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Comparison contrast essay 7th grade

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Mamma Mia: A Feasibility Study of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Postpartum Depression and Enhance Subjective Well-Being. Currently, 10-15% of women giving birth suffer from comparison essay 7th grade, symptoms of postpartum depression. Due to a lack of knowledge of this condition and the stigma associated with it, as well as few treatment options, a large proportion of postpartum women with depression remain untreated. Internet-based interventions have been found effective in treating depression, anxiety, phobias, and addictions. Hence, we developed such program (#x0201c;Mamma Mia#x0201d;) with the dissertation pendant la guerre froide, aim of reducing the comparison 7th grade, risk for postpartum depression and enhance subjective well-being. Mamma Mia is based on positive psychology, metacognitive therapy, and essay on if were no rules and regulations in school, couples therapy. It starts in gestational week 22, and comparison, lasts until 6 months after birth. During pregnancy, Mamma Mia is delivered weekly (every Monday).

After birth, Mamma Mia is delivered three times per week for six weeks. The remaining weeks, the program is delivered more sporadically. Essay On If There In School! In total, Mamma Mia consists of 44 sessions. The program is individualized, interactive, and tunneled (ie, the user is guided through the program in a pre-determined manner). The purpose of the present study was to pilot test the contrast 7th grade, intervention in order to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users. The present paper reports a feasibility study that combined quantitative survey data with semi-structured interviews. Participants (N=103) were recruited via hospitals, well-baby clinics, and Facebook. Due to time constraint in completing the current study, our results were based on participation in one of the two phases: pregnancy or maternity.

Participants in the pregnancy phase were surveyed 4 and 8 weeks after intervention enrollment, and participants in the postnatal phase were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after intervention enrollment. The survey assessed perceived usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, and unobtrusiveness. All measures were filled in by participants at both measurement occasions. Data were analyzed by gatsby running descriptives and frequencies with corresponding percentages. Binomial tests were carried out to investigate whether demographics differed significantly from a 50/50 distribution. Paired sample t tests were used to contrast 7th grade examine differences between time 1 and 2. Four participants were interviewed in the qualitative follow-up study, where they were given the opportunity to address and elaborate on similar aspects as assessed in the survey. More than two-thirds of users found Mamma Mia to essay from night's dream be of high quality and would recommend Mamma Mia to contrast others.

By far, most also found the amount of information and frequency of the intervention schedule to be appropriate. Mamma Mia was perceived as a user-friendly and credible intervention. Overall, the user acceptance of Mamma Mia was good and our findings add to the feasibility of the program. The effect of Mamma Mia on siebel, depression and subjective well-being will be evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial, and if found to be effective, Mamma Mia could serve as a low-threshold prevention program. Postpartum Depression: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment. The postpartum period represents a vulnerable time, where the woman is at increased risk for mental disorders [1]. Studies typically report that 10%-15% of new mothers experience symptoms of comparison 7th grade severe emotional distress, frequently labelled postpartum depression (PPD) [2-4]. Postpartum depressive disorders vary in severity; ranging from the mildest kind seen in siebel postpartum blues to moderate or major depression, to the most severe cases known as postpartum psychosis [3]. While only 0.2% of new mothers experience postpartum psychosis, postpartum blues affect as many as 50%-80% of postpartum women and essay 7th grade, it is thus considered to be a fairly #x0201c;normal#x0201d; phenomenon.

Baby blues occurs during the first 7-10 days postpartum, and is assumed to arise due to hormonal reasons. Eventually, it wanes without treatment, especially with the support of family and friends and paragraphs w angel, with the reassurance of comparison essay health personnel that this reaction is quite normal [2]. The PPD falls under the category of sample resume siebel major depressive disorder found in the diagnostic manuals (DSM-IV-TR; ICD-10). According to the manuals [4,5], description, symptoms, course, and comparison contrast essay, outcomes of PPD are similar to major depressive disorder. The only difference is the time of compare and contrast to use its occurrence. The depression strikes in a woman#x02019;s life when she is expected to be as happy as can be, which obviously makes the experience of the depression particularly arduous. In order to comparison contrast 7th grade fulfill a diagnosis of PPD, one must experience a period of at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in almost all activities, as well as experiencing at essay words least four of the comparison 7th grade, following symptoms: change in appetite and weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts [4]. Factors that put women at elevated risk for PPD include a personal history of depression, family history of night's dream depression, negative life events, partner conflicts or low relationship satisfaction, low levels of social support, and certain baby characteristics [6,7].

The most common symptoms of PPD are tearfulness, feelings of comparison hopelessness, inadequacy, guilt, inability to cope with and feel joy over the arrival of new baby, agitation and anxiety, loss of appetite, poor concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, fatigue, social isolation, and suicidal ideation [8]. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays Custom! Women who suffer from PPD are less capable of carrying out comparison contrast 7th grade maternal duties, such as engaging in important developmental activities with the baby, like playing and and contrast to use, talking, which may influence the child#x02019;s cognitive, and socioemotional development [9], as well as the infant#x02019;s attachment style [10]. Men have an increased risk of depression when their partner is depressed [11], and children of depressed fathers are at increased risk of behavior problems [12]. Essay 7th Grade! Finally, many women risk experiencing less severe on-going symptoms long after the depression is considered over, and they are at risk for recurring depression [13]. The personal cost as well as the cost to society caused by PPD is large; thus, illustrating the pressing need for effective prevention and early intervention. According to dissertation sur l39europe pendant la guerre the National Institute for comparison 7th grade, Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines [14], effective treatment of depression is to essay the great provide immediate support and information, problem-solving, and self-help. Several studies have also found cognitive-behavioral therapy [15], cognitive treatments [16], and metacognitive therapy [17] to be effective. Contrast Essay! However, a large proportion of those who suffer from essay the great, PPD do not receive treatment, in part due to the stigma associated with the disorder as well as limited access to contrast essay 7th grade effective treatments [18].

Another important reason why PPD treatment may be hampered is the under recognition of PPD. The under recognition is not only due to the brief consultations with the medical health professionals, but is also due to the difficulty in distinguishing PPD symptoms from normal symptoms seen in new mothers, such as tiredness, change in pendant la guerre eating habits, difficulty with concentration and sleeping. New mothers also report to be unfamiliar with what constitute PPD symptoms, and do not know that they suffered from PPD until it was over. Comparison Essay! All these factors combined cause many people to suffer #x0201c;in silence#x02019;#x02019;. In sum, barriers to effective treatment including lack of resources and trained providers and social stigma associated with PPD [19] suggest a need for sample resume, innovative approaches to essay 7th grade public health prevention and promotion. Many Web-based interventions have been designed and documented to be effective in compare and contrast words to use treating various mental problems including depression [20], anxiety [21], and stress [22].

Studies document that people with these mental disorders greatly benefit from Web-based interventions [23,24] and that Web-based interventions represent a low threshold service with a high reach [25]. More recently, two studies found support for the feasibility and usability of Web-based interventions targeting PPD [26,27], but there exist no randomized trials testing the efficacy of PPD interventions. Web-based interventions have been found successful in reaching women of lower socio-economic status, a group typically found to be harder to reach [28]. Comparison Contrast! It is also noteworthy that young women (ie, women in childbearing age) are the ones who use Internet most frequently when it comes to acquiring health-related information [29]. A Web-based intervention can thus both prevent the development of depressive symptoms as well as reach out to the many people that suffer #x0201c;in silence#x02019;#x02019;, and it seems promising considering that many people prefer first line services (ie, local- and essay about the great gatsby, home-based services) rather than regional or specialist health care services. The Web-Based Intervention: Mamma Mia. Mamma Mia is an contrast, automated/unguided Web-based self-help intervention. The aim of custom Mamma Mia is threefold: (1) to prevent PPD, (2) to essay treat pregnant women/new mothers with mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression, and dissertation pendant la guerre, (3) enhance subjective well-being. Overall, Mamma Mia consists of 3 phases (see Table 1 ). The pregnancy phase starts in gestational week 22 and contrast essay 7th grade, ends in essay on puck from night's dream week 40 (estimated due date). The pregnancy phase consists of 16 sessions, which are delivered weekly.

The maternity phase starts when the infant is 1-2 weeks old and comparison, lasts for 6 weeks. This phase is the most intense phase as these weeks are considered to comprise the most vulnerable time period for about gatsby, the new mother. Sessions are delivered three times per week, which make up a total of 18 sessions. The final phase is the low-intensity maternity phase, which consists of 10 sessions over 18 weeks. These sessions are delivered with some variation (weekly at first, and then every other week). In total, Mamma Mia consists of comparison contrast essay 44 sessions over a period of 11 months. For each session, the user receives an on puck from a midsummer night's, email with a hyperlink. Contrast Essay 7th Grade! By activating the link, the user gains access to Mamma Mia and proceeds in a predetermined/tunneled sequence of Web pages (ie, the tunnel information architecture) [30]. In terms of delivery methods and the great, information architecture, Mamma Mia is similar to previous eHealth programs, and thus represents a well-tested approach to treatment [31-34]. The key components in Mamma Mia are (1) assessment of depressive symptoms, (2) metacognitive therapy, (3) positive psychology, (4) couples therapy, (5) breastfeeding, and (6) psychoeducation. These components are included because they are identified as important with regards to emotional distress during and shortly after pregnancy.

The same components (except for 5 and 6) are included in the partner version of the contrast essay 7th grade, program. The most common screening-tool for PPD is the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which assesses depressive symptoms during the last 7 days [35]. The program will monitor the participants#x02019; level of depressive symptoms over time (as measured by the EPDS). Depressive symptoms will be assessed on dissertation sur l39europe, three occasions during pregnancy and four times after birth. After each assessment, the participants will receive feedback based on their scores on the EPDS. Comparison Essay 7th Grade! The feedback is divided into#x000a0;three#x000a0;categories: (1) when there are no depressive symptoms, (2) when there are some depressive symptoms, and (3) when the score is essay about, indicative of severe depression. If the participant#x02019;s score suggest the presence of some/many depressive symptoms, the program will recommend the user to comparison contrast essay speak to someone they trust about how they are feeling, and if necessary, seek professional help (the program suggests where one can seek professional help). The participant will repeatedly through the program be reminded that this is just a self help program, and if they are experiencing symptoms of depression it is important to get help. To decrease the symptoms of depression, the EPDS-score is additionally used to tailor a therapeutic component that is based on metacognitive therapy. Metacognitive therapy [17] is essay on if there were in school, a recent development in understanding and treating mental health problems, which has been proven effective in treating depression [36].

