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Essay on Is Christianity A Pacifist Religion?
art objects essay The following text is quoted from: Jeanette Winterson ART OBJECTS Essays on christianity a religion, ecstasy and effrontery, Jonathan Cape, London, 1995 pp 3-21. I was in Amsterdam one snowy Christmas when the weather had turned the canals into oblongs of caltech ice. I was wandering happy, alone, playing the flaneur, when I passed a little gallery and in christianity the moment of passing saw a painting that had more power to stop me than I had power to walk on. The quality of the draughtsmanship, the caltech thesis instructions brush strokes in thin oils, had a Renaissance beauty, but the fearful and compelling thing about the picture was its modernity. Here was a figure without a context, in christianity a religion its own context, a haunted woman in blue robes pulling a huge moon face through a subterranean waterway. What was I to do, standing hesitant, my heart flooded away?
I fled across the road and into a bookshop. There I would be safe, surrounded by things I understood, unchallenged, except by my own discipline. Books I know, endlessly, intimately. Their power over me is profound, but I do know them. I confess that until that day I had not much interest in the visual arts, although I realise now, that my lack of interest was the essay titles result of the kind of ignorance I despair of in others. I knew nothing about painting and so I got very little from a religion it. Instructions? I had never given a picture my full attention even for one hour. What was I to christianity a religion do? I had intended to caltech leave Amsterdam the next day. A Religion? I changed my plans, and sleeping fitfully, rising early, queued to get into high help the Rijksmuseum, into the Van Gogh Museum, spending every afternoon at any private galleries I could find, and every evening, reading, reading, reading. My turmoil of mind was such that I could only a religion find a kind of peace by attempting to determine the size of the problem.
My problem. Writing Services? The paintings were perfectly at ease. I had fallen in christianity essay love and I had no language. I was dogdumb. The usual response of 'This painting has nothing to say to me' had become 'I have nothing to say to this painting'. Thesis? And I desperately wanted to speak. Long looking at paintings is a religion, equivalent. to being dropped into a foreign city, where gradually, out of desire and despair, a few key words, then a little syntax make a clearing in the silence. Art, all art, not just paintings is caltech thesis instructions, a foreign city, and we deceive ourselves when we think it familiar. Noone is christianity a religion, surprised to find that a foreign city follows its own customs and speaks its own language.
Only a boor would ignore both and ptsd titles blame his defaulting on the place. Every day this happens to the artist and a religion the art. We have to julius caesar essay brutu recognise that the language of essay art, all art, is thesis instructions, not our mother- tongue. I read Ruskin s Modern Painters. I read Pater's Studies of the History of the Renaissance. Joshua Reynolds' Discourses, Bernard Berenson, Kenneth Clark, Sickert's A Free House!, Whistler's Ten O'Clock Lecture, Vasari, Michael Levey, William Morris. I knew my Dante, and I was looking for christianity essay a guide, for homework help someone astute and a religion essay erudite with whom I had something in common, a way of instructions thinking. A person dead or alive with whom I could talk things over.
I needed someone I could trust, who would negotiate with me the sublimities and cesspits of regions hitherto closed. Someone fluent in this strange language and its dialects, who had spent many years in that foreign city and a religion who might introduce me to the locals and their rather odd habits. Art is odd, and the common method of trying to fit it into the scheme of things, either by obama research taming it or baiting it, cannot succeed. Who at the zoo has any sense of the lion? At last, back home, and ransacking the shelves of secondhand bookshops, I found Roger Fry. It may seem hopelessly oldfashioned to have returned to Bloomsbury, but I do not care about fashion, only about permanencies, and essay if books, music and pictures are happy enough to be indifferent to time, then so am I. Fry was the one I wanted. For me, at least, a perfect guide, close enough in spirit to Walter Pater, but necessarily firmer. I had better come clean now and say that I do not believe that art (all art) and beauty are ever separate, nor do I believe that either art or beauty are optional in a sane society. That puts me on the side of what Harold Bloom calls 'the ecstasy of the privileged moment' . Art, all art, as insight, as rapture, as transformation, as joy. Unlike Harold Bloom, I really believe that human beings can be taught to love what they do not love already and that the privileged moment exists for all of research us, if we let it. Letting art is the paradox of active surrender.
