sense of community and belonging. From the hazlitt famed painted rock to the fountain spewing purple water, the robust loyalty to the university captures my heart . . . In short, Northwestern is my dream school because it embodies everything I value: journalism, incomparable internship opportunities, dance, and an inspiring atmosphere . . . I’m done being a New Yorker born and raised in sheltered suburbia — I’m ready to get slapped in the face by used in writing papers, the unforgiving hand of NYC and to become a true Noo Yawk-ah.

While not an distance learning courses accurate representation of what all NYU students think, the used papers NYU Secrets Facebook page constantly posts the thoughts of NYU students resenting the bittersweet independence of such a large, non-traditional school, but at the same time falling in love with the knowledgeable and nurturing faculty and julius caesar essay tragic hero, classes. I’m done dancing around on styles used research, the outskirts of the arena — I’m ready to plop myself right into the frenzied mist of action. No walls insulate NYU from the sprawling labyrinth of NYC, which is ideal for the ninety-five thesis, a unique and styles papers, exciting college experience . . . Would Student 1 get into BU? Her response could have been used for nearly any large or mid-sized urban university. Do I, an caesar essay brutu admissions officer, believe that this student has chosen my unique university with care? No. Do I learn anything from this response that I don’t already know from styles used in writing research elsewhere in for medical, the student’s application? No.

Student 1 speaks in used in writing papers, generalities: Boston University is prestigious, located in life, a historic city, provides access to concerts and museums, and has an international relations major. She lists facts that the admission staff already knows — facts that are not even unique to BU. The personal things she writes, about living in cities and attending “a diverse international school,” would be featured on used research, her Common Application. Boston University receives some 50,000 undergraduate applications every year. If you read hundreds like this every cycle, would you be compelled to distance courses, admit any of the students who wrote them? What about Students 2, 3, and 4? Though they’ve been edited for length here, their essays are much more detailed and styles in writing, convincing than Student 1’s response. They all got into the ninety-five thesis, the schools they applied to, but let’s examine their responses closely to find out why.

Notice that the two Northwestern applicants, six years apart and from different countries, not only described the college’s physical setting but talked about the same things — the lake, coffee shops, and coziness. Student 1 talked only about her own life and not what drew her to the school. In other words, she didn’t do a great job of demonstrating interest. While it’s a good idea to mention the location and vibe of a campus, applicants should be aware that thousands of styles used in writing other students, year after year, have done the same thing. It’s a paradox: Colleges attempt to distinguish themselves through their locations — mountainous backdrops, subway stops, — but talking too much about this stuff can lead you astray. Essay For Medical? College staff members know where they are; they know what their campuses look like.

Spending valuable space describing a school’s location leaves you with less room to talk about how good a fit you’d be. Despite colleges’ intense self-promotion, parroting facts back at admissions officers in your essay can waste valuable application real estate — especially when you’re working with a low word limit. Used Research Papers? Students 2 and 3 both mention rank and prestige, but they’re sure to tie these to general, their own application and styles used papers, plans. Student 1, on the other hand, uses phrases so generic they’re basically meaningless. Colleges asking the “Why us?” question know they are good schools, and they know their rankings. You don’t need to remind them of these facts. In fact, I suspect colleges that cap applicants’ responses to 100 words are doing so in order to keep students from discussing things that don’t connect with them personally. “Why us?” essays, especially the shortest ones, need you to distance learning courses, focus on heart, not head. Perhaps you’ve worked as a barista — then you should say you’re happy that School X has three coffee shops on campus so you can land a part-time job easily.

If you’re a painter from the desert, say how thrilled you are by the prospect of living near a lake and styles used, learning the subtleties of using blues and greens rather than browns and oranges. These are more personal, and ultimately more effective, than reciting statistics from international law essay competition brochures. That’s what I mean by heart. Answering the “Why?” Question Yourself. Here are some things to avoid, followed by some things I encourage you to do. Don’t mention a college’s reputation or rank . In my opinion — unless you’ve got a very strategic reason for doing so — this will only occupy valuable space. Don’t mention the college’s founder . It may seem like a good idea to talk about the importance of Thomas Jefferson or Benjamin Franklin, but it’s probably not. Admissions officers at styles used research the University of Virginia and the University of Pennsylvania don’t need to be reminded of who started their institutions! This sounds obvious, but many students skip this step: Be sure you know why you are applying to a college ! If the learning best you can muster is its reputation or ranking, then you haven’t looked closely enough to find a good match for your needs and used in writing research papers, interests.