The approach is based on a specific theory proposed by Wells and Matthews [37]. The theory contends that those aspects of cognition that control mental processes create and maintain emotional or mental health problems. Contrast 7th Grade! This mechanism leads to patterns of worry, rumination, threat monitoring, high conceptual activity, and counterproductive coping behaviors, and it is referred to as the pendant la guerre froide, cognitive attentional syndrome. In contrast to cognitive therapy, metacognitive therapy does not deal with the content of specific negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs (eg, #x0201c;I am worthless and incompetent#x0201d;). Rather, it deals with the process of how people arrive at and respond to 7th grade these negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs (eg, self-evaluation). Essay Gatsby! In other words, the product of the thinking process is not as important as the process itself. It is an inflexible and recurrent thinking style in response to comparison 7th grade negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs that causes problems and needs to be treated.

In consequence, a key aspect in metacognitive therapy is therefore to help people experience detached mindfulness, which is a disengaged and about gatsby, objective form of awareness in response to thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Comparison Contrast Essay! A state of detached mindfulness helps the person to separate the self from la guerre, her or his thoughts. Thus, the present program educates users about mindfulness exercises to reduce the functions of thoughts [38]. One such exercise is turning negative thoughts track, which is based on comparison essay, the acceptance and commitment therapy [39], and uses a combination of acceptance and mindfulness to help people distinguish themselves from la guerre, thoughts, feelings, sensations, and memories. Contrast Essay 7th Grade! Other concrete tasks that aim to enhance mindfulness include #x0201c;the body scanning#x0201d; exercise and #x0201c;the gong#x0201d; exercise. Both tasks are based on audiotapes that instruct the person to try to visualize and focus on either a sound (the gong) or a marble travelling up and down on one#x02019;s spine. Thoughts can come and go, one is about gatsby, only to register that they are there, not evaluate them.

Positive psychology revolves around all that is good in life, and aspects that give meaning and enhance life satisfaction. Concrete tasks aimed at enhancing positive emotions, engagement, and a sense of meaning/purpose has been developed [40]. Essay! The basic idea for essay to use, the different tasks is the assumption that the essay, effect of positive emotions extends beyond the immediate moment. Peterson and Seligman [41] argue that engaging in the tasks may enhance well-being, a sense of skill, efficiency, mastery, mental hygiene, as well as a person#x02019;s social network. That is, a person#x02019;s fundamental needs may be strengthened, which in dissertation la guerre turn may lower the risk of comparison contrast 7th grade mental disorders. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated that various #x0201c;happiness-tasks#x0201d; have not only enhanced a person#x02019;s sense of life satisfaction, but also reduced the prevalence of depression [42,43]. Froide! Seligman et al [44] argue that these studies suggest efforts aimed at contrast preventing/treating depression would benefit from including components based on and regulations, positive psychology. One of the crucial ingredients in comparison 7th grade the present program is exactly that. Tasks that aim to enhance or facilitate gratitude, socializing, doing acts of kindness, optimism, and get writing w angel, pleasant activities are included. The different tasks are described in some detail below.

The gratitude component involves assignments such as counting one#x02019;s blessings, writing down 3 good things that happened during the day, writing a letter of gratitude, and saying #x0201c;thank you#x0201d; more often than usual. In order to increase socialization and thus strengthen the social network, which in turn facilitates social support, one is encouraged to initiate social interaction with friends and relatives. Comparison! Assignments include calling a friend and inviting him/her out and sur l39europe pendant la guerre froide, mapping one#x02019;s social network. One is also advised on comparison contrast, how to get new friends, and strengthening existing relationships (eg, find out about a friend#x02019;s plan and follow-up the next week by asking how it went, or give compliments to a partner or friend). In terms of acts of kindness, one is encouraged to do acts of kindness to others, keeping track of such acts, and sur l39europe pendant la guerre, plan them ahead of time. Examples of kind acts are provided, while one is also encouraged to figure out such acts for oneself. The #x0201c;best possible self#x0201d; exercise is intended to increase optimism [45,46]. Here, the person is encouraged to envision scenarios of a future life in which many goals and dreams have been actualized and where much personal potential have been met. Assignments in the coming week will ask the person to contrast essay 7th grade elaborate on the scenarios, to recognize what one has already achieved that is in line with the best possible life scenario, challenge and essay about the great gatsby, turn around obstructive thoughts, and break major goals down into achievable sub-goals and milestones. The final positive psychology task is based on cognitive behavioral therapy [47], and 7th grade, is intended to facilitate the engagement in pleasant activities.

The program starts by prompting the person to compile a list of siebel activities that make her/him feel good. Comparison Contrast Essay! In the subsequent weeks, the person is asked to schedule one or more of these activities. She or he is also asked to determine a goal for one of the activities. By including such a goal, one is implicitly encouraged to sur l39europe pendant repeat the activity over time. A recent study suggests relationship dissatisfaction to contrast essay be the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy [48,49]. Hence, a unique component of the program is dedicated to enhancing communication between partners and facilitating healthy conflict resolution, which in turn is expected to improve relationship satisfaction. The couple#x02019;s therapy is mainly based on a course that has been evaluated as an online program [50]. The course is on if were no rules and regulations in school, based on cognitive behavior therapy. Five video clips are presented with the aim of enhancing communication skills, facilitating conflict resolution, and encouraging the expression of positive feelings toward each other.

Following each video clip, one is encouraged to make use of the techniques that have been introduced. An example of a task is to let one#x02019;s partner know when he or she made you feel appreciated; this task is intended to facilitate the expression of comparison contrast positive emotions between partners. Another task that targets healthy conflict resolution is #x0201c;the active listening#x0201d; task. This task requires that the partner that holds an sur l39europe pendant la guerre, object is the one talking. The other partner listens. When the person is finished talking, he or she gives the object to the other person and he/she repeats what was said. This task is intended to 7th grade encourage listening and to raise awareness in terms of how one typically and ideally communicates in a relationship.

Research suggests a relation between breastfeeding and sur l39europe la guerre froide, depressive symptoms [51-55]. Formative research done prior to the development of contrast Mamma Mia aimed to discover the on puck from a midsummer night's dream, topics that were most important with regards to well-being and depressive symptoms [56,57]. These studies confirmed that breastfeeding difficulties were strongly linked to comparison 7th grade depressive symptoms of postpartum. Hence, a component in siebel the program focuses on breastfeeding, both normalizing difficulties associated with it, providing useful advice and assistance, as well as informing of the optional use of comparison 7th grade substitute. Every session in compare the program includes information regarding topics such as emotional lability in pregnancy, changes and challenges in contrast the partner relationship, the importance of on if there no rules social support, the fetus and the infant#x02019;s development, birth etc. Short video clips are available to demonstrate and explain the infant#x02019;s state regulation system (sleep-wake cycles), and this information is integrated with issues related to the infant#x02019;s capacity to sleep and rest, soothability, interaction/communication etc. The intention is that the program will provide the comparison essay 7th grade, woman with relevant information adjusted to her own progress through pregnancy and after the child is born. Before disseminating Mamma Mia, we found it pertinent to investigate the feasibility of the program. Therefore, we pilot tested the intervention to observe how it is used and perceived by its users, and how this relates to the operation and future development of Mamma Mia. Consequently, the get writing, objectives with the present study were to (1) examine user acceptance of Mamma Mia, (2) examine how it was perceived among end-users, and (3) identify potential issues with use, acceptance, and comparison contrast 7th grade, program-specific needs that might provide added value to Mamma Mia and its operation and future development. Survey Design and Data Collection.

The present study combined quantitative survey data with semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users. Survey data were collected by means of Web-based questionnaires at two measurement points (T1 and T2). Due to time constraint in completing the current study, our results were based on participation in one of the essay were no rules and regulations in school, two phases: pregnancy or maternity. Comparison Contrast 7th Grade! Participants in the pregnancy phase were surveyed 4 and essay, 8 weeks after intervention enrollment, and contrast essay 7th grade, participants in essay the great gatsby the postnatal phase were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after intervention enrollment. Comparison Contrast 7th Grade! Furthermore, program usage was continuously monitored by means of log server registrations. Six items were rated on sur l39europe pendant froide, a scale from 1-7 in order to assess a person#x02019;s belief that using Mamma Mia is useful and helps increasing well-being [58]. Four items were rated on a scale from 1-7 to measure a person#x02019;s belief that using Mamma Mia is free of comparison contrast 7th grade effort [58]. Four items were rated on a scale from 1-7 to assess whether Mamma Mia is considered credible and trustworthy. User Satisfaction is measured in siebel terms of how users rate the overall quality and comparison 7th grade, satisfaction of the program, and whether they would recommend it to others.

Four items were rated on a 1-7 scale [59]. Four items were rated on a 1-7 scale to assess whether users have the opportunity to use Mamma Mia seamlessly as part of their daily routines. Estimated means of and contrast essay all the comparison contrast essay 7th grade, measures were reported in Table 4 [60]. Technical problems were measured using a single yes/no option (#x0201c;Have you experienced any technological problems in using Mamma Mia?#x0201d;). Participants that responded #x0201c;yes#x0201d;, were provided an additional open-ended question, #x0201c;Please describe the technological problems you have been experiencing?#x0201d;

Improvements were assessed using a single open-ended question, #x0201c;If you could improve anything in Mamma Mia, what would that be?#x0201d; Participants were recruited at 5 health care clinics and 2 hospitals. Here, midwives/public health nurses handed out a brochure and offered to try Mamma Mia. We recruited primarily women, and their partners through the women. Essay On Puck Night's! The reason why we did it this way is comparison contrast essay 7th grade, because women often go to the follow-ups at the well-baby clinics and hospitals by themselves. Potential participants had to dissertation froide take home the contrast, brochure and send an email to the administrator of the program to register for participation. Upon registration, participants were enrolled consecutively from February to May 2012. Participants were also recruited on essay were and regulations, Facebook (30% of the total sample). Comparison Contrast Essay! In order to be included in the study, one had to be in gestational week 22 or 2-3 weeks after birth, or one had to get writing w angel be the partner of a women in gestational week 22 or who had given birth within the last two weeks. The two inclusion criteria we applied were that all participants had to be 18 years or older, and they had to be able to read and understand Norwegian. A total of 103 users were recruited from February to May in 2012.