I have to christianity a religion work for art if I want art to work on ptsd essay titles, me. I knew about Roger Fry because I had read Virginia Woolf s biography of him, and because it is impossible to be interested in Modernism without finding reference to him. It was he who gave us the term a Post-Impressionist', without realising that the late twentieth century would soon be entirely fenced in with posts. A Quaker, trained as a scientist, passionate about painting, Roger Fry did more than anyone else in Britain to promote and protect new work during the first thirty years of the century. The key quality in Fry's writing is enthusiasm. Nothing to him is dull. Such a life-delighting, art-delighting approach, unashamed of emotion, unashamed of beauty, was what I needed.
I decided that my self-imposed studentship would perform a figure of eight. Essay? I would concentrate my reading on priests and prophets of the past, while focusing my looking on paper, modern painters. Essay? This saved me from the Old Master syndrome and it allowed me to approach a painting without unfelt reverence or unfit complacency. At the same time it allowed me to test out the theories and assumptions of the art writers whose company I kept. For me, this lemniscate of caltech back and christianity forth has proved the right method. I still know far far less about pictures than I do about books and this will not change. What has changed is my way of seeing I am learning how to look at pictures. Caltech Thesis Instructions? What has changed is my capacity of feeling. Art opens the a religion heart. Art takes time. To spend an hour looking at julius caesar hero, a painting is difficult.
The public gallery experience is one that encourages art at a trot. There are the paintings, the marvellous speaking works, definite, independent, each with a Self it would be impossible to ignore, if . . . A Religion? if . . ., it were possible to see it. I do not only services provided mean the crowds and the guards and the low lights and the ropes, which make me think of freak shows, I mean the thick curtain of a religion essay irrelevancies that screens the painting from the viewer. Increasingly, galleries have a habit of saying when they acquired a painting and how much it cost . Obama Research? . . Millions! The viewer does not see the colours on the canvas, he sees the colour of the money. Christianity A Religion? Is the painting famous? Yes!
Think of all the people who have carefully spared one minute of their lives to stand in front of application it. Is the a religion essay painting Authority? Does the guide-book tell us that it is part of The Canon? If Yes, then half of the viewers will admire it on principle, while the other half will dismiss it on principle. Who painted it? What do we know about mccain research his/her sexual practices and have we seen anything about them on the television?
If not, the museum will likely have a video full of schoolboy facts and tabloid gossip. Christianity Essay? Where is the how to a graduate tea-room/toilet/gift shop? Where is the painting in any of this? Experiencing paintings as moving pictures, out of context, disconnected, jostled, over-literary, with their endless accompanying explanations, over-crowded, one against the other, room on room, does not make it easy to fall in love. Love takes time. Essay? It may be that if you have as much difficulty with museums as I do, that the julius essay only way into the strange life of pictures is to expose yourself to as much contemporary art as you can until you find something, anything, that you will go back and back to christianity see again, and even make great sacrifices to buy. Inevitably, if you start to love pictures, you will start to buy pictures. The time, like the money, can be found, and those who call the caesar essay tragic whole business elitist, might be fair enough to reckon up the time they spend in front of the television, at the DIY store, and how much the latest satellite equipment and new PC has cost. For myself, now that paintings matter, public galleries are much less disappointing. I have learned to ignore everything about them, except for the one or two pieces with whom I have come to spend the afternoon.
Supposing we made a pact with a painting and agreed to sit down and look at it, on our own, with no distractions, for one hour. The painting should be an original, not a reproduction, and we should start with the christianity a religion advantage of liking it, even if only a little. What would we find? Increasing discomfort When was the last time you looked at anything, solely, and services provided concentratedly, and for its own sake? Ordinary life passes in a near blur. A Religion? If we go to the theatre or the cinema, the images before us change constantly, and there is the thesis distraction of language. Our loved ones are so well known to christianity us that there is no need to high look at them, and one of the gentle jokes of married life is that we do not. Nevertheless, here is a painting and we have agreed to look at a religion essay, it for one hour.
We find we are not very good at looking. A Graduate? Increasing distraction. Is my mind wandering to the day's work, to the football match, to what's for dinner, to sex, to whatever it is that will give me something to do other than to look at the painting? Increasing invention. Christianity? After some time spent daydreaming, the guilty or the dutiful might wrench back their attention to the picture.
What is it about? Is it a landscape? Is it figurative? More promisingly, is it a nude? If the picture seems to caltech instructions offer an escape route then this is the moment to take it. I can make up stories about the characters on a religion essay, the canvas much as art historians like to identify the essay brutu people in Rembrandt's The Night Watch. Now I am beginning to feel much more confident because I am truly engaging with the picture.
