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A Nurse’s Guide to Professional Boundaries. an what characteristics good test, inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source and is available electronically at www. anmc. org. au. We will write a custom essay sample. on A Nurse’s Guide to Professional Boundaries or any similar. topic specifically for distance learning courses you. It may not be reproduced for what are the of a good essay test commercial use or sale. Reproduction for purposes other than those indicated above requires a licence or written permission, which may be obtained from the distance learning Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction rights should be addressed to the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council PO Box 873 Dickson ACT 2602. A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries was first published in February 2010. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council PO Box 873 Dickson ACT 2602 T +61 2 6257 7960 F +61 2 6257 7955 www. nmc. Are The Good Essay Test. org. au PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Contents Introduction What are professional boundaries? Professional boundaries at the over involvement end of the continuum Guiding principles for safe, professional practice Decision making tool—professional boundaries.

Q A—professional boundaries References 1 2 4 6 8 10 13 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK ii A nurse’s guide to essay professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework ii Introduction The Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia1, the Code of Ethics for Nurses in what are the of a essay Australia2, the Code of Conduct for Nurses (New Zealand)3 and the New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of argumentative essay on school later time Ethics4 set minimum standards in the respective regulatory jurisdictions that nurses are expected to characteristics good uphold both within and outside of curious researcher guide research papers professional domains in order to ensure the ‘good standing’ of the profession in Australia and what characteristics of a essay test New Zealand. These two sets of companion Codes, together with other published practice standards (e. g. ompetency standards, decision making frameworks, direction and delegation guidelines and position statements) provide a framework for legally and professionally accountable and responsible nursing practice in all clinical, management, education and research domains, in Australia and New Zealand. These guidelines are designed to be read in conjunction with the christianity above Codes and what are the characteristics good essay test provide more detailed guidance and discussion in relation to the sometimes challenging area of managing professional boundaries; that is, identifying and differentiating theboundaries between professional relationships and personal relationships. Essay Writing School. Page 2 A Nurse’s Guide to Professional Boundaries Essay. In doing so, these guidelines aim to protect the community by helping to prevent distress, confusion, harm or abuse of people being cared for by nurses. It is intended this resource will stimulate reflection, stimulate discussion and guide decision making in allaspects of the relationship that is established when care is what are the characteristics of a good essay, provided by nurses to people in learning strategy the course of their professional role, in good essay all practice settings. Curious Research. FRAMEWORK PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Companion documents to these guidelines include a more detailed background discussion paper that includes further information on what are the characteristics of a good test, professional boundaries including references for the material used in these guidelines; and stories and scenarios that give examples of christianity a religion essay situations highlighting potential and real professional relationship and boundaries dilemmas for nurses. For nurses who also practise as midwives a separate but consistent set of guidelines has been developed for midwives to complement the equivalent codes of professional onduct and ethics for midwives in New Zealand and Australia. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK iv A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 1 What are professional boundaries? A nurse enters a therapeutic relationship with skills and knowledge that include a great deal of personal information about the individual in what are the characteristics of a good test their care; and the authority to provide the care required by what are the characteristics the individual. The community trusts that nurses will act in the best interest of what characteristics essay those in their care and that the nurse will base that care on an assessment of the individual’s specific needs.

The power imbalance present in a professional relationship places the research strategy recipients of care in a position of vulnerability and of potential exposure to what characteristics of a essay exploitation or abuse if that trust is not respected. Nurses have a responsibility to ensure that a relationship based on plans and goals that are therapeutic in intent and outcome is maintained. This means that it is the responsibility of the what are the characteristics essay test nurse to maintain their professional and personal boundaries, as well as assisting colleagues and the people in their care, in maintaining theirs. Professional boundaries in characteristics of a nursing are defined as limits which protect the space between the professional’s power and the client’s vulnerability;5 that is they are the borders that mark the edges between a professional, therapeutic relationship and a non-professional or personal relationship between a nurse and a person in their care. When a nurse crosses a boundary, they are generally behaving in an unprofessional manner and misusing the power in the relationship. 6 In order to manage these professional boundaries we need to appreciate that: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK An inherent power imbalance exists within the relationship between people receiving care and nurses that make the persons in their care vulnerable and open to exploitation.

Nurses actively preserve the dignity of people through practiced kindness and respect for the vulnerability and powerlessness of people in essay their care… This vulnerability creates a power differential in the relationship between nurses and are the characteristics of a essay persons in their care that must be recognised and managed. 7 A diagram representing a continuum of curious researcher writing papers professional behaviour provides a picture of therapeutic versus non-therapeutic behaviour in what are the characteristics the relationship between the nurse and the persons in their care. For Medical School. 8 A CONTINUUM OF PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOR. DISINTERESTED NEGLECTFUL under involvement THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP zone of helpfulness BOUNDARY VIOLATIONS over involvement Every nurse-client relationship can be plotted on the continuum of professional behaviour Adapted from: National Council of what are the of a essay test State Boards of Nursing (2004) The ‘zone of helpfulness’ describes the centre of school a continuum of professional behaviour. This zone is where the majority of interactions between a nurse and a person in their care should occur for effectiveness and the safety of that person. Over involvement’ of a nurse with a person in their care is to the right side of the continuum; this includes boundary crossings, boundary violations and what are the characteristics of a sexual assault and inappropriate relationships with the partner or family of a person in the nurses care. ‘Under involvement’ lies to the left side of the continuum; this includes distancing, disinterest, coldness and neglect. This is also likely to be detrimental to the person in the nurse’s care. Whilst these behaviours can be seen also as boundary issues, in regulatory terms, these behaviours tend to be reported to and dealt with by Nursing and Midwifery Regulatory PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Authorities as professional misconduct issues. For this reason they are not discussed here in characteristics of a good detail as the focus of the document is on the over-involvement end of the continuum.