By far, most participants were female (82%) and the mean age was 31.4 years (SD 4.3; range 20-41 years). Female participants were on average slightly younger (mean 31.1, SD 4.4) than male participants (mean 33.4, SD 4.0). Comparison Contrast! However, this difference in age between female and male participants was non-significant ( t 54 =-1.1, P =.28). Furthermore, binomial tests of 50/50 proportions (all P values, P #x0003c;.02) confirm that most participants were ethnically Norwegian, had 4-5 years of college or university education, currently employed, and had no previous children ( P#x02264; .02). Most participants who were recruited were in their pregnancy and paragraphs custom w angel, multinomial tests of comparison contrast 7th grade equal categories show further that most participants were currently in a relationship ( P#x02264; .01). For more information on participant characteristics, please see Table 2 . Missing data ranged from 4% (41/103)-32% (33/103). Interview Design and Data Collection. A total of 103 participants were recruited to test the usage of Mamma Mia, among which a random subset of 10 was invited to take part in an interview. Four participants (3 women; 1 man) agreed to do the in-depth, semi-structured, tape-recorded interview.

The participants were interviewed in resume turn, and it was decided that it was not necessary to interview additional participants after the comparison essay, 4 interviews had been completed as the analyses reached a satisfactory saturation point (ie, the same themes emerged). An interview schedule was developed with open-ended questions with prompts and follow-up questions employed to elicit a breadth and depth in responses [61]. The interview schedule asked participants to describe how they viewed Mamma Mia in terms of pendant its appeal, usability, strengths and opportunities, limitations, and challenges. The interview schedule also addressed the comparison, participants#x02019; fidelity to the program, and why there had been a high/low degree of fidelity. Participants were encouraged to discuss both positive and negative feedback.

Participants were also encouraged to think aloud in terms of how to best market the program, and the final question was an open question, where participants could raise issues that had not been addressed in the interview. All the interviews were conducted by the first author, and they were conducted in her office. They lasted approximately 1 hour. The data were transcribed verbatim. All four (P1-P4) participants had higher education and were married/cohabitant. Three participants had previous children. Pendant Froide! Two participants had tested pregnancy phase, and two had tested the maternity (including high and low intensity) phase. In total, 78.6% (81/103) participants were engaged with Mamma Mia, while 21.4% (22/103) participants did not initiate the use of Mamma Mia. In the pregnancy phase, the comparison contrast essay 7th grade, average number of completed program days was 7.4 (SD 6.9).

Median number of completed program days was 6. In the maternity phase, the on puck from dream, average number of completed program days was 11.5 (SD 11.8). The median number of completed program days was 5. The program lasted for 11 months. Due to time constraint in contrast 7th grade completing the current study, however, we chose to study adherence within a limited time frame. On Puck From! Consequently, users have not been given the chance to complete the 7th grade, program. Thus, usage data may not accurately reflect adherence. The response rates varied from 25% (6/24)-58.6% (44/75) (see Table 3 for details).

The response rate was higher in the pregnancy phase compared to the maternity phase. Overall, 65% (67/103) of sur l39europe la guerre responders rated Mamma Mia to be of contrast essay 7th grade high quality. Moreover, almost 2 out of 3 responders would recommend Mamma Mia to others. Get Writing Custom W Angel! A total of 43% (44/103) reported that the information presented in Mamma Mia was relevant to them. In terms of the comparison contrast 7th grade, quantity of information in each session (ie, program day), users reported that the amount of information was appropriate. It does not seem to be too much content during sessions, rather some found it a bit too little. In the pregnancy phase of Mamma Mia, 78% (58/75) reported that one session per week was appropriate, while the rest found one session per week to be too rare. Essay About The Great! In the maternity phase, 67% (16/24) found three sessions per week to be appropriate, while 33% (8/24) found it a bit too much. Table 4 illustrates how participants rated Mamma Mia in terms of comparison essay 7th grade usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, unobtrusiveness, and satisfaction.

The theoretical range goes from 1 through 7 for all five scales. Generally, ratings were high, indicating good user acceptance. Paired sample t tests were performed to compare ratings across time (T1 and T2), and resume siebel, results suggested that the ratings were stable over time. Therefore, Table 4 reports the contrast essay 7th grade, figures from T1 only. A total of 47 improvements were suggested by the participants. Figure 1 is a word cloud based on the text users have provided with common words removed (such as prepositions). A word cloud gives greater prominence to words that appear more frequently in compare to use the source text. As can be seen, words like #x0201c;information#x0201d;, #x0201c;adjustment#x0201d;, #x0201c;platform#x0201d;, #x0201c;independence#x0201d;, and #x0201c;multiparous#x0201d; were the most prominent. If we re-contextualize the words within the 7th grade, source text, a few clear categories become emergent.

First, 36% (17/47) comments were related to individualization or tailoring of intervention content. Based on these 17 comments, five reported that the program should be adjustable to gestational week or number of weeks after giving birth. Five participants commented that Mamma Mia should adjust its information to whether one is giving birth for the first time or not. Finally, 6 participants also noted that Mamma Mia should adjust the sample resume siebel, couples#x02019; therapy so that (1) users without partners can skip the couple#x02019;s therapy and (2) that the couples#x02019; therapy can be repeated so partners more easily can manage to follow it together. Comparison! Regarding (1), one participant actually reported feeling #x0201c;down#x0201d; when faced with the couples#x02019; therapy as it merely acted as a reminder about a recent sensitive event (ie, most likely a breakup). Although such cases may not occur very frequently, they pose a real threat to the well-being of the individual and act counterproductive to essay about gatsby the objective of Mamma Mia. Regarding (2), it is not exactly clear, based on participants#x02019; comments, what actions can be taken to help couples follow the couples#x02019; therapy together. It could mean that the comparison, program should be isolated from Mamma Mia as a stand-alone component or it could simply mean that better coordination in the program would be helpful. But this quickly becomes speculative and further testing is warranted.

Second, 28% (13/47) comments were concerned with improvements to the information provided in Mamma Mia. It seems that users have a two-fold opinion. On the one hand, some users request more information, especially about the baby in utero and about mothers#x02019; emotional and physical development during pregnancy. On the essay from a midsummer night's, other hand, some information seems redundant or familiar, especially for women who already have children. The latter may be an important cue for increasing adherence. In a recent study by Tonkin-Crine and colleagues [62], they interviewed participants to identify reasons for not engaging with a Web-based intervention for chronic illness. What they found was that participants who already knew much about their chronic illness found a lot of the information superfluous, and hence dropped out. Participants suggested that more information should be optional or adjusted according to the level of contrast essay knowledge of the participant, which inevitably leads to some form of individualization or tailoring. The third emergent category is related to technological development. A total of 23% (11/47) comments mentioned that program adherence was made difficult by not being available for iPad or smartphones. This means that these participants report that Mamma Mia should ideally be platform independent.

Platform independence ensures the accessibility and ubiquity of sample resume Mamma Mia as participants can take the comparison essay 7th grade, program on-the-go or wherever they are. In conclusion, we have identified three main categories of suggested improvements which account for 87% of the on if no rules and regulations in school, variation in participants#x02019; responses. Comparison Essay! The remaining residual of 13% does not add up to any further coherent or meaningful categories. Typically, the residual consists of individual responses such as #x0201c;discovered typos#x0201d; or #x0201c;option for chatting with health personnel#x0201d;. Reflective Practice and Participant Feedback. The first lesson from the present study is that not all participants seem to on if in school read information about Mamma Mia very carefully during recruitment. It is estimated that roughly 10% of the participants that were recruited, had passed the essay 7th grade, gestational week 22 or were more than 2-3 weeks passed giving birth. Consequently, participants sign up even though they are passed the point of registration. This results in #x0201c;confusion#x0201d;, #x0201c;misunderstandings#x0201d;, and questions about get writing and essays custom #x0201c;where can I adjust the program to my gestational week?#x0201d; At least two participants also had to be re-registered from the prenatal phase to the postnatal phase of Mamma Mia, because they signed up late in their final trimester. The second lesson is that including hospitals and health care clinics require greater amounts of time and effort. The key factors that can promote or inhibit the use and implementation of Mamma Mia in health care settings are not known at this point in time.

However, the overall impression during recruitment was that hospitals and health care clinics experienced difficulties recruiting the comparison essay 7th grade, numbers expected and needed. Only 61.2% (63/103) participants were recruited at hospitals and on puck from night's, health care clinics despite the comparison contrast essay, fact that 925 brochures were handed out and 9 meetings were held about words Mamma Mia, at the very same hospitals and health care clinics. Consequently, RBUP (Centre for Child and comparison contrast 7th grade, Adolescent Mental Health) started recruiting participants online after the recruitment had started at hospitals and health care clinics, and with less time and siebel, less effort they managed to recruit 35% (36/103) participants. Comparison Essay! Also, due to the slow recruitment, the essay on if there and regulations in school, question #x0201c;Where were you recruited for the user survey of Mamma Mia?#x0201d; was included late into contrast essay, the recruitment period. Out of 7 responses, only 1 reported being recruited at a health care clinic. The remaining 6 participants were either recruited via their private or social network or RBUP. We were interested in and regulations the women#x02019;s qualitative experience of Mamma Mia, and in the issues they themselves raised in relation to essay it. There Were And Regulations! The analyses relied upon organizing sections of the data into recurrent themes [61]. In accordance with Braun #x00026; Clarke [63], our approach is based on comparison essay 7th grade, a thematic analysis, as opposed to a theoretical analysis; our themes were identified in an inductive manner, making the essay the great, themes strongly linked to the data; and we took a semantic approach in that we did not look for comparison contrast, a deeper meaning beyond what the participant said. Furthermore, we followed Kissling#x02019;s recommendation [64] to let the data itself suggest names for the themes, and about, took direct quotes from the transcripts to illustrate the kind of data classified by each theme.

In an attempt to increase reliability and validity, two researchers analyzed the comparison contrast essay, data, first separately, then jointly. Additionally, the qualitative analyses were carried out without knowledge of the quantitative survey. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays! The themes could largely be categorized either as strength or weakness, or both. Thus, the contrast 7th grade, findings are presented below in terms of strengths and weaknesses for each theme. The accessibility of the program was largely mentioned as one of the strengths of the program. The opportunity to complete the sessions at home or at essay on if were work, depending on when one had the time was greatly appreciated. This is in line with previous research [65]. Participants appreciated that the information was concise and brief, and it was easy to comparison essay understand.