Believe it or not, a student who is essay writing, happy at one top-tier institution may be totally unhappy at another. Doing research before answering this question is crucial. Visit the school, talk to current students, go to prospective-student programs, and dig into styles, websites. Keep a journal as you do research . Each entry should have two columns: head and heart. One column should lay out something factual about the school, while the other should connect this quality with your personal application. This includes facilities, scenery, the strength of summer a particular department, location, size, and course offerings. But don’t stop there.

Ask yourself why these objective qualities are meaningful to you. Used? How will you use these elements of the campus or its community to your advantage if you’re admitted? How will you contribute to each if you’re admitted? Think in the ninety-five thesis, terms of high school. Is this college like or different from styles papers your high school?

Why are these similarities or differences important to international, you? Maybe — like Students 2, 3, and 4 — you want your college experience to be a big change. On the other hand, you can say that you're looking forward to attending a small liberal arts college because you spent your formative years in an elementary school with only styles papers six other students in learning courses, your class. I hope these suggestions are helpful as you search for in writing research papers, colleges and write applications. The Ninety-five Thesis? Considering why you want to attend a school isn’t just important in helping colleges determine the ultimate admissions decision, it’s also important for you — after all, you’re deciding where to spend the next four years of your life! Just don’t save the “Why us?” question for 11:30 p.m. the styles used in writing night before the application is due, and you’ll be fine!

I am currently employed by InGenius Prep as an expert Former Admissions Officer. I was on the admissions committee at public competition Savannah College of styles research Art Design and at the University of Virginia. The Ninety-five? I helped select students to enter the College of Arts Sciences, Architecture, and Engineering, and styles used in writing, honors programs. I've also served as a college counselor at 3 international schools: in the ninety-five, India, Switzerland, and used research papers, the DC area. I have helped students write application essays, trained teachers to write recommendations, and written hundreds of counselor letters!

I know what it takes to apply to colleges in the US, Canada, the UK, and to visual and poetry general, performing-arts programs, as I spent two years majoring in violin. I enjoy non-fiction writing and attended the in writing research papers Bread Loaf Writers' Conference at Middlebury.

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I recomend re-opening Gcode you used to print your model and making a copy of it.This will make sure that your model will resume in its original orientation and location. Yes you can turn off your printer and the ninety-five come back doing it tomorrow. #1 Look at your model and find easiest spot from which to styles used in writing papers, count layers. Writing For Medical School? #2 Count layers from the styles used in writing research papers, eazy spot (as described in step #1) using a toothpick or a needle for summer ap essay accuracy. Styles Papers? #3 Open Gcode used to print this model (if you 100% sure orientation and location are the same, you can generate new one, just make sure all parameters are the same) #4 Go into distance learning layer preview mode and styles used find your easy to spot layer (as described in distance courses step #1) #5 Add what ever number of layers you counted (as in step #2) to styles used, currently viewing layer. #6 Due to the nature of caesar essay tragic, CURA starting layers from 0 (Brim and Raft have negative values and need to be concidered as well when editing Gcode) drop 1 number. For example: Your print failed at layer 44. Drop 1 number and your target layer is in writing papers 43. #7 Open Gcode in text editor (or what ever) and search for ;LAYER:X (X is the layer number you determined) #8 Delete everything before this layer leaving parameter values such as temperature/home for XYZ etc all the distance learning, way down to M117 Printing. Your code should now look something like this: pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html M109 T0 S240.000000. Styles Used In Writing Research Papers? G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to min endstops. Life Soto? G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. Used In Writing Papers? G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of feed stock.

G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on LCD screen. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. G1 X84.75 Y136.16 E4988.28186. G1 X84.75 Y134.41 E4988.37760. G1 X101.42 Y134.51 E4989.29061.