There are no definite lines separating the zone of helpfulness from the ends of the continuum; instead it is a gradual transition with ‘fuzzy’ edges. Context refers to the environment in which nursing is practised, and which in turn influences that practice. It includes: » » » » the characteristics of the consumer (including their cultural background) and the complexity of care required by them; the what characteristics of a good model of care, type of service or health facility and physical setting; the amount of clinical support and/or supervision that is available; and the resources that are available, including the staff skill mix and level of access to distance learning courses other health care professionals. 10. Nurses must always obtain informed consent from persons in their care prior to undertaking any therapeutic, professional interaction. 2 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 3 Professional boundaries at the over involvement end of the continuum11 Professional boundaries separate the therapeutic behavior of the nurse from are the of a good any behavior, well intentioned or not, that could lessen the benefit of care to people, families and communities. Essay Writing For Medical School. Boundaries give each person a sense of legitimate control in a relationship. Professional boundaries are the limits to characteristics good essay the relationship of a nurse and a person in their care which allow for a safe, therapeutic connection between the nurse and that person (and their nominated partners, family and friends).

The power of the nurse comes from the professional position and their access to private knowledge about the person in their care. Paper. Establishing boundaries allows the are the of a good nurse to manage this power differential and allows a safe connection to meet the a religion essay person’s needs. Professional relationships exist only for the purpose of meeting the needs of the person in a nurse’s care. Boundary crossings are brief excursions across boundaries that may be inadvertent, thoughtless or even purposeful if done to meet a special therapeutic/care need. Boundary crossings can result in a return to established boundaries but should be evaluated by the nurse for potential consequences and implications to the person who is or has been in their care.

Repeated boundary crossings should be avoided. Boundary violations can result when nurses confuse their needs with the what are the characteristics of a good needs of the person in their care. Such violations are characterised by writing excessive personal disclosure by the nurse, secrecy or even a reversal of roles. Boundary violations can cause distress for the person who is or has been in the care of the nurse. Characteristics Good Test. This may not be recognised or felt by them until an what are the of a essay test, event or other harmful consequences occur, which can be much later. Sexual misconduct is an extreme form of boundary PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK violation and includes any behaviour that is seductive, sexually demeaning, harassing or reasonably interpreted as sexual by the person who is in what characteristics test a therapeutic relationship with a nurse. Sexual misconduct is sexual assault. Sexual misconduct by a nurse is an extremely serious violation of the nurse’s professional responsibility to the person in their care. What Are The. Even if the person (or their legal representative) consents, or the person initiates the sexual conduct it is still the nurse’s responsibility to maintain the professional boundary in the relationship.

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 4 OVER INVOLVEMENT A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 5 Guiding principles for safe, professional practice12. CONTEXT THERAPEUTIC CARE RELATIONSHIPS 10. The priority for nurses is planning care around meeting the therapeutic and care needs of persons entrusted to their care. 11. Nurses do not withhold care from a person as a punishment and recognise that any intent to cause pain or suffering as a retaliatory action in response to the behaviour of a person in their care is what essay, improper and unprofessional. 12. Nurses reflect on argumentative on school at a time, their own needs, behaviours, values and attitudes and beliefs and are conscious of their potential impact in are the of a essay test therapeutic and professional relationships with people in their care. 13.

Nurses are aware of the inherent power imbalance in therapeutic and care relationships, knowing that coercing a person’s compliance may be an abuse of christianity a religion essay power. 14. Nurses are aware of and have the ability to validate the therapeutic or care purpose of what are the characteristics of a good their actions; and take into a religion, consideration the person’s preferences and responses to those actions. What Characteristics Of A Good Essay Test. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 15. Nurses are aware of the potential for personal discomfort for both the person receiving care and courses themselves when care involves touching, holding, other personal contact or invasion of personal space; and respond appropriately.

DUAL RELATIONSHIPS BOUNDARIES 1. Care is optimised when nurses and persons receiving care do not engage in are the good dual relationships, for example where the nurse has a personal or business relationship, as well as a professional one with that person. Where dual relationships in therapeutic care situations are unavoidable nurses are aware of the potential for harm and take all steps to minimise the courses risks. Nurses establish and maintain the boundaries in their professional relationships with persons receiving care; and where necessary communicate these to that person. Nurses recognise variables such as the essay care setting, community influences, the needs of the person and the nature of care or therapy they require affect the curious researcher writing research delineation of boundaries and are the essay test respond accordingly. Nurses understand the complexities if personal relationships develop once professional relationships end as the person may need additional carePRACTICE making it difficult PROFESSIONAL and services; FRAMEWORK to learning courses determine when the professional relationship is truly terminated. Nurses examine any boundary crossing, and are aware of the potential implications, avoiding repeated crossings.

Nurses seek support and characteristics good guidance from professional leaders when they have concerns relating to boundaries in therapeutic relationships. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. On School At A Later Time. ACCESS TO OR THE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION 8. What Are The Essay. Nurses treat personal information obtained in a professional capacity as confidential; and do not use confidential information or their position of power to essay on school at a advantage themselves in any way. Nurses carefully consider their motives for disclosing personal information. Self-disclosure is limited to revealing information that has therapeutic or care value and only occurs within an established therapeutic or care relationship. GIFTS, SERVICES FINANCIAL RELATIONS gt; Nurses recognise that involvement in financial transactions (other than in a contract for the provision of services) and the receipt of anything other than ‘token gifts’ within professional relationships with persons in their care is of a test, likely to compromise the for medical professional relationship. 9. 6 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is what of a essay test, a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 7 Decision making tool—professional boundaries13. Grouping Learning. CONTEXT PROPOSED BEHAVIOUR OR ACTIVITY YES Is the behaviour or activity consistent with the Codes of professional conduct and ethics for nurses in Australia New Zealand? QUESTIONS FOR REFLECTION gt; Is the nurse doing something the person needs to learn to do themselves? Whose needs are being met—the person’s requiring care or the nurse’s?

Will performing this activity cause confusion regarding the nurse’s role? Is the behaviour such that the nurse will feel comfortable in what good essay test their colleagues knowing they had engaged in this activity, behaved in essay school this way with a person in what are the characteristics essay test their care? NO. ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR gt; YES Does the behaviour or activity meet a clearly identified therapeutic need for the person requiring or receiving care? Is it part of their care plan? Is it in the person’s best interests? gt; NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR gt; YES Is the behaviour or activity within the grouping paper research strategy scope of characteristics essay practice of the nurse; and, in keeping with contemporary competency and practice standards? NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Does the essay on school starting later time organisation have a policy in relation to the behaviour or activity? Can other/external resources be used to meet the need? How does the what are the characteristics of a good context affect the carrying out of this activity eg setting, dual relationship? PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES Are you competent to perform this activity?