Moreover, it was presented to them at on if an appropriate time; they received the information when they felt they needed it. The women enjoyed that the comparison contrast essay 7th grade, program was organized according to a tunneled sequence; that is, they were guided through the program and essay were, had to complete one module before proceeding to the next. As one participant said #x0201c;to me, the program felt like a safe guidance that contained the information I needed when I needed it#x0201d; (P1). The frequency of the sessions was found to be appropriate, although it was suggested that the contrast, preparation phase of the program could ideally have had more frequent sessions. The interviewees expressed enthusiasm with regards to night's dream the information and exercises that targeted the relationship with partner and sensitivity with regards to the infant#x02019;s signals.

As one participant said: #x0201c;With Mamma Mia, you get the comparison contrast essay 7th grade, knowledge you won#x02019;t get anywhere else#x0201d; (P2). Moreover, they enjoyed how the program was not a mere channel for information that provides general advice, but it #x0201c;raised#x0201d; questions that stimulated to self-reflection and it provided helpful exercises in an interactive manner. These aspects made learning fun, and stimulated to change. Participants expressed confidence in the program, and the program was reported to be credible. Essay Words To Use! Confidence and credibility were enhanced by the brochure, which described how the program had been developed by experts in the field.

It was emphasized in two of the 7th grade, interviews how it was of great importance that health personnel whom they trusted were the ones who conveyed information regarding the program. One participant (P1) expressed how she felt #x0201c;that the were and regulations in school, program was developed and contrast, provided as part of the public health care system#x0201d;, and thus she felt that the compare essay words, program was a good thing for her. The major reason for high fidelity was the participants#x02019; curiosity in terms of what was to come in the program. Another reason why participants completed the 7th grade, program was that completing the sessions proved to essay about be break and contrast 7th grade, a #x0201c;time-out#x0201d; for multiparous women in a hectic everyday life. As one woman said #x0201c;the program provided an opportunity to take the the great, time to connect with the baby in my tummy#x0201d; (P3). Ordinarily they would not have taken the essay, time to focus inward on the fetus, and so the program facilitated contact and attachment with the unborn baby. A final reason for completing the program was the desire to be confirmed; confirmed that she was #x0201c;doing the right thing#x0201d; for her baby (P1). A major limitation had to do with a lack of flexibility. As one participant said, #x0201c;my main complaint is the inflexibility in terms of when you can start with the essay on if and regulations, program, you should be able to start up regardless of where you are in your pregnancy#x0201d; (P2). All interviewees expressed a desire to be able to go back and repeat a previous session. Contrast 7th Grade! The inability to about gatsby use the program on tablets and smart phones was also mentioned as a major limitation.

Finally, because of its emphasis on the relationship with the essay 7th grade, partner, the program was viewed as targeting the and essays custom w angel, nuclear family, and other family constellations (such as single mothers) would likely not find the program to be adjusted to their needs. As one participant said, #x0201c;a friend of mine, who is about to become a single mom#x02026;she sort of chose to comparison contrast 7th grade have this baby on her own. She went to Denmark and had a donor. I thought many of the themes in the program would be good for her, but then I thought, no, no, it wouldn#x02019;t work, cause the program is about gatsby, really custom-made for the #x0201c;standard person#x0201d; for the nuclear family#x0201d; (P1). Although the information provided throughout the comparison essay 7th grade, program was largely emphasized as one of the strengths in essay on if there no rules the program, it was mentioned that the contrast essay 7th grade, follow-up phase (10 weeks postpartum and onward) could have contained more information regarding the baby#x02019;s development and attachment etc. The inaccessibility for tablets and smartphones was a major limitation and reported as a barrier of use. The interviewees were encouraged to essay on if there no rules in school describe how the program could be further improved, and expectations emerged as a common topic.

Specifically, they wanted the program to focus more on expectations with regards to breastfeeding. They wanted to essay learn more about how breastfeeding can be challenging, and that there are alternatives if it turns out to be too problematic. On If Were No Rules In School! Furthermore, it was suggested that addressing expectations with regards to comparison essay the postpartum period as a whole would be very useful. Many new mothers plan to do too many things after having a baby, and Mamma Mia could therefore serve as a useful reminder that having a baby is both unpredictable and inherently hectic in and of itself. The purpose of the the great gatsby, present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users with regards to the Web-based intervention Mamma Mia, as well as to identify potential issues that could be improved.

The typical user in our study was a well-educated employed woman, living with a partner and being pregnant for the first time. Comparison! On an average, users in essay about the pregnancy phase completed 7 sessions, while users in the maternity phase completed 12 sessions. The user-survey and interviews identified critical internal and external success factors for initiation and continued use of comparison contrast Mamma Mia (ie, factors that promote or inhibit intervention adoption) [66]. Internal factors refer to the strengths and weaknesses internal to the intervention such as its information quality, while external factors refer to the opportunities and paragraphs custom, threats presented by the external environment to contrast essay the intervention such as technological changes or lack thereof. Resume! Importantly, the aspects emphasized by the interviewees were in line with findings from the questionnaires.

The main internal strengths were the quality and relevance of the comparison essay 7th grade, information provided in the program. More than two-thirds of users found Mamma Mia to be of high quality and would recommend Mamma Mia to others. Compare And Contrast Essay Words! By far, most also found the amount of information and frequency of the intervention schedule to be appropriate. Moreover, Mamma Mia was perceived as a user-friendly and credible intervention. In terms of internal weaknesses, it was mentioned that the comparison contrast, program sessions could be more frequent during the pregnancy phase, and in the maternity phase there could be more information regarding the baby#x02019;s development and attachment. Opportunities and paragraphs and essays custom, Threats for essay 7th grade, Real Implementation.

Mamma Mia is operated on dissertation sur l39europe pendant la guerre, a stable platform and there were few reports of technical problems. Comparison Essay 7th Grade! In line with previous research [63], the accessibility of the program in terms of allowing users to complete the sessions at home or at work emerged as an important advantage of the program. Health care workers that conveyed the information regarding Mamma Mia emerged as both an on puck from a midsummer, external threat and potential strength. They constituted strength in terms of enhancing the credibility of the program, which in turn made the participants more eager to try the program. However, as described earlier, many health care workers failed to inform potential participants about the program, which posed a fundamental barrier to initiation of the program. In order to achieve a successful dissemination of Mamma Mia, it is comparison 7th grade, necessary to have credible sources (ie, health care workers) that are committed to siebel the program. More research is needed in order to comparison contrast 7th grade determine how this form of commitment can best be achieved. The main external threat, however, was the inaccessibility for tablets and smartphones. As many failed to understand that the intervention starts in gestational week 22 one has to take great care to communicate clearly when the intervention starts when releasing Mamma Mia among potential end-user. Communication and marketing plans have to ensure that users are registered at the right time according to gestational week, and one has to carefully plan how to implement Mamma Mia during point of care in health care settings.

Findings suggest a need for improvements in mainly three domains: (1) making Mamma Mia available for sample siebel, iPads and smartphones to comparison contrast increase accessibility, (2) provide more information, and on if were no rules in school, (3) individualization to gestational week, couples versus singles, first-time parents versus second-time parents. The most common barrier of use was the inaccessibility for tablets and smartphones. In turn, improvements were made such that the essay, final version of Mamma Mia is available for iPads and smartphones. More frequent program sessions during the pregnancy phase as well as more information regarding breastfeeding, sleep, child development, and attachment were requested, and all of these requests were taken into sample resume siebel, account and incorporated in essay 7th grade the final revision of the program. All interviewees expressed a desire to be able to go back and repeat a previous session.

Thus, the final version of Mamma Mia includes a #x0201c;personal#x0201d; home page, which gives an overview of all the sessions one has completed, and all the sessions that are to come. After a program session has been completed, one can go back and repeat it as often as one likes. In terms of individualization , there is a definite long-term goal to adjust Mamma Mia to the needs of single parents, parents who have premature infants, parents with previous children, as well as non-Norwegian speakers. Participants in the present study also requested an improved flexibility in terms of program initiation. Participants wanted the program to be adjusted to resume their respective gestational week. This request has not been accommodated, however. Mamma Mia starts in mid-pregnancy because it is considered optimal to promote relationship satisfaction and prenatal attachment early (but not too early when the risk of miscarriage is still high) when the goals are to prevent depression and enhance well-being.

In consequence, the contrast, program initiation continues to be limited to words to use gestational week 22. The main concern with the present user study has to do with generalizability. Contrast Essay! Due to the use of get writing custom w angel a convenience sample the contrast essay, findings may not be representative for essay about the great gatsby, all mothers (eg, ethnically diverse users, fathers or partners, and users with lower socio-economic status). There was a substantial dropout from the treatment program in this study. However, treatment dropout is common to most Internet-based programs [67]. Comparison Essay 7th Grade! Particularly, for sample resume siebel, comprehensive multi-session interventions, like Mamma Mia (ie, for each session added), an opportunity for dropout is also added [33]. Importantly, however, we were able to deliver and test a substantial number of program sessions. As in all qualitative research, a potential confounding variable in this study is the influence of the interviewer on contrast, the respondents. As the interviewees were aware that the interviewer had a professional interest in Mamma Mia, it may have influenced the paragraphs, responses in comparison essay different ways. For instance, the participants may have wished to come across in a socially desirable manner, and hence were likely to give positive feedback.

On the other hand, they may have felt that the interview was the perfect opportunity to communicate directly what could be improved to the developers of the a midsummer night's, program. As the interviewees all gave nuanced feedback, it is comparison essay 7th grade, likely that they felt comfortable being honest in the interview setting. It is important to note that while additional nuances would probably be captured with a larger sample; the main themes described herein would remain [61]. Moreover, the themes from the interviews were in line with the findings from the quantitative data, which adds to the reliability of the findings. It is of essence that participants are invited to use Mamma Mia when they are in essay on if gestational week 22, which is why follow-ups in hospitals and well-baby clinics are thought to be the best settings to recruit women. That way midwives and doctors can inform women of the essay, program when they are close to gestational week 22. Sur L39europe Pendant La Guerre! In the present study, the primary setting for recruitment was the hospital and well-baby clinics, and yet only 60% (62/103) of participants were recruited there. Comparison Essay 7th Grade! Moreover, several participants had failed to understand that the intervention started in gestational week 22. It is not clear what inhibited successful/efficient promotion of Mamma Mia in hospitals and well-baby clinics; nevertheless, it is clear that one has to find an efficient way to organize and deliver Mamma Mia which is unobtrusive to health care personnel.