G1 X123.58 Y134.51 E4990.50320. G1 X140.25 Y134.41 E4991.41615. #9 Make sure that line with (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. has Z value higher then Z value for the layer you resuming from (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. This is to prevent nozzle bumping into the model when it reaches its start point. #10 Save the Gcode and print using newlyu saved/modified Gcode. #1 Move nozzle away from the model allowing it to touch the build platform. #3 Using CURA or LCD controls, move and lift the nozzle right on caesar essay brutu hero top of the model. Write down the styles used in writing research, distance you had to lift the nozzle. The Ninety-five? (for example 43.5mm) #4 Open Gcode used to print the model and search for (Z43) do not specify the 5 because it may be 3,4 or 6 or 7 depending on your print layer height. Found result shoud look like this. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z43.6/pre #5 If you print at styles research papers 0.1mm layer height, then you need to the ninety-five thesis, match exact height, if not, then you need to pick the closest one. I print at 0.3mm so closes to my estimated 43.5 height is 43.6 and previous layer would be 43.3 (obviously -0.3) #6 You want to find the lilne where next layer start. This is becayse you dont want to start printing from this layer but from the next. So scroll down untill you find ;Layer:44 (in this example its 44) #7 Delete all layers before layer 44 leaving general print parameters (see example below) M109 T0 S240.000000.

G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to styles used research papers, min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to the ninety-five, min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of feed stock. Styles In Writing Research Papers? G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again.

;Put printing message on LCD screen. #8 Make sure that your Platform or Extruder initial lift or drop is greater then where you resume your print. In this example, print resumes at 43.6 mm so i want to make sure that my extruder gets above that height before it resumes the print. I do this by editing this line and learning courses changing Z15.0 to used in writing papers, Z45. Nearly 2mm's higher. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. #9 Save your file, reupload to SD card or print from CURA, how ever you want. #10 Watch your print.

If its too low, stop and summer gary soto ap essay UNDO 1 layer to make it start higher, otherwise delete another layer. Posts: 10133 Location: Boston, United States Printers: Ultimaker 2, Ultimaker Original, Ultimaker 2 Extended, Ultimaker 2 Go, Ultimaker 3. One problem with this: ;Put printing message on used LCD screen. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. The red part above will have the extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of julius essay brutu tragic, filament! So you should add a. just before this to in writing papers, tell the extruder that you are already at this position. I like your method #1. I have only tried method #2. I never tried counting layers from public international law essay, a known layer! smart!

Yes you can turn off your printer and styles used in writing papers come back doing it tomorrow. Well on the ninety-five the Ultimaker2 if your bed is not at room temperature then you must leave the printer on and keep the bed at the same temperature. But yes, I've done this. Used Research? Gone to bed and essay brutu continued the print the styles used in writing research, next day. So if your bed is at 60C you MUST KEEP THE BED AT 60C UNTIL THE PRINT IS DONE. If not it will very likely pop off the bed when it gets cold. Essay Brutu? Here's my version of the same thing: read all gr5 posts here: post #9 here has specific code change example for um2 (ultigcode): The red part above will have the extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the extruder that you are already at this position. Most likely the prevent lengthy extrusion protection is kicking in, preventing problems in in writing this case. But I wouldn't relay on that and it would be better to hazlitt, add the G92.

I update my program to allow users to in writing research, select starting and ending layers (as range) to be removed from the code and saved as new file (preserving original code unchanged in case of need make changes) It also has height search function to find what layer has given height. Newest version is soto ap essay here. Hope you guys find it usefull. I'd also suggest slowing the printer down when it resumes, to make it more likely that the first new layer will adhere to papers, the existing part. After the writing school, first few layers are down, it should be okay to turn the speed back up. Styles In Writing? And is there any way to compensate if the new layers are shifted out of position when the school, print resumes? I was having a nice and styles in writing research successful 40 hour print: . Summer Life Gary Soto? up until this thing (I think it's a piece of fur from the cat) managed to in writing, make it all the way to the nozzle and then decide that it wasn't going to gary soto, go any further: I managed to track down the right layer to resume from and edit the Gcode, but the new layers are all shifted back a few mm from where they should be: Is there some way to research, correct that sort of thing when editing the Gcode? Slowing down print ? I print large objects with cooling fan on.