Do you understand your level of accountability in performing this activity? NO Discuss with a more senior colleague NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES PROCEED WITH THE BEHAVIOUR/ACTIVITY DOCUMENT COMPREHENSIVELY YES 8 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is learning paper, a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to what good test professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework Q A—professional boundaries14 How can a nurse identify a potential boundary violation? Some behavioural indicators can alert nurses to potential boundary issues, for at a which there may be reasonable explanations. However, nurses who display one or more of the following behaviours should examine their professional relationships for possible boundary crossings or violations. Excessive self? disclosure—The nurse discusses personal problems, feelings of sexual attraction or aspects of his or her intimate or personal life with a person in their care. Secretive behaviour—The nurse keeps secrets with the person receiving care and/or becomes guarded or defensive when someone questions their interaction. ‘Super nurse’ behaviour—The nurse believes that they are immune from fostering a non-therapeutic relationship and good that only they understand and can meet the person’s needs.

Singled? out christianity a religion, treatment or person paying attention to of a good the nurse—The nurse spends inappropriate amounts of time with a particular person in their care, visits the person when off-duty or swaps roster allocations to be with the person. Argumentative On School Starting At A Later Time. This form of are the characteristics good treatment may also be reversed, with the person paying special or inappropriate attention to the nurse. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Selective communication—The nurse fails to explain actions and aspects of care to colleagues, reports only some aspects of the behaviour of the argumentative essay at a later time person in their care or gives ‘double messages’. What Characteristics Good. In the essay at a later time reverse, the person receiving care returns repeatedly to the nurse, reasoning why they cannot approach other nursing staff e. g. they are ‘too busy’ Flirtations—The nurse communicates in are the characteristics good essay a flirtatious manner, perhaps employing sexual innuendo, off-colour jokes or offensive language. You and me against the world’ behaviour—The nurse views the distance courses person in their care in a protective manner, tends not to accept the relationship with the person as only a professional relationship or sides with the person’s position regardless of that position and what essay test its implications. Christianity Essay. Sexual misconduct/assault—The nurse fails to recognise the what are the characteristics of a good development of an attraction of good test a sexual nature for of a good the person receiving care or between themselves and essay school the person in their care. What are some of the nursing practice implications of professional boundaries? Nurses need to practice in a manner consistent with the Codes of professional conduct and ethics for nurses in are the essay Australia and New Zealand and other relevant professional standards. Nurses should be knowledgeable regarding professional boundaries and work to establish and grouping learning strategy maintain those boundaries. Nurses should examine any boundary-crossing behaviour and seek assistance and counsel from their colleagues and characteristics good essay supervisors when such crossings occur.

What if a nurse lives in a small community? Does this mean that they cannot interact with neighbours or friends? Variables such as the care setting, community influences, client needs, nature of the therapy provided, age of the at a later time client and degree of involvement affect the delineation of behavioural limits. All of these factors must be considered when establishing boundaries; and all contribute to the complexity of professional boundaries. The difference between a caring relationship and an over-involved relationship is narrow.

A professional living and working in a remote community will, out of necessity, have business and social relationships with people to what are the essay whom they are providing care. Setting appropriate standards is very difficult. If they do not relate to real life, these standards may be ignored by the nurse or simply may not work. However, the characteristics test PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK absence of consideration of what characteristics good essay professional boundaries places person receiving care and the nurse at risk. What should a nurse do if confronted with possible boundary violations or sexual misconduct in a colleague? The safety of people requiring or receiving care must be the first priority. Essay For Medical School. The nurse needs to what are the characteristics be prepared to deal with violations by any member of the health care team. If a person’s behaviour is ambiguous, or if the nurse is unsure of how to interpret a situation, the grouping learning nurse should consult with a trusted supervisor or colleague. Incidents should be thoroughly documented in a timely manner. Nurses should be familiar with reporting requirements, as well as the grounds for discipline under the health professional regulatory scheme, and they are expected to comply with the legal and ethical mandates for reporting.

10 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework. A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 11 What if a person in their care offers a nurse, for are the essay test example, bus fare or meal tickets? There are two issues here. Firstly the nurse may have been inappropriately disclosing personal information about their private circumstances while providing care to the person which is inconsistent with the professional conduct of a nurse. Secondly, the acceptance by a nurse of money or goods from a person in their care is inappropriate in all circumstances. What Are The Characteristics Good. Acceptable Gifts Where nurses work in organisations, consideration should be given to what of a good essay test the development of policy in relation to gifts. Individual organisational policy should decide the value at which items need to be officially declared. Gifts such as chocolates or flowers are generally acceptable. The process of declaring gifts received prompts nurses to consider the issue of gifts and professional conduct and acts as a stimulus to learning paper discussion around what is appropriate and what is not. References 1 Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia, Canberra.

Available at: www. anmc. org. au. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, Australian Nursing Federation, Royal College of are the characteristics of a essay Nursing Australia (2008) Code of Ethics for Nurses in Australia, Canberra. Available at: www. Christianity A Religion Essay. anmc. org. What Are The Characteristics. au. Nursing Council of New Zealand (2008) Code of conduct for nurses, Wellington. Available at: http://www. On School Starting At A. nursingcouncil. Are The Characteristics Of A Good Essay Test. org. nz/ code%20of%20conduct%20March%202008. pdf. New Zealand Nurses Organisation (2001) New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of learning Ethics, Wellington. Peterson M (1992) At Personal Risk: Boundary violations in professional? client relationships, WW Norton Co, New York. College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia (2006) Nurse?

Client Relationships, Pub No 406, Vancouver, 6. Available at: www. crnbc. ca. Conduct Statement 8, Explanation 1—Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in what of a test Australia. College Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta (2005) PROFESSIONAL Discussion Guide and Teaching Tool, Professional Boundaries: A PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Edmonton, September, 2. Writing For Medical School. Available at: www. nurses. ab. ca. National Council of State Boards of essay test Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 4. Available at: www. ncsbn. org. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 9 10 Adapted from Adapted from: ANMC (2007) A national framework for curious researcher guide writing research papers the development of decision—making tools for nursing and midwifery practice. 11 Adapted from National Council of what characteristics State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 3. Available at: www. ncsbn. org. 12 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the distance courses ANMC Professional Practice Framework.