A more comprehensive monitoring of the recruitment process may have revealed the dissertation sur l39europe pendant, sticking points and thus been informative for contrast essay, further evaluation studies as well as real world implementation of Mamma Mia. We were able to deliver a substantial number of sessions, and the high scores on measures of usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, unobtrusiveness, and user satisfaction suggest a high level of acceptance. Dissertation Pendant La Guerre Froide! Findings from the contrast essay 7th grade, user survey and essay on puck from, interviews were consistent, which add to the reliability of the results. The recruitment process revealed that Mamma Mia was more appealing to pregnant women, rather than women who have just given birth. This is advantageous and not surprising as the program is designed to follow women through both the essay, pregnancy and postpartum months.

There is a challenge in attracting several segments of the population such as more ethnically diverse users, fathers or partners, and users with lower socio-economic status. In order to further increase user acceptance of this and similar programs, making such programs more adaptable to individual needs and preferences seems to essay words be a key factor. Comparison Essay! The study revealed certain barriers of use, and improvements have been made to eliminate these in the final version. Overall, the user acceptance of compare and contrast to use Mamma Mia was fairly good and our findings add to the feasibility of the program. We find it appropriate to proceed to the next step of essay 7th grade evaluation: a randomized controlled trial to compare essay words test the effect of Mamma Mia on well-being and postpartum depressive symptoms.

Mamma Mia was developed by comparison contrast essay Changetech AS in collaboration with RBUP for NKS (The Norwegian Women's Public Health Association).

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essay reggae music Rhetoric of Reggae. Hip-hop and contrast essay 7th grade Reggae: The Common Links of Politics and Music. Music is an art form and siebel source of power. Many forms of music reflect culture and society, as well as, containing political content and social message.

Music as social change has been highlighted throughout the 7th grade 20 th century. In the 1960s the United States saw political and socially oriented folk music discussing the get writing paragraphs and essays w angel Vietnam War and other social issues. In Jamaica during the 1970s and 1980s reggae developed out of the Ghetto’s of Trench town and expressed the social unrest of the poor and the need to over-through the oppressors. The 1980’s brought the newest development in social and political music, the contrast 7th grade emergence of hip-hop and rap. Essay. This urban musical art form that was developed in New York City has now taken over the mainstream, but originated as an empowering art form for urban youth and emerging working class. Musically hip-hop spawned the age of DJ’s. Contrast Essay. With strong influences from Reggae, hip-hop has developed into an empowering form for the expression of ideas, power, revolution and change. Power and empowerment have emerged from these musical styles that now have many commonalities.

Hip-hop and Reggae are both forms of sample siebel protest music. “Protest music is characterized by objections to injustices and oppressions inflicted on essay certain individual groups…. typically, the intent of protest musicians is to oppose the exploitation and oppression exercised by dominant elites and member of dominant groups”(Stapleton, 221). Hip-hop has developed as a new form of protest music void of the essay the great common acoustic guitar. The goal of protest music is to promote freedom through music. Bob Marley expresses his belief that music is a message and route to freedom in the song “Trench town.” Most of them come from Trench Town/We free the people with music, sweet music/Can we free the people with music (Marley: 1983) Hip-hop and reggae share many common themes in contrast essay, their music and in the lyrics that discuss the issues of get writing custom drugs and crime, expose political problems facing minorities, and express social discontent.

This paper is an analysis of the political and essay social aspects of hip-hop and reggae, as well as, addressing the commonalities of the music itself as they have developed and changed over time. This analysis produces the holistic view reflecting the interconnectedness of there were in school these two genres of comparison contrast 7th grade music. Reggae’s Influence on hip-hop. Reggae music had a direct impact on the development of on puck hip-hop music. Contrast Essay 7th Grade. Both styles of music emerged from the dancehall, with lyrics containing social and political message. “Reggae started as ‘sufferah’s’ music in sample resume siebel, poor Jamaican villages. Inside gritty dancehalls, selectors spun scratchy sides, called ‘specials,’ and comparison contrast essay MC’s boasted, talked nonsense and criticized political, cultural and economic oppression” (Havlock). Reggae emerged out of the island culture of Jamaica and the “poor man’s party,” while hip-hop music emerged in New York City, specifically the Bronx, in the early 1970s. DJ Kool Herc is credited as one, if not the originator, of hip-hop. Kool Herc brought his Caribbean style when emigrated from Jamaica in 1967. He began this new musical journey with the desire to bring the powerful Jamaican Dancehall sound system to play music at parties and in sample resume siebel, the streets. In 1973 he had created his own sound system to play music around town.

He began his DJ career spinning reggae through the comparison essay 7th grade system, but found the urban New York City crowd unmotivated to groove to the Jamaican sounds. Essay On Puck. The African American community was still heavily influence by R B and funk, from the contrast likes of James Brown. Essay About The Great Gatsby. Unable to dance to contrast 7th grade Kool Herc’s Jamaican beats, DJ Kool Herc began spinning the siebel Funk that his peers had already been grooving too. When asked about how he developed his hip-hop style, Kool Herc said, I'm from Jamaica and so I brought a lot of music from my home to work with. When people didn't catch on, I pulled out a couple of James Brown. records and mixed them with some Jamaican music. And my hip hop sound really. began to develop.(Shivers)

As Kool Herc was developing his hip-hop style he was still relying on 7th grade his Jamaican roots. With the influence of early talk over la guerre froide DJs like U Roy, Kool Herc “began talking over the Latin-tinged funk that he knew would appeal”(Hebdige, 137). The talk over became know for comparison contrast essay 7th grade, “toasting,” when DJ’s gave praise the music and crowd. Hip-hop legend Afrika Bambaata credits the “toasting” element for the development of hip-hop. “People will say hip hop just comes from soul or rock. It comes from all types of no rules in school music, but it's based mainly around the toasting element of reggae.

That's how rap came about.”(Bambaata, http://www.daveyd.com/baminterview.html ) As the rapping element of hip-hop was developing, the skills of DJ’s were progressing rapidly as well. DJ’s were using turntables to cut and mix over the main piece of comparison contrast music. Kool Herc began mixing lead guitar riffs and drum beats at the breaks, through cutting and the great mixing. This idea of cutting and mixing during the breaks lead to Kool Herc’s first invention in hip hop that he is credited with, the “break beat.” Kool Herc first developed “break beats” when he began mixing in the song Apache, by the Jamaican disco group, the comparison 7th grade Incredible Bongo Band. To set the timing for the ‘break beats,’ Kool Herc used headphones to cue up the drums to mix over.

As he became more skilled at this technique, it became too difficult to “rap” and essay about the great gatsby dj. In order to comparison essay 7th grade keep both occurring simultaneously, Kool Herc hired MC’s, Coke-la-Rock and Clark Kent, to do the rapping. “The MC’s would put on a show for the crowd, dancing in front of the decks and bouncing lines off each other”(Hebdige, 138). This addition brought the emergence of the MC and essay on if were no rules the first dance teams, another first credited to Kool Herc. Another important DJ in the development of hip-hop was Grandmaster Flash. Grandmaster Flash used the Caribbean musical influence from his father to progress his own style in the emerging hip-hop scene. With the development of the hip-hop style, the DJ’s turntable skills were a measurement of progression in hip-hop. DJ’s were looking to see how they could use the turntables to bring more power and emphasis to the music. Flash is comparison essay, credited as one of the experts at “punch phrasing.” “The punch works in hip-hop like a punctuation mark in a sentence.

It helps to give shape to the flow of essay about sounds on 7th grade the record in essay gatsby, the same way that a comma or a full stop helps shape the flow of written language…. so the punch in hip hop can be used to accentuate the beat and the rhythm for the dancing crowd”(Hebdige, 139). Revolutionizing this technique, Grandmaster Flash and his group the comparison contrast essay Furious Five, with MC Melle Mel created a hard rapping hip-hop style. The development of hip-hop created a subculture as well as a new musical form. The development of the new hip-hop culture fostered a new topic for MC’s to rap about. MC’s began rapping about the new culture, which included music, break dancing and most importantly the struggles of urban life, the latter adding a political element to essay on if there were no rules in school the music. Hip hop and its artists took began taking the approach of rapping to comparison “tell it like it is.” DJ, Grandmaster Flash, one of the originators of hip hop music, was one of the first to rap about the hardships of urban life, in his classic song, the Message. Flash said, Don’t push me ‘cos I’m close to the edge/ I’m tryin’ hard not to about lose my head/ It’s like a jungle some times/ Sometimes I wonder how I keep from going under. (Hebdige, 143) To combat the problems of comparison urban and ghetto life, leadership amongst the were no rules and regulations in school hip hop community needed to develop. Afrika Bambaata, now one of the figureheads for hip-hop culture, emerged as one of the leaders. Bambaata went from running the sound system at the Bronx River Community Center to comparison contrast essay 7th grade becoming the founder and “Affectionate Leader” of the Zulu Nation. “In the Zulu Nation he set out to replace “rumbles” (fights) and drugs with rap, dance and hip hop style.

He wanted to turn the gang structure into essay on if there no rules and regulations in school a positive force in the ghetto.”(Hebdige, 139). The goal of organizations like the contrast essay Zulu is to help people from the underprivileged classes help each other make a positive impact on the community and themselves. To combat the problems facing urban youth, community organizations and paragraphs and essays custom rappers began emphasizing the importance of education and staying in school. Of the hip-hop generation, Bradley says, “With all of its raw language, rap… is the only force that is universally reaching the unreachable generation. This is a generation that is expressing its dissent through music rather than speeches.

A generation that has rejected the sanctity of the media’s re-creations of American life.”(Bradley) Hip hop groups like Run DMC told stories of how their success came from staying clean from drugs and getting a education. The lyrics Run DMC’s song, “Its like that” reflects the images what life is like in the urban areas, as wells as expresses the need for youth to change their ways. It's like that (what?) and that's the way it is. (Run DMC: 1983) As hip-hop continues to develop, it has kept true to comparison contrast 7th grade telling of how life is, and keeping the imagery real. This philosophy and social message within the lyrics has led the music to become political.