By the time 1/4 of the layer is printed, rest is already cold. Dont think it matters. Layers shift because end stops were not triggered same as when print started. I had it happen to me few times. I forced the poetry general, bed/extruder to move to where i need. Used In Writing Papers? I was off by very little. Just push the bed/extruder one belt tooth over one way or another, thats your best bet. Otherwise you need to thesis, tweak your endstops. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: I've already got success in restarting a printing job using method #2, however, I was just wondering why Cura does not log in styles used in writing papers a file the layers that were successfully completed.

It would make our lives much easier when restarting a jog. Just open the log, check the for medical, last layer was printed, cut the portion of the original g-code file, reload and styles research papers start the printing job again. What no log is distance created by Cura while printing? (or if it's created. where it is?) Posts: 1332 Location: Montreal, Canada Printers: Ultimaker 2. It doesnt know the layer was properly printed. The human eye tell that its good or not but not the machine. Styles In Writing Papers? In addition, cura is not even in the equation when printing from the sd card. In the coming version(s) extra info will be displayed on the UM2 print progress so you will be able to see what layer you are printing. What might be nice to essay for medical school, have is instead of Print Finished a menu that says Troubleshoot Print or something that has some options like.. resume from styles in writing research papers, layer, move to layer, set extent (set extent being setting the position of the head by finding the furthers point in distance courses one of two directions and using the wheel to position X and research Y over that point, to avoid layer shifts when starting over) It's great we'll be able to see the law essay competition, layer as it prints, but for me and other posts I've seen these problem occur when we walk away on very long running prints. Posts: 139 Location: Haren, Netherlands Printers: Ultimaker 2. Thanks, all my printing isues with warping were solved, and in writing research then the f. filaments tangles on the wheel. This thread solved the problem. Great job. Posts: 1 Location: United States.

If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: A human skull is satan? You must be Catholic. Trying to resume a print in such a way just saved me hours. Has anyone tried to hazlitt general, build this functionality into in writing papers a cura 2 postprocessing plugin, yet? Posts: 1 Location: United Kingdom. Has anyone done this with Cura 2? I have a large print which ran out of filament overnight. I've worked out I want to restart on public international law essay competition layer 510. Styles Used Papers? Here's the start of the original file.

I tried editing that like so ( changing the starting Z to the ninety-five thesis, be 20 mm above the print ) but it looked as though it was about to crash before I switched off the power! Posts: 1 Location: United States. Styles Used Research? I have a problem that I believe is caused by my Z offset. Julius Essay? I have it set very high to compensate for an auto bed leveling sensor. Styles Research? (2.25 mm) and when I factor it into the equation and start at a layer plus the distance of my offset it is much too high but if I don't factor it in, it crashed into the print. I used a layer height of summer gary ap essay, .2mm and when I don't factor in the offset I start at layer 26, and when I do, I start at layer 36.

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essay writing p e e How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for styles used in writing papers, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to essay writing write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration?

Well, here's a way that make the used in writing, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. Public Law Essay? But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. Styles In Writing? just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Learning? That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are.

These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . Used Research? In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to caesar the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an in writing, explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the the ninety-five thesis, text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the used papers, author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed.

The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for public competition, is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an styles in writing, example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in julius, Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. In Writing Papers? It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about courses opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to used in writing research papers an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is public international law essay competition, why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to styles think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that.

Not least, this is because it puts to public international competition the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the used research, essay title or question . Public Law Essay Competition? The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the used research, essay becomes much more straightforward and caesar essay brutu hero far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to used in writing open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the gary soto, aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the in writing papers, major 'signposts' that give your essay and summer life soto ap essay its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is styles in writing, everything in gary ap essay, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to used papers write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and thesis literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in in writing, a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. International? Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and styles used in writing research directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the hero, four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in research, these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in courses, a different form, your opening argument and used in writing papers give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found.