A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 13 12 Nursing Council of New Zealand (2008) Code of conduct for nurses, Wellington; New Zealand Nurses Organisation (2001) New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of Ethics, Wellington; Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia Canberra; Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, Australian Nursing Federation, Royal College of Nursing Australia (2008) Code of Ethics for Nurses in Australia, Canberra. What Are The Characteristics Of A Test. Both available at: www. anmc. Essay On School Starting Time. org. au; The University of Newcastle (2007) A Project Report on the Development of ANMC Guidelines on Professional Boundaries for Nurses ; and characteristics Draft National Guidelines on Professional Boundaries for Nurses , October; and National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of argumentative essay on school starting appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 4. Are The Characteristics. Available at: www. ncsbn. Christianity Essay. org. 3 Adapted from: ANMC (2007) A national framework for the development of decision? making tools for nursing and midwifery practice; College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia (2002) Guidelines for Nurse? Client Relationships, Halifax, 5; College of are the characteristics good essay Nurses Ontario (2006) Practice Standard: Therapeutic Nurse? Client Relationship, Toronto, 11. 14 Adapted from National Council of State Boards of essay on school starting at a later time Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 6–9. Available at: www. ncsbn. org.

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 14 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is of a good, a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 15 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 16 A nurse’s guide to essay for medical school professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework.

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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is are the characteristics essay, industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the learning strategy interests of characteristics good, participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. Distance Learning! In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the what are the of a current ISR literature does not address, and christianity a religion essay draws implications for the future theory and what characteristics good essay practice of ISR.

Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from distance learning courses, food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at are the good test, lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and essay writing for medical expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and are the characteristics of a Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the writing school natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the characteristics of a good problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. Curious Researcher Research Papers! 2012 ). Of A Essay! Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in argumentative on school later time, Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. Are The Of A Good! However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to learn from are the essay, each other and to reflect on are the characteristics of a good essay test, their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Characteristics Of A Good Test! Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.

This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and characteristics good test performance of ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of distance, ISR. Explaining how and characteristics why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of what are the of a essay test, ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. What Are The Of A Good Essay Test! However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in christianity essay, this largely descriptive management theory. If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval.

While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of are the characteristics, ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is are the characteristics of a, most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and what characteristics test blind spots on distance learning courses, the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on are the characteristics good test, ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an learning research, industry-level, as opposed to of a essay, a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and christianity a religion enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of are the characteristics essay test, firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and curious researcher guide writing papers critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in what are the characteristics of a, this section. Curious Research Papers! The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.

Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. Characteristics Of A Essay! 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the curious researcher writing papers evolution of decisions on what of a good essay test, harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in learning courses, creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions.

ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and are the of a good essay national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about curious guide writing research papers control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on what are the characteristics good essay test, the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and grouping learning partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to control social representations” (p. 1037). What Characteristics Of A Essay Test! Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of characteristics of a essay, ISR, emphasizing the good power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and distance the capacity and/or willingness of governments to what of a good, adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation.

Management theorists from researcher research papers, all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of what characteristics essay, ISR. Writing Research Papers! However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is what are the characteristics of a good essay, a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Christianity! Focusing on legitimacy reveals the what are the of a good essay extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to christianity a religion essay, social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of what are the characteristics test, legitimacy. Distance! Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the are the good approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and christianity a religion essay actions (e.g.

Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Are The Characteristics Of A Essay! Pragmatic legitimacy is learning courses, based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is what are the characteristics of a test, a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on essay test, taken-for-grantedness. However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and of a good test shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on distance learning courses, pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and are the characteristics essay Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an on school at a, analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on are the characteristics good essay test, when ISR is an are the characteristics test, appropriate form of what of a good test, governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to writing research, provide a foundation for further analysis.

The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the of a good essay ability to respond to curious researcher guide writing papers, social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and of a good test Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.

2007 ; Gereffi et al. Learning Courses! 2001 ; Moog et al. What Are The Essay Test! 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from curious guide research papers, other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. What Are The Characteristics Of A Essay Test! 2005 ; Aravind and learning Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of what are the good essay, members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.

(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about grouping research strategy social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. Are The Characteristics Of A Essay Test! 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.

Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by writing, individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of characteristics test, benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the distance courses US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in are the of a, 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Writing Papers! Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Are The Characteristics Test! Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to essay for medical school, maintain control not only what of a test, of the governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. 2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in paper, replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to what good test, maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and argumentative essay starting at a Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Are The! Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to research, which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and what good test Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to essay writing for medical school, be performing social responsibility (Fuller and of a essay test Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on the number of christianity a religion essay, others who have already adopted.

Evidence on ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of are the characteristics good essay, adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and argumentative time Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the are the of a essay test collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of essay, participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to what characteristics of a test, adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in writing papers, a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the what good test authority to what essay, govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of what characteristics good essay test, high-status political actors in encouraging others to curious papers, participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and are the of a increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and distance auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.

ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Characteristics Good Essay Test! Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and distance Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.

ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of are the test, strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning. Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and essay writing for medical so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of what are the characteristics essay test, ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in essay writing for medical school, the context of normative disapproval.

ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the what are the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the distance learning organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in are the essay test, the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in grouping learning research strategy, management theory. What! Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of christianity, norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.

The next section develops this by applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to what are the of a, the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to learning research strategy, do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). Characteristics Of A Good Test! It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Argumentative On School At A Time! Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to are the characteristics of a good test, a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural.

Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for essay the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.

2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.

Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and what are the characteristics good norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on distance learning, the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from are the characteristics of a test, a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.

2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of ISR schemes is mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for are the characteristics of a good essay responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and what are the of a essay test ISO 14001 (Prakash and essay on school starting at a Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in are the characteristics of a essay, the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and research papers Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and what characteristics good essay Finger 2013 ). The consequences of christianity essay, ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on what characteristics test, ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to of a good essay, what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by what good essay test, examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and essay starting at a Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in what are the essay, the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Essay For Medical School! Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the of a test details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to evaluate the consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and grouping learning paper strategy Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and are the characteristics good essay measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the christianity a religion longer-term field reconfiguration as an are the characteristics of a good essay test, ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.

2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Guide Research! Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is what essay, so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to a religion essay, instead rely on what of a essay, evaluating the design of the schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the essay extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the characteristics good test absence of essay starting at a later, unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the characteristics good essay organization is making a good-faith effort to achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the researcher guide procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and characteristics essay processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. On School Starting! Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and of a good test Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.

ISR regimes vary along any of learning research strategy, several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to what of a, ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and christianity free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). What Characteristics! In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by essay on school starting at a time, ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and are the Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and argumentative starting time Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.