A picture is its subject matter isn't it? Oh dear, mine's an abstract. A Religion Essay? Never mind, would that pink suit me? Increasing irritation. Essay Titles? Why doesn't the a religion picture do something? Why is it hanging there staring at me?
What is this picture for? Pictures should give pleasure but this picture is making me very cross. Why should I admire it? Quite clearly it doesn't admire me . . . Admire me is the sub-text of so much of our looking; the demand put on services, art that it should reflect the reality of the a religion essay viewer. The true painting, in its stubborn independence, cannot do this, except coincidentally. Its reality is imaginative not mundane. Caltech Thesis Instructions? When the thick curtain of protection is christianity a religion essay, taken away; protection of paper prejudice, protection of essay authority, protection of trivia, even the most familiar of paintings can begin to work its power. There are very few people who could manage an hour alone with the Mona Lisa. But our poor art-lover in his aesthetic laboratory has not succeeded in freeing himself from the write a graduate essay protection of assumption. What he has found is that the christianity painting objects to his lack of concentration; his failure to meet intensity with intensity. He still has not discovered anything about the painting but the painting has discovered a lot about paper him.
He is inadequate and the painting has told him so. It is essay, not as hopeless as it seems. If I can be persuaded to make the research paper experiment again (and again and again), something very different might occur after the first shock of finding out that I do not know how to a religion look at pictures, let alone how to like them. A favourite writer of mine, an American, an animal trainer, a Yale philosopher, Vicki Hearne, has written of the acute awkwardness and embarrassment of those who work with magnificent animals, and find themselves at writing provided, a moment of reckoning, summed up in those deep and difficult eyes. Art has deep and difficult eyes and for many the gaze is christianity a religion, too insistent. Better to pretend that art is dumb, or at least has nothing to say that makes sense to us.
If art, all art, is concerned with truth, then a society in denial will not find much use for it. In the West, we avoid painful encounters with art by trivialising it, or by familiarising it. Our present obsession with the past has the double advantage of making new work seem raw and rough compared to the cosy patina of tradition, whilst refusing tradition its vital connection to what is happening now. By making islands of separation out julius essay tragic of the unbreakable chain of human creativity, we are able to set up false comparisons, false expectations, all the while lamenting that the music, poetry, painting, prose, performance art of Now, fails to live up to christianity a religion the art of Then, which is why, we say, it does not affect us. Essay Titles? In fact, we are no more moved by christianity a religion essay a past we are busy inventing, than by essay a present we are busy denying. If you love a Cezanne, you can love a Hockney, can love a Boyd, can love a Rao. If you love a Cezanne rather than lip-service it. A Religion Essay? We are an odd people: We make it as difficult as possible for our artists to work honestly while they are alive; either we refuse them money or we ruin them with money; either we flatter them with unhelpful praise or wound them with unhelpful blame, and when they are too old, or too dead, or too beyond dispute to hinder any more, we canonise them, so that what was wild is tamed, what was objecting, becomes Authority.
Canonising pictures is high homework, one way of a religion essay killing them. When the sense of familiarity becomes too great, history, popularity, association, all crowd in between the viewer and the picture and block it out. Not only pictures suffer like this, all the arts suffer like this. That is one reason why the calling of the artist, in any medium, is to make it new. I do not mean that in new work the past is caesar tragic hero, repudiated; quite the opposite, the past is reclaimed. It is not lost to authority, it is not absorbed at a level of familiarity. It is re-stated and re-instated in its original vigour. Leonardo is present in christianity a religion essay Cezanne, Michelangelo flows through Picasso and on into Hockney. This is not ancestor worship, it is the lineage of art. It is not so much influence as it is connection. Writing Provided? I do not want to argue here about great artists, I want to a religion essay concentrate on true artists, major or minor, who are connected to the past and who themselves make a connection to the future.
The true artist is mccain research, connected. The true artist studies the past, not as a copyist or a pasticheur will study the past, those people are interested only in the final product, the art object, signed sealed and delivered to a public drugged on reproduction. The true artist is interested in the art object as an art process, the thing in being, the being of the thing, the struggle, the excitement, the energy, that have found expression in a particular way. The true artist is after the christianity problem. Caltech Instructions? The false artist wants it solved (by somebody else). Christianity? If the true artist is connected, then he or she has much to give us because it is connection that we seek. Connection to the past, to one another, to the physical world, still compelling, in spite of the ravages of school help technology. A picture, a book, a piece of music, can remind me of a religion feelings, thinkings, I did not even know I had forgot. Whether art tunnels deep under consciousness or whether it causes out of its own invention, reciprocal inventions that we then call memory, I do not know.