Because hip-hop and reggae are forms of essay to use music with lyrics discussing social issues, the content over time has become political. Comparison 7th Grade. The political element within hip-hop and reggae developed at different times, specifically because hip-hop evolved out of reggae. Origins of Politics in Reggae Music. Reggae music finds its roots in the music and essay the great gatsby culture of Jamaica and contrast 7th grade its people. Elena Oumano argues that the sur l39europe la guerre froide political roots in Jamaica can be traced back to the Maroons. The Maroons were the slaves who escaped Spanish control and settled in comparison contrast, the heartland of the Island, who were later granted their freedom by the British during colonialism. Oumano says that, “throughout slavery, the essay raw, rebellious pounding of Maroon Koro drums and the piercing wail of the comparison contrast essay Abeng horn echoed from the mountainous interior, surrounding a call to freedom on the plantations below.”(Oumano:1997) As music and culture evolved in Jamaica, reggae was born embodying the politics of the people the island. Reggae music holds a political and social cohesiveness through religion compared to hip-hop that stays together through the culture it developed. Rastafarianism has a dominant influence within reggae music and, “there are intensely religious and deeply spiritual aspects of about the great gatsby reggae’s religious base.”(Salmon). Rastafarianism, as well as the comparison contrast essay drumming of the Maroons predates reggae music, but their influence is strong. Rastafarians believe that the former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is God incarnate.

The intertwining of the Rastafarian religion and the often “-secular” reggae music creates a balance to dissertation sur l39europe la guerre froide the music and a vehicle for each to feed from. (Salmon) Rastafarians made many contributions to Jamaican music in contrast essay 7th grade, its formative years including the use of African drum rhythms and political content within the lyrics. Were And Regulations. Dougy Mack used the comparison contrast 7th grade African drum rhythms of Count Ossie in addition to his lyrics, to protest Patrice Lumumba’s murder. Here is some news from the Congo land/I think it is a shame/You kill Lumumba over His own land I think it is a shame. (Wilson) As Jamaican music developed Rastafarians have brought Jamaican culture politics, religion, a social message and music together in the form of reggae. To the Rastafarian and in reggae, ultimate social change can only occur with the end of Babylon System. Babylon is a Rastafarian term that refers to, in general, the “oppressive western society.”(Barrow, 373) Babylon is a society where Blacks cannot gain power and advance as a race of people. Wilson’s discussion of the early political Rastafarian music places the focus of the music on the structure of society and the need to over through Babylon system that is holding society down. Oh Babylon Gone, Oh Babylon Gone/ Babylon you gone, you gone, you gone/ Babylon you gone And your throne fall down. (Wilson) “Reggae and Rastafari…offer a humane alternative to many of the harsh and anti-human qualities often associated with Western society,” Babylon. (Salmon) To criticize Babylon is to chant it down, and this is done musically most notably by Bob Marley.

In his song, “Chant Down Babylon,” he says, And how I know, and that's how I know/A Reggae Music, mek we chant down Babylon/With music, mek we chant down Babylon/This music, mek we chant down Babylon/This music, come we chant down Babylon. (Marley:1983) Exemplified in these lyrics is the power of music as a platform for gaining support to get writing paragraphs custom help bring the social change. Contrast Essay. This social change is dissertation pendant froide, what is needed for blacks within Jamaica and the rest of the world. The sentiments of oppression in reggae music are a reoccurring theme within hip-hop music as well. The concept of Babylon has traversed its way into hip-hop music as well, following in the footsteps of other elements of reggae and Jamaican culture. Essay. Babylon to dissertation froide the Rasta is the oppressive western society, but in the context of contrast essay 7th grade hip-hop it refers to the oppression facing African Americans in U. S. cities. Hip-hop artist Talib Kweli, in were no rules and regulations, his song “This means you,” makes reference to Babylon and the struggles for contrast, African Americans in a midsummer dream, New York.

Things changed since we cam out, been some shit in New York/ Niggas stopped getting jig in comparison contrast essay, New York, bloods and crips in New York/ The Y2k celebration wasn’t big in essay were no rules and regulations, New York, Babylon live in New York. (Kweli, 2000) Kweli’s chorus and answer to these problems, is this situation is, “you need to get up right now and move with this, this means you, you, you” (Kweli, 2000). 7th Grade. His call is for African Americans to get up and move with the changes in society that are occurring to help elevate their status within society. Politics in Hip Hop Music. In the late 1980s and essay on puck from night's early 1990s the rap group Public Enemy, lead by hip-hop icon Chuck D, was working hard to contrast essay 7th grade raise public awareness of the troubles facing African Americans. Public Enemy was following in the footsteps of dissertation their predecessors who have made social awareness one of the 7th grade defining elements of hip-hop music. The mission of social awareness in hip hop is noted by Katina Stapleton who sees that “from its rough and tumble forms to the most commercial jams, hip-hop has been able to raise awareness among African Americans and essay on if there and regulations the general public about the issues that face black youth on a day-to-day basis”(Stapleton, 221).

Public Enemy’s album Fear of a Black Planet makes clear and direct statements about the struggle of comparison essay 7th grade African Americans. In an1990 interview, Chuck D, when asked, “Why is the upcoming album titled Fear of a Black Planet?” responded, Fear of a Black Planet is the refusal to accept the Afro centric point of view and the continuing indoctrination of the Euro centric point of view. Which I don't think is beneficial to the majority of those on the planet. Fear of a Black Planet, in essay about the great, a nutshell, is a counterattack on the system of cultural white supremacy, which is comparison contrast essay, conspiracy to destroy the black race. ( Chuck D,http://www.daveyd.com/peterrord.html) The theme of about the great gatsby this album focuses on comparison essay 7th grade elevating the on puck from night's dream black race in America, raising awareness and challenging the social problems, faced by the modern African American. Contrast Essay. This message is consistent throughout many of the songs on the album. Chuck D, gave insight into the meaning of two of the more powerful and political songs on the album. “'Brother's Gonna Work It Out” is sample resume siebel, about “the rise of 7th grade black intellectualism where the siebel black male is going to have to step up mentally and unify together in order to comparison essay do a little bit of something.

It will have to be a collective effort. Individually, the essay on if were no rules in school Black man is a pawn in a game.” “911 Is A Joke', which is the next single, is also self-explanatory, as it deals with the lack of emergency [assistance]. In our neighborhoods, when there's an comparison 7th grade emergency and we need help right away, we don't get action as quick as in more posh areas. Especially in urban settings.” ( Chuck D,http://www.daveyd.com/peterrord.html) This album was written in true hip-hop style, to tell how life really is. The political and social messages, in essay on puck a midsummer, the lyrics of Public Enemy’s songs, are emphatic and direct. Although Public Enemy and this album are an important part in the development of hip-hop music, they only represent one era of hip-hop music. Politics and comparison contrast 7th grade Social Change in Hip-hop and essay about gatsby Reggae Music. As hip hop and reggae music have developed, they have followed the path of most forms of music by comparison contrast 7th grade going through stages, with certain groups, albums and styles define an era within their genre. By the late sixties, politics and social unrest mixed in reggae music creating a new fierce music of Rock Steady filled with images of the gangster ‘rude boy’. “’Rock Steady’ music rather than rejecting the depravity of the political mercenary exalted and glorified the resume siebel pugnaciousness of the ‘rude boy’”(Wilson). Musical artist such as Desmond Decker and Peter Tosh wrote and sang images of the contrast ‘rude boy.’ In ‘007 Decker sings.

’007, ‘007 at ocean’s eleven rude boy ago wail cause them out of jail/ rude boy cannot fail cause the must get bail/them a loot, them a shoot / them a wail, a shanty town/ rude boy de pon probation, shanty town/ rude boy a bomb up de town.’(Wilson) Peter Tosh with his bold militant philosophy even went as far as to about the great gatsby call himself the “Toughest” in a self-declarative song. Anything you can do I can do better / I’m the toughest, I can do what you can do, never try to do what I do, I’m the comparison contrast toughest (Wilson) The lyrics of the Rock Steady era were harsh images of gang life and social unrest. This was a period of political and lyrical anarchy. Politicians from both political parties, the Peoples National Party (PNP) and the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP), were using urban gang leaders to clear turf, and control neighborhoods in order to gain political power. Rock Steady music with its ‘rude boy’ image embedded within, defined this era of social instability. This period of political and lyrical anarchy needed to end in order to resume siebel help breed peace amongst the essay youth in Kingston and bring higher consciousness back to reggae music. Similar to the Rock Steady period of Reggae, hip-hop in the early 1990’s found itself in the ‘rude boy’ era.

The music and image of hip-hop traversed into la guerre the mainstream changing the imagery portrayed in the lyrics. The voice and picture of hip-hop changed from life in the developing underground urban hip-hop culture, with a message of social change, to comparison essay 7th grade images of the hard gang life in Los Angeles and New York City. Hip-hop culture took another fierce turn in the wake of incidents like Rodney King. Hip-hop was glorifying gang life and the social unrest was embedded in controversial songs like Ice-T’s “Cop Killer.” The social elements in compare words to use, hip-hop lyrics were strong and explicit. The glorification of gang life in hip-hop music found a culmination in an east coast/ west coast feud that took the lives of two of hip hop’s biggest stars, Tupak Shakur and essay 7th grade Notorious BIG were dead. Although the commercialized hip-hop was glorifying gang culture in the 1990s, the underground scene still kept to its roots holding to essay on puck from night's a strong social message and push for empowerment. Hip-hop, in the year 2001, emerged with a mission of peace. Comparison Contrast Essay 7th Grade. Although, politically hip-hop has rarely been on the positive side of politics, the hip-hop community decided it needed to make a strong political statement.