2015 ) and the potential for ISR to are the characteristics, pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of writing, procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and what are the characteristics of a good essay more about the learning paper research strategy structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is what of a essay test, based on grouping, displays that the organizational form is what of a good essay, appropriate.

However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to essay writing for medical, do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the what characteristics essay test fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field.

Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to learning courses, signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. What Of A Essay! 2012 ). What Characteristics Of A Good Test! Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the what are the of a essay different traditions examine the research same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by focusing on what characteristics essay, the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on distance learning courses, procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p.

61). In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in what of a good test, Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to researcher guide writing research papers, take steps to characteristics of a good essay, regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of distance, conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to are the characteristics essay test, communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the distance courses bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.

Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the are the characteristics of a test long-term, indirect and social consequences of christianity, ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. What Characteristics Good Essay Test! 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately.

However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the what characteristics of a test same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and what characteristics of a good essay test learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.

For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to guide writing, do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on what are the test, strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of distance courses, ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in characteristics good essay, firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the for medical flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for are the characteristics essay example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to curious researcher writing research papers, respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders. What Are The Good Essay! This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the learning lowest acceptable tier of are the characteristics good, LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and a religion essay Muthulingam 2007 ).

The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is are the essay test, a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). Curious Researcher Guide! This lack of what are the of a good essay, effectiveness is at christianity essay, least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the what are the characteristics test co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to essay writing for medical school, implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Characteristics Of A Essay! Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and learning paper practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into practice and what of a good essay test whether it is the essay writing for medical right organization for what essay the job.

Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Achieving certification is intended to courses, help firms stand out from characteristics good test, their competition and provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the distance learning way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. Are The Characteristics Of A Essay Test! To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and of a communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.

Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to are the characteristics good test, reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012. Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to protect its environmental reputation the argumentative on school at a later firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Are The Of A Good Essay Test! Certification schemes such as this illustrate the argumentative essay at a time tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and what are the of a good the moral legitimacy of what are the, consequential changes in behaviours and what are the characteristics essay performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from paper research, institutional pressures by following the example of dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by of a good test, the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.

In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to essay, spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in are the characteristics of a essay test, health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents. Test! ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of what of a essay, interests and each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on distance learning, whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Are The Characteristics Of A Test! Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and essay writing industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the characteristics essay test development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the learning paper strategy FSC and SFI. Are The Characteristics Of A Essay! Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from a religion, environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. Are The Characteristics Test! 2008 ). Writing! Both the what are the of a essay test FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at researcher guide writing, the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of what are the characteristics of a, FSC (Cashore 2002 ). Characteristics Of A Good Essay Test! In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). What Are The Characteristics Of A Essay Test! The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to learning, take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.

Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into what good essay test other US industries when the characteristics good USGBC controversially decided to characteristics good, award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in argumentative on school starting at a time, their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for what characteristics SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and curious guide papers the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and what are the characteristics of a good essay their immediate audiences.

ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to a religion, change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to what are the characteristics, learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in learning research strategy, apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the are the characteristics of a test potential of learning through sharing best practices and essay for medical capability-building in what are the characteristics of a essay test, ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and learn from the voices of strategy, traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and are the characteristics good essay test has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for learning depends on what is learned and shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.

The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and courses Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. Essay Test! However, in most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to curious researcher papers, new members on of a good essay, reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to curious researcher guide writing papers, improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the what characteristics good test BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to distance learning courses, empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about what characteristics of a essay facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in a religion, the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the what are the characteristics test learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and argumentative later time Armengou 2015 ). Characteristics Good Essay Test! However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and paper how they are learning from ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the what essay bases of pragmatic legitimacy in essay, turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to what essay, explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.

Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the a religion balance of are the characteristics of a good essay, evidence considered here seriously questions the courses consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is even the case in good test, performance-based ISR schemes such as the essay writing for medical USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of are the characteristics of a good essay test, certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an grouping learning paper, industry-led scheme is the right form of are the characteristics test, organization to address a social challenge.

However, increased structural legitimacy from writing school, reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the of a good essay structural conditions of ISR schemes and curious guide research their outcomes. Finally, for characteristics of a good essay test ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the grouping research positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in what characteristics of a good essay test, the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.

The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and a religion Rees 1997 ). What Of A Test! However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the grouping research pragmatic legitimacy of are the characteristics, gaining a social licence to essay for medical, operate from what characteristics, a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and what are the characteristics Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. What Are The Of A Good Essay Test! It derives an grouping learning paper research strategy, integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is what are the characteristics good essay test, a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Strategic, institutional and christianity a religion critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR.

Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the good essay normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is argumentative essay on school, most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an what, integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of christianity essay, moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of are the characteristics of a good essay test, other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of what good essay test, industry (Baur and what are the characteristics good Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and distance courses Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context.

First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about good whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Researcher Research! Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of essay, ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of what characteristics good essay, how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in action.

It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and participate in are the characteristics test, governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and writing school performance of characteristics of a good essay test, ISR schemes, and courses a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Are The Characteristics Of A Good Essay! Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to curious researcher writing, evaluate the legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. What Are The Characteristics Of A Test! From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on writing for medical, the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and other interested stakeholders?

What are the direct and indirect outcomes over the short and good long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to courses, which the are the of a good test authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for are the characteristics essay test its social context and whether and how the form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in characteristics essay test, the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is christianity, that it is based on an analytic review of are the good, past research from a sprawling range of traditions and substantive policy domains. A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review.

By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the essay for medical replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in what of a, that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Writing! Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and are the essay their outcomes is particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the curious guide research papers very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over are the of a essay 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of distance learning courses, ISR used in this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.

Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on of a good test, the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and grouping paper research strategy even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and what essay moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on are the characteristics of a good essay test, legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in what are the good test, the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by christianity a religion essay, the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the what essay test terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. School of what are the characteristics essay test, Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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colorado essay facts Question for Discussion: Did the what good essay, United States. need to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. in order to end World War II? Decision to Drop the Bomb (web); U.S. Bombing.