I do know that the process of art is a series of jolts, or perhaps I mean volts, for julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero art is an extraordinarily faithful transmitter. Our job is to keep our receiving equipment in good working order. It is impossible to legislate taste, and if it were possible, it would be repugnant. There are no Commandments in art and no easy axioms for art appreciation. Christianity A Religion Essay? 'Do I like this?' is the question anyone should ask themselves at the moment of confrontation with the picture. But if 'yes', why 'yes'? and if 'no', why 'no'? The obvious direct emotional response is never simple, and ninety-nine times out of a hundred, the 'yes' or 'no' has nothing at all to do with the picture in its own night. 'I don't understand this poem' 'I never listen to classical music' 'I don't like this picture' are common enough statements but not ones that tell us anything about books, painting, or music. They are statements that tell us something about the school homework help speaker. Christianity? That should be obvious, but in fact, such statements are offered as criticisms of art, as evidence against, not least because the ignorant, the lazy, or the julius caesar tragic plain confused are not likely to want to admit themselves as such. We hear a lot about the arrogance of the artist but nothing about the arrogance of the audience. The audience, who have not done the work, who have not taken any risks, whose life and livelihood are not bound up at every moment with what they are making, who have given no thought to the medium or the method, will glance up, flick through, chatter over the opening chords, then snap their fingers and walk away like some monstrous Roman tyrant.
This is christianity a religion essay, not arrogance; of course they can absorb in a few moments, and without any effort, the sum of the artist and the art. If the obvious direct emotional response is to have any meaning, the question 'Do I like this?' will have to be the writing services provided opening question and not the final judgement. An examination of our own feelings will have to give way to an examination of the piece of christianity a religion work. This is fair to the work and it will help to clarify the nature of high school homework help our own feelings; to reveal prejudice, opinion, anxiety, even the mood of the day. It is right to trust our feelings but right to christianity a religion essay test them too. If they are what we say they are, they will stand the obama mccain research paper test, if not, we will at least be less insincere. Essay? But here we come back to the first hurdle of art, and it is essay tragic, a high one; it shows us up. When you say This work has nothing to do with me'. When you say This work is boring/pointless/silly/ obscure/elitist etc.', you might be right, because you are looking at a fad, or you might be wrong because the christianity a religion essay work falls so outside of the safety of your own experience that in obama paper order to keep your own world intact, you must deny the other world of the painting.
This denial of imaginative experience happens at a deeper level than our affirmation of christianity our daily world. Every day, in countless ways, you and thesis I convince ourselves about ourselves. True art, when it happens to us, challenges the 'I' that we are. Christianity A Religion Essay? A love-parallel would be just; falling in love challenges the write a graduate essay reality to which we lay claim, part of the pleasure of love and part of its terror, is the world turned upside down. We want and we don't want, the christianity a religion essay cutting edge, the upset, the new views. Mostly we work hard at taming our emotional environment just as we work hard at taming our aesthetic environment. We already have tamed our physical environment. A Graduate Essay? And are we happy with all this tameness? Are you? Art cannot be tamed, although our responses to it can be, and in relation to The Canon, our responses are conditioned from the moment we start school. A Religion? The freshness which the school help everyday regular man or woman pride themselves upon; the untaught 'I know what I like' approach, now encouraged by the media, is neither fresh nor untaught.
It is the half-baked sterility of the classroom washed down with liberal doses of popular culture. The media ransacks the christianity a religion arts, in its images, in its adverts, in its copy, in its jingles, in its little tunes and journalist's Jargon, it continually offers up faint shadows of the form and research invention of real music, real paintings, real words. All of christianity us are subject to this bombardment, which both deadens our sensibilities and makes us fear what is not instant, approachable, consumable. The solid presence of art demands from us significant effort, an effort anathema to popular culture. Effort of time, effort of money, effort of study, effort of thesis instructions humility, effort of christianity a religion essay imagination have each been packed by the artist into the art. Is it so unreasonable to expect a percentage of that from services provided us in return? I worry that to a religion ask for effort is to ptsd titles imply elitism, and the charge against art, that it is elitist, is too often the accuser's defence against his or her own bafflement. Christianity A Religion Essay? it is writing provided, quite close to the remark Why can't they all speak English?', which may be why elitist is the christianity favourite insult of the British and the Americans. But, you may say, how can I know what is good and what is not good? I may wince at the cheap seascape over the mantelpiece but does that necessarily mean I should go to the Tate Gallery and worship a floor full of dyed rice?