Hip hop took politics to the highest level in the year 2001 when, “Along with leading hip-hop pioneers such as Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaata, Chuck D of Public Enemy and the Ruff Ryders, KRS will present a Hip-Hop Declaration of Peace to UN leaders. And Contrast Essay. The Declaration is the first of its kind. The document will contain 25 paragraphs of thought and opinion from leading rappers about the socially conscious direction they believe rap needs to take.”(Gordon) Hip-hop and rap is the new political music in contrast essay, the United States. The backbone of the hip-hop community lies with its originators, who have maintained the vision of music as a form of social change and essay about gatsby empowerment. The 1972 electoral campaign of contrast essay Michael Manley initiated the popularization of reggae music and Rastafarianism out of essay on if there and regulations in school political necessity rather than acceptance. The People’s National Party (PNP), “sifted through the culture of the Rastafarians in order to find symbols that Michael Manley, its candidate for prime minister, might use in his political speeches.”(Lewis, 12). Manley Politicized the Pastas and tried to comparison contrast align himself with their image as sufferers in order to implement policy for creating a socialist state in and essays w angel, Jamaica. He aligned himself with the Rastafarians because he believed they were “bearers of an African identity worthy of emulation by contrast the public.”(Lewis, 12) Manley employed several different tactics to use reggae and Rastafarianism in his campaign.

The People’s National Party staged over thirty bandwagon shows, comprised of artist whose music was banned for political reasons. The music was used as a weapon against the Shearer Government. Delroy Wilson’s ‘Better Must Come’ became on of the campaign slogans. Clancy Eccles ‘The Rod of Correction’ symbolized the and essays custom w angel impending purge of the comparison essay 7th grade corrupt Jamaica Labour Party. Manley adroitly used a rod given to essay dream him by the Rastafarian ‘Messiah’ Haile Sellassie, as a biblical symbol connoting righteousness. Comparison Contrast. (Wilson) Manley’s embracement of reggae solidified the important role reggae music has played in politics in Jamaica. The Importance of the Artist.

Reggae music has always had substantial influence on the culture and politics of Jamaican society and is in turn affected by the same forces. For reggae music to push for social change, the music and culture is dependent on strong artists willing to portray the struggles of life and the necessity for social change. Basil Wilson believes that, “the task of the essay to use reggae artist is to comparison contrast essay shape his society by understanding and supporting the need for structural changed in Jamaica. The reggae artist must recognize that the sample culture that replaced the old imperialistic culture is by no means wholesome and embraces a belief system that is not commensurate with modern development.”(Wilson) Wilson’s characteristics solidifies the essay idea that reggae music is more than entertainment and is dependent on artists, rather than entertainers, to be successful in their social message. Peter Tosh often referred to, as the ‘Prince’ of reggae music, is a prime example of the strength embodied in a reggae artist. Debunking the notion that he is only an entertainer, Tosh stated his musical message of freedom.

People must know, I’m not an entertainer, but I love to make people happy. When I come on stage it’s not to entertain and just smile, because my songs are not smiling songs. Essay About The Great Gatsby. My songs is a revolution. How can you sing a revolution, which you know is a threat to society? You have to be thinking who is out there to assass-the-fucking-nate you, seen! And when you do these things you become a threat to society. (Steffens, 47) Peter Tosh praised his songs as a revolution. The “Stepping Razor,” named after one of his songs, was truly not afraid to make overtly political statements through his music. From declaring himself the “toughest” to essay openly criticizing the criminalization of marijuana in “Legalize It,” Tosh was willing to take a strong stand through his music. One of Tosh’s biggest political statements came on essay his 1983 European tour when he began playing a guitar made out of and M-16 assault riffle. Comparison Contrast. “That guitar was made by on of my white musical terrorist friends in the U. S. This guitar is firing shots at all them devil disciples.

Music is my weapon to fight against essay about gatsby, apartheid, nuclear war and those gang-Jah criminals.”(Steffens, 52) Peter Tosh’s belief in the power of music to 7th grade insight revolution and siebel bring social change is undeniable, but as the Prince of Reggae music, he can only contrast essay 7th grade be out about done by the King. Bob Marley is often referred to as the King of reggae music. Marley is the opitimey of the contrast reggae artist whose goal is to and contrast words to use insight social change, revolution and over through Babylon. Bob Marley lived up to his position at the top of the reggae world in 1978 at comparison contrast, the “One Love Peace Concert” in Kingston Jamaica. The peace concert was held on the twelfth anniversary of Haille Selassie I’s visit to Jamaica. The concert was promoted as, “a celebration of the peace treaty which claimed to bring an compare essay to use end to years of tribal warfare fomented in the ghettos by Jamaica’s fractious politrickal factions.”(Steffens, 48) The defining moment of the show saw Bob Marley successfully coax both political candidates onto stage with him and raise arms together in a sign of comparison essay peace and unity. Legend has it, this handshake was such a strong mark of peace and politics that it caused a lightning flash the there were and regulations in school instant their hands met. The efforts of Bob Marley and other artists at the concert solidified the political role of reggae music and contrast the reggae artist to promote social change.

In general, Bob Marley made many significant contributions to reggae music and culture, from defining “roots reggae” to exposing his music to the world, his presence and impact through his music is undeniable. Tricia Nichols say that for essay about the great gatsby, his efforts to promote peace and comparison his continued social message in his music Bob Marley was awarded a Third World Peace Medal, presented by Senegal on on puck Behalf of all the African countries at the United Nations. He merits this award because “no one has spread the message of comparison contrast Rastafari with greater reach or impact than has Bob Marley”(Nichols, 74) Marley has impacted the world both socially and musically. His influence and social message are continuously seen today where it is now delivered through various forms of music. The commonalities and influence of reggae and hip-hop have brought artists to siebel collaborate for social expression and music. Recently the Bob Marley’s family put together and all-star cast to celebrate the message, music and life of the King of contrast 7th grade reggae, Bob Marley. Essay On Puck A Midsummer Night's. On the recent release of essay 7th grade Chant Down Babylon, a collaborative album, some of get writing custom w angel hip-hop’s famed artists such as Erika Badu, Chuck D, Busta Ryhmes, The Roots, and others mix duets with the late King of Reggae paying tribute to rebel music. Contrast Essay 7th Grade. “The album’s collaborations (some inspired, some not) underscore the notion that be it reggae, hip-hop, or rock, rebel music is rebel music. Busta Rhymes’s fierce Jamaican patois-flavor Selassie I rap for “Rastaman Chant” and on if were no rules The Roots’ turn on “Burnin’ and Lootin’” are just two tracks that elucidate the natural links between any musicians bent on upsetting the rulers of Babylon.”(Oumano: 2000) As culture and society change, so does music, and hip-hop and reggae music two forms reflective of contrast essay 7th grade progression. The social message continues to be strong in hip-hop and reggae music.

Both have developed music and cultures that feed off each other portraying the image of what life is really like through their music. Music has the ability to empower people. There Were No Rules And Regulations In School. Politicians in Jamaica have been forced to accept the power of reggae because it contains such a strong social message. Hip-hop has emerged from its Caribbean roots with a musical influence but most importantly a strong social message. Without music that contains the message of comparison contrast essay hip hop and reggae, society is unable to change, because the issues and problems that face the lower classes, which Mainstream society is so dependent on, would not be seen. If Babylon cannot be over through, music can only help as a unifying force to essay on puck from night's help challenge the system. Davey D’s Hip hop corner: http://www.daveyd.com/

Barrett, Leonard. The Rastafarians . Beacon Press: Boston, 1997. Barrow, Steve and Peter Dalton. Comparison Contrast Essay 7th Grade. Reggae: The Rough Guide Rough Guides:London 1997. Foster, Chuck. Roots, Rock, Reggae . Billboard Books: New York, 1999. Hebdige, Dick.

Cut ‘N’ Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music. Routledge:London, 1990. Lewis, William. Soul Rebels . Waveland Press: Prospect Heights, 1993. Nichols, Tricia. To Use. Rastafari: A Way of Life . Comparison Contrast Essay. Anchor Books: New York, 1979. Stapleton, Katina R. “From the margins to mainstream: the political power of hip-hop” Media, Culture and Society, 1998 vo. 20 pgs. 219-234.

Full Text Computer Databases: No Page Numbers. Bradley, Omar N. “Hip Hop Generation: American as Apple Pie” Billboard, v. 107 n. 46 p.9(1) November 18, 1995. Evans, Diana “The Sound of Protest” The Voice, N. 910 p.20 5/29/2000. Havelock, Neslon “Reggae and get writing paragraphs Hip-hop come together” Billboard, V.108 n. 27 p. Comparison. 40(2) July 6, 1996. Moxie, Carl B. “Let Reggae Music Be” The Caribbean-American Magazine, V. 17; N.6 p. 45, 7/31/1993. Oumano, Elena “Reggae says no to ‘Politricks’” The Nation, August 25, 1997 v. 265 n.24 (3) Oumano, Elena “Natty Dread Learns to essay on puck dream Rap” Miami New Times, February 10, 2000, Thursday. Salmon, Barrington “ Bob Marley’s legacy lives forever” Miami Times, V. 73; N. 22 p. 5A, 2/18/1996. Shivers, Kaia “This is Reggae Music” Los Angeles Sentinel” V. 66; N. 32 p. B5 11/8/2000.

Wilson, Basil “The politics culture of Reggae music” The Caribbean-American Magazine v. 24 N. 1 p. 25, 2/28/2000. Honorary Citizen: Peter Tosh, Sony Music Entertainment:1997. Steffens, Roger. “In the Tracks of the Stepping Razor: The Peter Tosh Biography” pgs. 42-51. Reflection Eternal: Talib Kweli, Rawkus Records 2000.

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How to Create a First C Program on Linux. Most computer users will never write a computer program, just as most people who enjoy music will never write a musical composition. However, creating programs can be extremely simple and highly educational. It is so simple, in contrast essay, fact, that even people who know almost nothing about get writing and essays custom computers can begin writing basic programs and comparison contrast experimenting with them almost immediately. It can also be fun, it is often addictive, and essay on puck a midsummer dream it occasionally leads to highly rewarding careers. The C programming language is an excellent choice for beginning programmers as well as for people who do not intend to become a programmer but just want the experience of creating a program. This is 7th grade because it is resume siebel relatively simple, yet powerful and widely used. It is also because C is the basis for many other programming languages, and thus experience gained with C can be applied to those languages as well. In addition, experience with C is useful for obtaining an in-depth understanding of Linux and other Unix-like operating systems, because they are largely written in C. Linux is a particularly suitable environment for writing programs. Comparison. This is because, in contrast to some popular proprietary (i.e., commercial) operating systems, it is not necessary to purchase any expensive programming software and, in many cases, the appropriate software is already installed on the computer.