Survey (web); Alperovitz More on Atomic Diplomacy Video: The Day after Trinity. The Impact of the christianity essay, Atomic Bomb on Japan. Documents Relating to the Development. of the Atomic Bomb and Its use on.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Deaths By The Atom Bomb Compared. To Other Deaths During World War II. The U.S. Decision to Drop the. Pro and Con Arguments on Dropping. the Atomic Bomb. The Decision to Drop the Bomb:

Deaths By The Atom Bomb Compared. To Other Deaths During World War II. American Military Leaders Urge. Truman not to drop the Bomb. Hiroshima: Who Disagreed with the. THE DECISION TO USE THE ATOMIC. BOMB GAR ALPEROVITZ AND THE. The Atomic Bomb and the Nuclear.

The U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study. 1. The Atomic Bombing of Japan. Documents Relating to the Development. of the Atomic Bomb and Its use on. Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Deaths By The Atom Bomb Compared.

To Other Deaths During World War II. 2. The U.S. Decision to what of a good drop the Bombs. World War II- Pacific Theater (42K) Pro and distance learning courses Con Arguments on Dropping. the Atomic Bomb.

Deaths By The Atom Bomb Compared. To Other Deaths During World War II. American Military Leaders Urge. Truman not to drop the Bomb. Critical Dates for Understanding. The real reason Truman dropped. 3. The Atomic Bomb and the Cold War. The U.S. What Of A Essay? Nuclear Weapons Cost Study.

Sixteen Nuclear Crises of the Cold War: Dates and argumentative essay on school starting at a later Weapons. 1. Do you accept Stimson's argument that after spending. so much money producing an atomic bomb that it was. necessary to use it in are the of a good test order to justify all the money spent. 2. Do you accept Stimson's argument that dropping the atomic bomb prevented an for medical American invasion of Japan? 3. If Truman had already concluded that Japan was ready. to surrender, why did he decide to drop the atomic bomb. 4. What do you think Stimson meant when he wrote in his diary that the what characteristics essay test, atomic bomb was the United States' master card in dealing, not just with Japan, but with the Soviet Union as well? 5. Why did Truman use the atomic bomb on Japan when he wrote in his diary that Japan would surrender as soon as. the Soviet Union entered the war?

Why didn't he wait for. the Soviets to enter the war? 6. Why did Truman tell the writing, American people that it was necessary to drop the atomic bomb on Japan to end the. war when many top military leaders such as Eisenhower, Leahy, and Bard told him that it wasn't necessary to. 7. Why didn't Truman allow the Japaneese to good essay make a conditional surrender, with the research, terms that they could keep their Emperor, knowing that this would have allowed the war to end in June 1945? 8. What did Secretary of characteristics essay test, State Byrnes mean when he. argued that rattling the bomb miht make Russia more. 9. Why if most American historians have concluded that it wasn't necessary to drop the atomic bomb on essay Japan in order to end the war do so many Americans continue to believe that dropping the are the characteristics of a, bomb ended the war? 10. What does it mean that the American military's own study, U.S.

Strategic Bombing Survey, in 1946 concluded that it wasn't necessary to drop the bomb on Japan is ignored by essay at a President Truman and other Americans who still insist that we were forced to drop the bomb? 11. Why are so many Americans so uncomfortable with the growing evidence that the United States didn't need to drop the bomb to end the are the characteristics of a test, war against learning strategy Japan? 12. What are the larger conclusions that Americans would. be forced to draw if they accepted this evidence that the.

U.S. didn't need to drop the bomb in order to force Japan. 1. What Are The Characteristics Good Test? Truman delays Potsdam meeting with the Soviets until he is informed that the atomic bomb was successfully tested. The atomic bomb exploded in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16th, and the Postdam meeting began on argumentative essay on school starting at a July 17th, 1945. 2. At Postdam, Truman gets the Soviets to agree to enter the war a week later than they had originally promised, moving the what characteristics test, date from August 8th to August 15th, 1945. 3. Distance? After Soviets agree to enter the war against Japan on August 15th, Truman then orders that the Atomic bombs be dropped on August 6th and 9th, 1945. 4. If Truman thought that the war would be over as soon as the are the characteristics good essay, Soviets entered the war against Japan, why did he drop the atomic bombs on Japan before the Soviets could enter the war on August 15th, 1945?

5. Recognizing that the United States had misled them, after the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6th, the Russians entered the war against Japan on August 9th. Argumentative On School Starting Later? After the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and the Russian entry into the war on August 9th, the Japanese surrendered on August 10th and the U.S. accepted their surrender on August 15th--the day the Russians were scheduled to enter the war against Japan. 6. In order to keep the Russians out of any peace settlement with Japan and prevent any Russian claims on Asia, the United States accepted the Japanese offer of conditional surrender on August 10th.The Japanese surrender wasn't an unconditional surrender, which President Truman had demanded of the Japanese since May 1945. 7. Had the what characteristics of a, United States allowed the Japanese to keep their emperor the Japanese would have surrendered much earlier, as early as June 1945 when the curious researcher research, Japanese offered a conditional surrender through Russian and Italian intermediaries. The Real Reason Truman dropped the Atomic Bomb.

Secretary of State James Byrnes wanted to use the atomic bomb to end the war before 'Moscow could in so much on of a good essay the kill.' Byrnes did not argue that is was necessary to use the bomb against the cities of the Japan in order to are the characteristics of a win the war. Byrnes's. view was that our possessing and demonstrating the bomb would make Russia more manageable. President Truman wanted to end the war before the what characteristics test, Russians could enter the war against Japan in Asia. Truman didn't want Russia to play a major role in determining the post-war peace in Asia. While at the Potsdam meeting, Truman National Security Advisor, James Byrnes advised Truman that a combat display of the weapon might be used to bully Russia into submission, and the the bomb might well put us in a position to dictate our own terms at the end of the war. Or, consider a diary entry by Walter Brown, an assistant to Secretary of State Byrnes which clearly suggests Truman and Byrnes saw the bomb as a way to reduce Soviet political influence in Asia. Brown noted that Byrnes, whom Truman had designated his main adviser on the issue, was 'hoping for time, believing that after (the) atomic bomb Japan will surrender and Russia will not get in so much on the kill, thereby being in a position to press for claims in essay for medical school China'. In other words, to what are the good essay test ensure that the Americans had an advantage in the US-Soviet scramble to grab China, a quarter of a million Japanese, mostly women and children, had to die. When General Marshall dispatched Truman's order to drop the atomic bomb, Marshall already believed that Japan had lost the war.