Years ago, when I was living very briefly with a stockbroker who had a good cellar, I asked him how I could learn about wine. 'Drink it' he said. It is true. The only way to develop a palate is to develop a palate. That is why, when I wanted to know about paintings, I set out to look at as many as I could, using always, tested standards, but continuing to test them.
You can like a thing out of ignorance, and it is perhaps a blessing that such naivete stays with us until we die. Even now, we are not as closed and muffled as art-pessimists think we are, we do still fall in love at essay, first sight. All well and christianity a religion essay good, but the fashion for dismissing a thing out of ignorance is paper, vicious. Christianity Essay? In fact, it is provided, not essential to like a thing in essay order to recognise its worth, but to reach that point of self-awareness and sophistication takes years of perseverance. For most of us the question 'Do I like this?' will always be the obama mccain paper formative question. Vital then, that we widen the christianity a religion essay 'I' that we are as much as we can.
Vital then, we recognise that the question 'Do I like this?' involves an independent object, as well as our own subjectivity. I am sure that if as a society we took art seriously, not as mere decoration or entertainment, but as a living spirit, we should very soon learn what is art and what is not art. Write Application? The American poet Munel Rukeyser has said: There is art and christianity a religion essay there is non-art; they are two universes (in the algebraic sense) which are exclusive . Thesis? . . It seems to me that to call an achieved work 'good art' and an unachieved work 'bad arty, is like calling one colour 'good red' and another 'bad red' when the second one is green. If we accept this, it does not follow that we should found an Academy of Good Taste or throw out all our pet water-colours, student posters or family portraits. Let them be but know what they are, and a religion essay perhaps more importantly, what they are not. If we sharpened our sensibilities, it is not that we would all agree on everything, or that we would suddenly feel the same things in front of the same pictures (or when reading the ptsd essay same book), but rather that our debates and deliberations would come out of genuine aesthetic considerations and not politics, prejudice and fashion . . . And our hearts?
Art is aerobic. It is shocking too. Christianity A Religion? The most conservative and least interested person will probably tell you that he or she likes Constable. But would our stalwart have liked Constable in I 824 when he exhibited at the Paris Salon and caused a not? We forget that every true shock in obama paper art, whether books, paintings or music, eventually becomes a commonplace, even a standard, to later generations. Christianity Essay? It is caltech instructions, not that those works are tired out and have nothing more to offer, it is a religion, that their discoveries are gradually diluted by lesser artists who can only how to a graduate essay copy but do know how to make a thing accessible and desirable. At last, what was new becomes so well known that we cannot separate it from essay its cultural associations and time-honoured values. To the average eye, now, Constable is a pretty landscape painter, not a revolutionary who daubed bright colour against bright colour ungraded by chiaroscuro. We have had a hundred and fifty years to get used to the man who turned his back on the studio picture, took his easel outdoors and painted in a rapture of light. Julius Caesar Brutu Tragic Hero? It is easy to a religion copy Constable.
It was not easy to be Constable. I cannot afford a Constable, or a Picasso, or a Leonardo, but to julius caesar brutu tragic hero profess a love of a religion essay painting and not to have anything original is homework, as peculiar as a booklover with nothing on essay, her shelves. I do not know why the crowds and crowds of visitors to public galleries do not go out and support new work. Are we talking love-affair or peep-show? I move gingerly around the paintings I own because I know they are looking at me as closely as I am looking at them. There is caltech thesis instructions, a constant exchange of emotion between us, between the three of a religion essay us; the artist I need never meet, the painting in its own right, and me, the one who loves it and ptsd can no longer live independent of it.
The triangle of exchange alters, is fluid, is subtle, is profound and is one of those unverifiable facts that anyone who cares for painting soon discovers. The picture on my wall, art object and art process, is a living line of movement, a wave of colour that repercusses in essay my body, colouring it, colouring the new present, the future, and writing provided even the past, which cannot now be considered outside of the light of the painting. I think of christianity a religion something I did, the picture catches me, adds to the thought, changes the meaning of help thought and past. The totality of the picture comments on the totality of what I am. Christianity? The greater the picture the more complete this process is. Instructions? Process, the energy in being, the christianity essay refusal of finality, which is not the same thing as the refusal of completeness, sets art, all art, apart from the end-stop world that is always calling 'Time Please!'. We know that the universe is infinite, expanding and strangely complete, that it lacks nothing we need, but in spite of that knowledge, the tragic paradigm of human life is lack, loss, finality, a primitive doomsaying that has not been repealed by technology or medical science.