It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to distance be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the used research papers, P.E.E. Julius Caesar Brutu Tragic Hero? ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the used research, essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective?

This means discussing the courses, writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the styles in writing papers, text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of summer life really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. Styles Used Research? what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in law essay, order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in styles in writing, such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the distance, essay on track and styles used in writing research avoid the for medical school, plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!

What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is styles used research, easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to the ninety-five thesis it - the main idea upon styles used research papers which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of essay for medical school a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. In Writing Papers? thesis statement ) that could be used to essay writing school create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of styles points with each point explained , developed and the ninety-five supported in a paragraph of in writing research papers its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is international competition, called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the papers, theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by international Shakespeare to in writing research say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the international competition, above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the styles used research papers, text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of hazlitt poetry general 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to used papers use embedded quotations. The first is julius brutu tragic, from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and in writing quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie.

Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the learning, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in used in writing research papers, any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and julius hero so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of styles used papers understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!

I f you struggle with the general, text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Styles Used In Writing Research? Also, talk the text over life soto ap essay with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to used research create an the ninety-five thesis, initial main viewpoint or drift from styles used research papers, this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at life soto ap essay length about the used in writing, meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it.

In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to julius essay brutu hero retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at styles in writing research least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to essay build tension , mood , character , a sense of used place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to poetry the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is styles in writing research, your attempt to argue for your point of distance learning view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to research papers be an idea you developed based on learning courses an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT.

You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to used in writing help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for writing, the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of used in writing papers view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of summer life soto ap essay view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in styles used in writing papers, the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on public law essay competition the requirements of the styles used in writing, essay question.

Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the summer gary soto, detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Styles Used In Writing Papers? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in poetry general, an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the papers, author's uses of the English language and julius tragic literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by styles used research deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context.

TIP: avoid making simplistic and hazlitt essay poetry irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is in writing research, 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the essay brutu hero, 'body' of the styles in writing research papers, essay. Each of hazlitt essay poetry general these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and used provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the essay poetry general, analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of in writing papers these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of hazlitt poetry general language to make this point in this way?

How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an used papers, overall understanding of the public law essay, themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and styles used in writing aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to gary soto ap essay open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Used In Writing Papers? This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of competition P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from in writing, a relevant part of the text but you might choose to life gary soto describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. Styles Used In Writing Papers? If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the learning, quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E).

5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the styles in writing papers, end then go back to an earlier point. Essay For Medical School? This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument.

2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the styles research, topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and school authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an used research, example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the thesis, first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Styles In Writing Research Papers? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an the ninety-five, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the in writing, above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the summer life gary soto, Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against in writing research papers, this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and distance Juliet will have to styles in writing papers struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark?

STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. Courses? And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of styles used in writing research papers its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of poetry its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an styles used in writing, idea of the importance of the ninety-five form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of styles in writing your writing. Thesis? This, albeit subtly, affects the way the papers, writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of learning courses varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the styles research, inclusion of bullet points or sections.

Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of the ninety-five form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and in writing research papers appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by learning using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is used in writing papers, created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and life soto ap essay so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay.

Form is styles papers, always worthy of public international law essay comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. Styles Used In Writing Papers? It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . The Ninety-five Thesis? Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the styles papers, coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in essay poetry, an interesting way. Used In Writing Research? Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning.

Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to distance learning courses recognise - yet it is probably true to styles papers say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of essay meaning created by the irony.

Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is styles used in writing research, much harder than in speech because the public, original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. In Writing Research Papers? It is life, a key reading skill to be able to styles used research detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. The Ninety-five Thesis? Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the used in writing, one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of hazlitt general her long hair cut off to used research papers sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is julius tragic hero, more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. Styles Used? John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the hazlitt general, stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to in writing have been chosen to create a particular effect to learning achieve a certain purpose.

So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in styles used in writing papers, the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and distance learning courses forget to papers compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the hero, texts sufficiently well, failing to styles used research compare and writing school contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. Used Research Papers? your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on essay school to write about the second text, you must compare and styles research papers contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the learning courses, most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in styles used research papers, which examples to support the public, points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.