Shortly before he died, Marshall told an interviewer that the what are the of a essay, atomic bomb had precipitated the surrender only by what characteristics good essay months. First let's go to the Pro and Con Arguments on Dropping the Atomic Bomb site on the internet. There you will find competing perspectives on whether the United States needed to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. Notice that the arguments for dropping the bomb on Japan focus on saving American lives in the event of an invasion of Japan, quickly ending the war, and preventing the Soviets from learning courses, playing a major role in the post-war peace settlement with Japan. However, one of the major arguments against using the bomb was to intimidate the Soviets in a game of are the essay, power politics between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. I will argue that, in fact, as one of the pro arguments for research strategy dropping the bomb states, the bomb's use impressed the Soviet Union and halted the war quickly enough that the USSR did not demand joint occupation of Japan. The conventional arguments for dropping the bomb--to prevent an invasion and to force Japan to surrender--are not the real reasons for dropping the atomic bomb on Japan. The truth is that President Truman made a conscious and calculated decision to test drop the atomic bomb on Japan in order to intimidate the Soviet Union and force the Russians to accept American leadership and domination of the essay for medical school, post-war world. Good Test? The larger unanswered question is why President Truman did not tell the American people the truth and instead fabricated a story about saving American lives and the bomb being necessary to force Japan to surrender.

Let's look at the conventional arguments used to support the guide research, atomic bombing of Japan that McGeorge Bundy restates in his essay, Danger and Survival. In order to understand McGeorge Bundy's position, we need to remember that he co-wrote an influential article with the Secretary of War Stimson in 1946 justifying the test, use of the atomic bomb. His current essay merely rehashes the points he made supporting dropping the atomic bomb in 1946. In fact, in researcher guide research papers 1946, President Truman encouraged Stimson to write a defense of his decision to drop the bomb. I believe that in his 1988 essay, McGeorge Bundy is once again defending the United States and his own role in dropping the bomb and justifying its use. Therefore, we must recognize that McGeorge Bundy's arguments are biased and used to justify and support his own role in what characteristics essay the United States' efforts to convince Americans and others that it had to use to bomb to essay at a time end the war against Japan. McGeorge Bundy argues that the what characteristics, President Truman and the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Japan in order to end the war and win a complete victory as fast as possible.

He argues that dropping the bomb saved hundreds of thousands of American lives that would have been lost if the United States was forced to invade Japan. McGeorge Bundy also argues that the atomic bomb was used just like any other weapon of essay, war; the U.S. military did not see the are the characteristics, atomic bomb as anything other than an instrument of war. In fact, he argues that there is little difference between the conventional destruction of learning paper research, Tokyo that killed 100,000 people caused by conventional American saturation bombing and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima which also killed 100,000 people. McGeorge Bundy argues that there was no real debate or critical discussion about not dropping the atomic bomb. He claims that the President's advisors and the American military were unanimous in are the of a good essay test their support for dropping the time, bomb. He concludes that the bomb was dropped in 1945 to shorten the war, and in what are the characteristics of a essay test that they succeeded. For McGeorge Bundy, as for many Americans since, there is little reason to question why the learning paper research, United States dropped the atomic bomb on Japan. But let's look at are the characteristics of a good essay test the mounting evidence that the conventional arguments supporting dropping the atomic bomb are misguided and disingenuous. Christianity A Religion Essay? In fact, as a result of recent work by American historians, the Smithsonian museum was prepared to open its exhibit on the Hiroshima bombing by carefully looking at both sides of the debate over characteristics essay, whether we should have dropped the bomb. But conservative politicians, numerous veteran groups, and other concerned Americans forced the Smithsonian to rework its planned exhibit to focus and highlight the arguments supporting dropping the bomb and discount the arguments against. Why after fifty years would Americans still be so emotionally and distance learning politically divided over of a good test, the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima?

I will argue that these divisions are the characteristics of a good test, result of the nagging suspicion that the United States government lied to the American people about the true reasons for dropping the bomb. Americans are forced to accept the what are the characteristics essay test, conventional arguments supporting dropping the bomb or admit that their President lied to what are the good test them about the real reasons for dropping the bomb. This creates a complex and difficult dilemma for many Americans. Let's now look at the growing and substantial evidence that the United States did not need to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in order to end the war. In 1946, the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey examined the evidence and concluded that that certainly prior to December 31, 1945, and in all probability prior to November 1, 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. In June 1945, the United States had intercepted Japanese cables to the Soviet Union seeking help with their offer of surrender.

In addition, American diplomats and negotiators in June 1945 told President Truman that the Japanese were seeking to surrender on one condition--that they be allowed to keep their emperor. But President Truman and the United States refused these initial Japanese offers, demanding that Japan surrender unconditionally and agree to give up their emperor. In June and July 1945 American planes, using saturation bombing, firebombed and destroyed 59 out of Japan's 66 largest cities, killing over one million people and leaving 20 million homeless. If American planes controlled the skies over Japan, why did we just continue to bomb Japanese cities with conventional bombs in order to force them to surrender? We now know that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were two of a small number of Japanese cities sparred from are the characteristics of a test, this saturation bombing in order to determine the effects of an atomic bomb on a city. Clearly, American bombing and the complete American naval blockade of Japan in the summer of learning strategy, 1945 was slowly strangling Japan. In June 1945, top American military commanders advised President Truman not to use the atomic bomb.

General Dwight Eisenhower, supreme commander of American forces in Europe, told Secretary of War Stimson that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary. In July 1945 Eisenhower met with Truman and are the characteristics of a good test advised him not to use the bomb. The chairman of the distance learning courses, joint chiefs of staff, Admiral Leahy, also advised Truman not to drop the atomic bomb, arguing that Japan was already defeated. Moreover, the Army Air Force Chief, General Henry Arnold, believed that Japan would have surrendered without the use of the are the good test, atomic bomb and without an American invasion of Japan. Writing Research? So when McGeorge Bundy and others argue that the what are the essay, military unanimously supported the dropping of the atomic bomb, he is simply wrong. As a result of President Truman's own argument that he dropped the bomb in order to distance courses avoid a costly American invasion of Japan, many Americans believe the what are the test, bomb was necessary because it saved American lives. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy in their 1946 article defending the dropping of the bomb argued that it prevented up to one million American casualties that would result from an grouping learning paper American invasion. But there is no military evidence that the casualties would be this high.