The arts stand in the way of this doomsaying. Art objects. The nouns become an active force not a collector's item. Art objects. The cave wall paintings at Lascaux, the Sistine Chapel ceiling, the huge truth of a Picasso, the quieter truth of Vanessa Bell, are part of the art that objects to the lie against life, against the spirit, that it is pointless and mean. The message coloured through time is not lack, but abundance.
Not silence but many voices. Art, all art, is the communication cord that cannot be snapped by indifference or disaster. Against the daily death it does not die. Brutu Tragic? All painting is cave painting; painting on the low dark walls of you and me, intimations of grandeur. The painted church is the tattooed body of Christ, not bound into religion, but unbound out of love. Love, the eloquent shorthand that volumes out those necessary invisibles of faith and optimism, humour and generosity, sublimity of mankind made visible through art. Naked I came into the world, but brush strokes cover me, language raises me, music rhythms me.
Art is my rod and staff, my resting place and shield, and not mine only, for art leaves nobody out. A Religion? Even those from whom art has been stolen away by tyranny, by poverty, begin to make it again. If the arts did not exist, at every moment, someone would begin to create them, in song, out of ptsd dust and mud, and although the artifacts might be destroyed, the energy that creates them is not destroyed. If, in the comfortable West, we have chosen to a religion treat such energies with scepticism and contempt, then so much the worse for us. Art is not a little bit of evolution that late-twentieth-century city dwellers can safely do without.
Strictly, art does not belong to our evolutionary pattern at all. It has no biological necessity. Time taken up with it was time lost to hunting, gathering, mating exploring, building, surviving, thriving. Thesis Instructions? Odd then, that when routine physical threats to ourselves and our kind are no longer a reality, we say we have no time for christianity a religion essay art. If we say that art, all art is no longer relevant to our lives, then we might at least risk the question 'What has happened to our lives?' The usual question, 'What has happened to art?' is too easy an escape route. I did not escape. At an Amsterdam gallery I sat down and wept.
When I sold a book I bought a Massimo Rao. Since that day I have been filling my walls with new light. Jeanette Winterson ART OBJECTS Essays on ecstasy and effrontery, Jonathan Cape, London, 1995 pp 3-21.
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Essay on Is Christianity A Pacifist Religion?
Homework assignments to enhance student engagement in secondary education. Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and they have a limited awareness of their own learning process. Based on a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated to christianity stimulate students to caltech instructions prepare for history lessons and subsequently show a more engaged attitude and involvement in classroom activities. Two groups of, in total 50, 11th grade students of pre-university education participated in one group pre- post-test design. Data on student engagement in class is gathered by class observation: time on task, their level of activity, and amount and variety of questions students asked.
Students’ motivation and perceived learning outcomes are measured by christianity a religion, means of a self-report: Three of the four homework assignments (jigsaw, preparing analytical skills, and the fragmented assessment) showed increase in student engagement compared to the baseline of the first two classes. Implications for practice are discussed. Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out classroom windows, counting the seconds for the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad 1984 ; Larson and julius brutu hero Richards 1991 ). Christianity A Religion Essay? Many teachers think that their students are disengaged in class and show little awareness of their own learning process. The mostly heard complaint is that students do not prepare for class as they make only little use of instructional materials, extracurricular activities and assignments, and writing provided feedback of teachers to learn outside school. This lack of engagement outside school also leads to christianity a religion essay a passive attitude in class: Students complete the minimum of exercises that is needed for their exam (Battin-Pearson et al. Essay? 2000 ; Jonassen and Blondal 2005 ; Allen et al. Christianity? 2007 ) However, certain educational designs might promote excitement and engagement. In this study, we see students’ class preparation outside school as a necessary condition for their engagement in class. Instructions? The problem of this study therefore is how students can be encouraged to prepare class, not with the primary objective of gaining knowledge, but with the aim to a religion become more engaged and active during the lesson. Student learning, engagement, and homework. Recent thinking on teaching and learning has been influenced by several theories of learning, including behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, and social learning theory, rooted in the works of Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky.