Moreover, most major distributions (i.e., versions) of Linux include programming tools on on puck from night's the installation disks (not only for C but also for essay 7th grade several other programming languages); such tools can be installed very easily at the time of system installation or separately at on puck from night's dream, a later date. Three things are necessary for creating C programs: a text editor , a compiler and essay a C standard library . A text editor is all that is needed to create the source code for a program in C or in any other language. Source code (also referred to as source or code ) is the version of software as it is originally written (i.e., typed into a computer) by a human in essay on if were no rules and regulations, plain text (i.e., human readable characters). Source code can be written in any of the comparison essay 7th grade thousands of essay on puck from programming languages that have been developed, some of the most popular of which, in addition to comparison contrast, C, are C++, Java, Perl, PHP and Python. A text editor is a program for compare and contrast to use writing and editing plain text. It differs from a word processor in that it does not manage document formatting (e.g., typefaces, fonts, margins and italics) or other features commonly used in desktop publishing. C programs can be written using any of the comparison 7th grade many text editors that are available for dissertation sur l39europe Linux, such as vi , gedit , kedit or emacs . They should not be written with a text editor on Microsoft Windows because such editors do not treat Unix-style text correctly, nor should they be written with a word processor.

At least one text editor is comparison essay 7th grade built into every Unix-like operating system, and most such systems contain several. To see if a specific text editor exists on the system, all that is necessary is to type its name on the command line (i.e., the all-text user interface) and then press the ENTER key. It it exists, the editor will appear in the existing window if it is words to use a command line editor, such as vi, or it will open in a new window if it is a GUI (graphical user interface) editor such as gedit. For example, to see if vi is on the system (it or some variation of it almost always is), all that is necessary is to type the following command and press the ENTER key: A compiler is comparison 7th grade a specialized program that converts source code into machine language (also called object code or machine code ) so that it can be understood directly by a CPU (central processing unit). An excellent C compiler is paragraphs included in the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), one of the 7th grade most important components of most modern Linux distributions. GNU is an sample resume, on-going project by essay 7th grade the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to create a complete, Unix-compatible, high performance and freely distributable computing environment. All that is necessary to see if the GCC is already installed and ready to use is to type the following command and press the ENTER key: An error message such as gcc: no input files indicates that the GCC is installed and ready to use. If there is a message such as command not found , which usually indicates that it has not been installed, the GCC can be installed in the same manner as other software (i.e., from the compare to use operating system installation disks or by downloading if from the Internet). glibc is the GNU project's implementation of the standard C library . Comparison Contrast. As is the case with the GCC, it is words to use likewise one of the comparison essay most important components of most modern Linux distributions, which use it as their official standard C library.

A library is a collection of subprograms that any programmer can employ to reduce the amount of complex and repetitive source code that has to be written for essay about gatsby individual programs. Every Unix-like operating system requires a C library. The locate command can be used to confirm that glibc is already installed on the system as follows: If it is on the system, the above command will probably generate many lines on the monitor screen referring to it, particularly referring to the directory /usr/share/doc/ . Information about some of these programs, including the GCC, vi and gedit, can be obtained from the comparison essay 7th grade man built-in manual. For example, information about the GCC can be obtained by using the following command: The best way to learn about programming is to jump right in on puck from, and begin writing a very simple program. Comparison Essay. This approach helps make concepts, that might otherwise seem vague and abstract, make sense, and the positive feedback obtained from getting even an ultra-simple program to work provides a strong incentive to improve it and write the next one.

The traditional first program in dissertation sur l39europe, C (and almost any other programming language) is very basic and does nothing more than display the phrase Hello, world! on the monitor screen. However, it serves as an excellent introduction to a number of important concepts for absolute beginners. It also confirms that the system is set up correctly for compiling and running C programs. The first step is to open a text editor and type the source code for this program as follows: This code should (at least initially) be written exactly as shown.

The file should then be saved (i.e., written to the hard disk) using the save command of the text editor. The file can be given any desired name, but it is usually best to use a name that is descriptive of the program. The name must end with a .c extension in order to comparison contrast 7th grade, indicate to the compiler that it is C source code; if the .c extension is omitted, an error message will be returned. (Extensions usually are not necessary for files in Unix-like operating systems, but this is an exception.) Thus, a good choice for the above example is hello.c . One caution about naming programs on Unix-like operating systems is that they should not be named test or test.c . This could confuse the paragraphs and essays w angel operating system, because there is already a built-command named test . The first line in contrast essay, a C program, which is called a preprocessor directive , always begins with a pound sign ( # ). Preprocessing, which is carried out by the compiler prior to compilation, causes the to use contents of the indicated header file(s) (which is in contrast essay, glibc) to sample siebel, be copied into contrast 7th grade the current file, effectively replacing the directive line with the contents of that file. Thus, in this case, the preprocessor directive #include stdio.h causes the file named stdio.h that resides in glibc to sample resume siebel, be copied into the source code of hello.c. stdio.h provides the basic input and output facilities for C. The preprocessor directive is customarily followed by a blank line. As is the comparison contrast essay case with a number of things in programming, this line is not necessary for a program to function correctly but is, rather, a matter of style. Good style can make programs much easier to on puck a midsummer dream, read and therefore easier to detect errors and make improvements; it is thus important to comparison, develop good style habits right from the sample resume siebel beginning when learning programming. Every C program has exactly one function named main() . A function is comparison 7th grade a set of one or more statements that are enclosed in curly brackets, perform some operation and return a single value to the program in which they reside; it could also be looked at as a subprogram. The main() function is the starting point of any program; that is, it is where the the great program begins execution (i.e., running); any other functions are subsequently executed. A statement is an instruction in a program.

Each statement ends with a semicolon. There are two statements in hello.c, both of which are in the main() function. Parentheses surround the argument list for every function. An argument is the information that is passed to a function for it to act upon. The two functions in comparison essay 7th grade, this example are main() and printf(); the custom w angel printf() function is 7th grade located inside of the about gatsby main() function.

Even if no arguments are actually used, as is the case with main(), the parenthesis are still included. printf()'s name reflects the fact that C was first developed in the early 1970s when display monitors were rare, and thus all computer output was generally printed out on paper. However, today printf() by contrast default actually sends its output to the monitor screen (referred to as standard output ), not to sample resume siebel, a printer. Comparison Essay 7th Grade. The f in printf stands for formatted . Any string (i.e., sequence of printable characters) that is used as an argument to printf() is enclosed in custom w angel, double quotes. Comparison Essay. The n at the end of the string in on if there were and regulations in school, hello.c represents the new line character; that is, it tells printf() to start a new line after whatever precedes it. This causes whatever next appears on the display screen to comparison contrast essay, begin on a new line rather than on the same line as the output of compare words to use hello.c. The second statement in the main function is return 0; . It is not necessary for the functioning of this simple program; however, it is included to illustrate how a second statement can fit into a program. It is also included because similar statements are required in more complex programs and thus it is useful to become familiar with it from the beginning. Each curly bracket is placed on a separate line in this example in comparison contrast essay 7th grade, order to make it more obvious and to thus make it easier to detect missing or incorrect brackets. However, this is not necessary, and brackets are often included on the same lines as other code, depending on essay the particular programmer's style.

What is more important is to comparison, maintain a consistent style. C programs are not fussy about the way they are laid out get writing and essays (in contrast to some other programming languages). For example, hello.c could be written very compactly in comparison essay 7th grade, just two lines without affecting performance as follows: Such extreme compactness is unusual, however, and w angel it can make more complex programs very difficult to read. After a program has been planned, written and checked for obvious errors, it is ready to compile. Compilation consists of two main steps, compilation itself (inclusive of comparison contrast preprocessing) followed by linking (i.e., connection of multiple files in a program); the compiler usually performs the linking automatically. The program hello.c can be compiled with the paragraphs custom w angel GCC as follows: gcc -o hello hello.c. The -o option informs the compiler of the comparison essay 7th grade desired name for the executable (i.e., runnable) file that it produces.

The name used in essay, this example is hello , but it could just as easily be anything else desired, such as hello.exe , file1 or Bonjour . Contrast. If the -o option is omitted, the compiler will give the name a.out to compare words to use, the executable file. Compilation for hello.c should take only about a second or two on a reasonably fast personal computer because the program is so simple. However, compilation can take hours in comparison essay 7th grade, the case of paragraphs and essays very large and complex programs. The ls command (whose purpose is to list the contrast essay contents of a directory) can be used to a midsummer, confirm both that the source code file was saved and that the new file containing the compiled program was actually created, i.e., ls hello.c hello. Various things can go wrong when writing and compiling software. And they frequently do, particularly for long and complex programs. Contrast Essay 7th Grade. Fortunately, modern compilers generally provide fairly detailed error messages that facilitate correcting errors in essay on if there no rules in school, the source code.

There is little that can go wrong with the hello.c program because of its brevity and simplicity, and any errors can prove instructive and are easy to fix. If it does not compile or run correctly, the problem is most likely a typing error. Such errors are among the most frequent sources of problems in programming. Particularly common is forgetting one or more of the curly brackets. This is especially easy to do in programs that contain multiple pairs of brackets, some of which are enclosed in 7th grade, others. Another common error is the omission of one or more semicolons at the ends of statements. Yet another typical source of problems is forgetting the .c extension at siebel, the end of the name of the source code file(s). Once the executable file has been created by the compiler, it is ready to run.

This can be accomplished on contrast 7th grade some systems by merely typing the file name and pressing the ENTER key. On other systems, it might be necessary to precede the file name with a dot and a forward slash and compare and contrast words to use then press the ENTER key, i.e., The result will be to write the contrast essay text Hello, world! on the monitor screen. It can be instructive to try modifying this program in various ways. They include changing the text message, adding text within printf() that will appear on several different lines on the screen rather than on a single line, adding multiple printf() functions, and eliminating the compare essay words to use the preprocessor directive and/or the return 0; line. hello.c may seem extremely simple and useless, and in some ways it is. Comparison Contrast 7th Grade. However, a little practice with it provides an excellent foundation for writing longer programs that actually do something useful. And they are not much more difficult than hello.c. A slightly more interesting example, and one that introduces some additional C programming concepts, is provided on the page How to Create a Second C Program on essay and regulations in school Linux . Created March 21, 2005. Updated March 14, 2006. Copyright © 2005 - 2006 The Linux Information Project.

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