In fact, the highest military casualty figures for an American invasion of Japan are 46,000. What Good Test? But this is really beside the point. There is no real evidence that American leaders were seriously preparing an invasion of Japan. Our military leaders and diplomats were telling President Truman that they were ready to surrender. So why do American Presidents and other Americans continue to use this argument that the bomb prevented a costly American invasion? Let's now look at the real reason President Truman dropped the atomic bombs on essay Japan. In his own diaries as early as June 1945, Truman indicates that he knows that Japan is trying to surrender. In his July 1945 diary Truman writes that: Stalin will be in the Jap War on August 15th. Fini Japs when that comes about. In writing to his wife on July 18th, Truman said: I've gotten what I came for--Stalin goes to war on August 15th with no strings on it.

I'll say that we'll end the war a year sooner now, and think of the kids who won't be killed. But if Truman realized that the what are the characteristics good, Japanese would surrender soon after the Russians entered the war, why did he drop the atomic bombs about one week before the Russians declared war against Japan? If he wanted to end the war quickly and save lives as he said he did, why didn't he simply wait for the Russians to grouping research enter the fighting against Japan on good test August 15th? This is the christianity essay, critical question to ask in order to understand the real reasons the United States dropped the atomic bombs on Japan. In July 1945, Truman delayed the Potsdam meetings between himself, Churchill, and Stalin until he heard whether the essay, atomic bomb worked. Being informed of the successful test at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16th, Truman agreed to allow the Potsdam meetings to learning begin on July 17th. During his meeting with Stalin, Truman got the Russians to delay their entry into the war against Japan a week; they agreed to what characteristics enter the fight against Japan on August 15th and not on August 8th has they had originally agreed to. Curious Research? After Truman got the are the of a good essay test, Russians to delay their entry into the war, he then gave the order to drop the distance courses, atomic bombs in the weeks before the what are the good essay, Russian entry into the war. But why did he do this, knowing that the Japanese were already defeated and that Russian entry would force the Japanese to a religion essay accept an what characteristics good test unconditional surrender? Clearly, President Truman wanted to quickly force the Japanese to accept an American unconditional surrender before the Russians could get involved in the war and demand a role in the post-war peace in a religion essay Asia.

Recognizing that the United States had misled them, after the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6th, the what are the characteristics of a essay test, Russians entered the war against Japan on August 9th. After the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and the Russian entry into the war on August 9th, the Japanese surrendered on christianity August 10th. In order to keep the Russians out of any peace settlement with Japan and prevent any Russian claims on Asia, the United States accepted the Japanese offer of conditional surrender on August 15th . The Japanese surrender wasn't an unconditional surrender, which President Truman had demanded of the Japanese since May 1945. The United States allowed the Japanese to keep their emperor, which if we had done in June 1945 the Japanese would have surrendered much earlier. What Essay Test? So why then did we drop the atomic bombs on Japan? To keep the Russians out curious writing papers, of the war against Japan and out of Asia.

When the atomic bombing didn't succeed in getting an unconditional surrender, the United States accepted a Japanese conditional surrender in order to keep the Russians out of the war. Truman explained his actions at the Potsdam conference this way: One of the what are the of a, main objectives of the Potsdam Conference was to essay get Russia in as quickly as we could and what are the characteristics good then to keep Russia out of Japan--and I did it. Truman's Secretary of State James Byrnes wanted to use the atomic bomb to end the war before Moscow could get in so much of the kill. Byrnes told Leo Szilard in May 1945 that rattling the bomb might make Russia more manageable. Courses? Truman himself refers to what the Russians would later call dangerous atomic diplomacy by describing his strategy for dealing with the Russians: He doesn't know it but I have an ace in the hole and what good essay test another one showing--so unless he has two pairs (and I know he has not) we are sitting all right. Guide Writing Research Papers? For Truman and Byrnes, dropping the atomic bomb on Japan would quickly force Japan to surrender on what are the of a good essay American terms before the Russians could get into starting at a later, the way and would also demonstrate to the Soviet Union that the United States had the will and the power to use the what are the characteristics of a essay test, atomic bomb against its enemies. Curious Writing Research Papers? So why didn't President Truman go to the American people and are the characteristics tell them the truth about why he dropped the atomic bombs?

After dropping the atomic bombs, President Truman and the United States immediately faced harsh criticism from Americans and argumentative on school starting later time Europeans, some who compared the American bombing with the German holocaust. Facing this criticism and worried about re-election, Truman lied to the American people about the real reasons the United States dropped the are the characteristics of a test, bomb. Instead of researcher research, telling the truth, Truman and other top American officials created a series of lies that have become the conventional arguments for dropping the bomb. McGeorge Bundy participated in the creation of these falsehoods in 1946, and are the characteristics good is still spreading these lies in his 1988 essay. Many would now ask why so many Americans still believe these lies despite the growing historical evidence that the United States did not need to drop the bomb in order to a religion defeat Japan.

In conclusion, the American atomic bombing of Japan was the are the characteristics, first act in a growing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. In order to win support for for medical American's involvement in the Cold War, President and top government officials often lied to the American people, feeling that Americans could not be trusted to understand and accept the what are the characteristics of a good, real reasons for American actions. The atomic bombing of essay on school starting at a later time, Japan is the first of many lies Presidents and American officials will tell the what characteristics of a good essay, American people. The larger question must be raised: What is the impact on American democracy of American leaders lying to the American people and no longer trusting them to support American Cold War policies. What Are The Characteristics Of A? Can America be a democracy when its government lies to what are the characteristics of a good the American people and prevents them from freely and openly debating American foreign and domestic policy? Can America be a democracy when its leaders no longer trust Americans to writing for medical make the rights decisions in order to support American global economic, political, and military dominance? These are the larger troubling questions raised as a result of the what are the, debate over the American atomic bombing of christianity a religion essay, Japan.

Rather than face the larger, disturbing truth that American Presidents have lied to them, many Americans continue to what are the test support these lies. If we didn't drop the atomic bomb to writing school save lives and force the Japanese to surrender, then why did we do it, and why did the President lie to the American people? These are dangerous and forbidden questions that the debate over the Smithsonian exhibit proves Americans are still unwilling to ask. Center of the American West. Sewall Academic Program; University of Colorado at of a good essay Boulder.

Created 7 August 2002: Last Modified: 21 Oct. 2002.