Jonassen et al. ( 1999 ), in their constructivist approach to learning with technology, described instructional principles or characteristics of learning environments which are based on a synthesis of several theories of learning. They argue that meaningful learning only occurs when learners are engaged in knowledge construction, conversation, articulation, collaboration, authentic context, and reflection. Barak ( 2006 ) derived four similar instructional principles from multiple learning theories. The first principle, learning is contextual , is based on theories of situated cognition (e.g., Brown et al. How To Write? 1989 ) contending that knowledge is inseparable from the contexts and christianity activities within which it is acquired. Learning occurs only when students process new information in a meaningful way that makes sense within their own frames of reference. Mccain Research? The second principle is learning is an christianity, active process . Provided? As most people, students learn better through their own experiences, than through passive acceptance of information provided by others or through technical means. Students actively construct knowledge by integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising, and christianity a religion reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new. Ptsd Essay? Consequently, educators should see teaching as means of knowledge construction and christianity a religion discovery, rather than of knowledge transfer of its passive acceptance (Johnson and Aragon 2003 ; Salomon 1998 ). The third principle, learning is a social process , is based on the work of Vygotsky ( 1978 ). Ptsd Essay Titles? This principle means that student learning is associated with the process of discourse between the student and christianity a religion essay other people—peers, teachers, experts, parents, and casual acquaintances.
Lave and writing provided Wenger ( 2002 ) combine the essay first and third principle as they claim social learning to be a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is caesar tragic, situated). Social interaction is a critical component of christianity essay, situated learning—learners become involved in a community of write a graduate application, practice which embodies certain beliefs and a religion behaviors to be acquired. The fourth principle of learning means that reflective practice plays a central role in learning . In his landmark work on caltech instructions, reflection, Schon described the concept of reflection-in-action as consisting of christianity a religion, “on-the-spot surfacing, criticizing, restructuring and testing of intuitive understanding of experienced phenomena which often takes the julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero form of a reflective conversation with the situation” (Schon 1983 , pp. Essay? 241–242). However, all these ideas on meaningful student learning—whether it should be active, creative, reflective, contextual, or social—infer that students are engaged with school and learning. Essay Brutu Tragic Hero? Student effort, or the extent to which students perform activities in school, is a major indicator of the engagement with school learning (Astin 1984 ; Pascarella 1985 ). Christianity Essay? Kuh et al. showed that student engagement leads to higher achievements and has a positive effect on long-term learning outcomes as well as the research personal development of the student (Carini et al. Christianity Essay? 2006 ; Kuh 2009 ). Stoeber et al. ( 2011 ) found another indicator of student engagement with learning and school. In their study, they showed that a controlled (not obsessive) passion to study led to higher student engagement.
Not only is the relationship between student activity and learning outcomes important; students themselves prefer active and participatory education, more than traditional education (Harris and Haydn 2008 ). Students find activating work methods fun, it motivates them and ptsd essay they have the christianity a religion essay feeling that they learn. Many of the activating work methods that have been developed in obama research paper, recent years focus on the activity of students within one or two lessons. The extent to which activating work methods in class actually lead to activities of christianity a religion, students is often impeded by a lack of writing, class preparation of the christianity a religion essay students. Writing Services? Students who show limited activity in the class will eventually experience less fun in learning activities and become bored and a religion essay frustrated (Skinner et al. 2008 ).
So, one of the ways to stimulate student activity and student motivation is the work they do on homework. Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for students to carry out during nonschool hours (cf., Cooper 1989 ). Generally, a positive relationship is found between doing homework and writing services school results. In their review of research on a religion essay, effects of homework, Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) demonstrated a positive relationship between homework of thesis instructions, students and christianity a religion their school results in terms of both class grades and standardized test scores. This positive relationship was found for multiple subjects, but for secondary school students only. With respect to the time students spend on their homework, the authors concluded that the optimum benefits of homework for secondary school students lie between 1.5 and school homework 2.5 h. Based on multilevel analyses, Trautwein ( 2007 ) also concluded that completing homework has a positive effect on a religion essay, students’ achievements. The author only found a positive effect of the frequency of working on ptsd essay, homework assignments, not of the average amount of time students spent on their homework.
However, Epstein and a religion essay Van Voorhis ( 2001 ) concluded that students performed better in school when they spent more time in general on their homework. Essay Titles? These authors argued that the christianity essay teacher also contributed by checking the homework assignments. Essay Titles? Finally, Paschal et al. ( 2003 ) showed that setting homework had the best effect if the completed homework assignments were credited or provided with feedback. So, student homework can have an influence on students’ performance in class. Despite the christianity essay growing knowledge based on the relationships between homework and achievements, four problems came up with drawing conclusions about the value of homework assignments in secondary education (cf., Cooper et al. Brutu Tragic Hero? 2006 ; Corno 1996 ). A Religion Essay? First, many of the references to the value of homework for achievements provide ambiguous outcomes due to the fact the purposes of homework assignments in these studies vary and include both instructional and non-instructional objectives.
Second, these references provide little or no information about the specific characteristics that are (assumed to be) responsible for the impact of homework assignments. Third, as Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) concluded in their review, most of the effects of homework on school homework help, outcomes other than achievement have never been put to christianity a religion essay empirical test. Julius Caesar Essay? Fourth, homework with the purpose of enhancing class instruction is christianity, underrepresented. Most research is about homework with the purpose to practice or review material that has already been presented in class. Instructions? Mulhenbruck et al. ( 1999 ) found that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels. Elementary school teachers used homework more often to review material already covered in class. Secondary school teachers were more likely to use homework to prepare students for work yet to come and to enrich classroom activities.
These findings are consistent with the notion that teachers believe young students do not yet have the skills to christianity a religion essay benefit greatly from unstructured home study. How To Essay? Homework assignments that vary, differentiate, offer students a choice, and have a limited content seem to trigger student engagement (Ames 1992 ). What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students’ time on task and a religion their level of participation in class? Are these effects different for julius caesar essay hero boys and girls? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on the type of student questions in class? What are the effects of the christianity essay various homework assignments on homework, students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes? To what extent do various teaching formats differ in students’ time on a religion, task and caltech the level of participation in class? The research design. O1 and a religion essay O2 pre-test (baseline); O3 , O4 , O5 , and O6 post-test; O7 delayed post-test; X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4 four different homework assignments; L1 – L7 lessons 1–7 (one lesson per week) Students benefit from the possibility to how to application choose their assignments.
If students get autonomy over their own learning process, they will be more inclined to learn. Students should be aware of the aim of each homework assignment. These aims should be unambiguously formulated in terms students understand. Homework assignments should be straightforward. Teachers need to be able to apply the instructional activity easily and christianity essay students should be able to homework help complete the assignments in time. Homework should be preparatory for the lesson. Christianity Essay? The acquisition of in-depth knowledge and how to a graduate application complex skills should be part of the lesson with teacher supervision. Homework assignment 1: preparing analytical skills ( lesson 3 ) This homework assignment 1 promoted knowledge acquisition at home in order to christianity essay prepare them to obama practice analytical skills in christianity a religion, class. High Homework Help? The strategy included four phases, two at christianity home and two in class. Essay Titles? The first two phases (at home) asked students to look carefully at a propaganda poster and to identify all elements.
This means answering questions as; ‘what is happening in the poster’, ‘who are the people in a religion essay, het poster’, and caltech thesis instructions ‘do you recognize any symbols used’. The last two phases (in class) asked students to examine the goal and christianity essay the technique of the poster in order to answer explanatory and analytical questions. In this way, students learned to analyze propaganda posters and they hopefully experienced that class preparation—i.e., going through all phases—resulted in a more profound analysis. Homework assignment 2: the fragmented assessment (spread over six lessons) This homework assignment meant that each lesson students completed a part of a test, spread over six lessons. Ptsd Titles? For each lesson, students learned only one sixth of the materials, and they had the possibility to practice a test question. In class, they had the opportunity to christianity a religion essay ask questions before completing the part of the test about the materials they studied at home. Homework assignment 3: jigsaw assignment ( lesson 4 ) With the jigsaw assignment, students prepared at home different materials on a complex concept. For example, the concept of National Socialism is spread over four questions (What is an writing services provided, ideology, and what are the characteristics of fascism, racial doctrine and Lebensraum).
In class, they discussed each part in order to get an overview of the whole concept. Then, students had to apply their acquired knowledge in another assignment in class which contained source materials and questions. Each student prepared one source and then they had to discuss the additional information and their analysis with each other. Homework assignment 4: student choice ( lesson 5 ) This homework assignment meant that students were allowed to choose their own assignment. All assignments were grouped on topic and difficulty. Students started at home and completed the assignments in class. Students could choose for christianity a religion example, to obama mccain paper analyze propaganda posters or to analyze a part of film ‘The great dictator’.
So, students could choose an assignment at their own ability level and matching the learning style they preferred. In this study, two groups of 50 grade 11 students in total (group 1, 22 students; group 2, 29 students) participated. These students attended pre-university education in one school in a small town in the southeast of the Netherlands. The students were 16 or 17 years old and 35 of them were female. Data was gathered by means of christianity, class observations and a self-report questionnaire.
Each lesson was recorded by two video cameras with a different perspective on caesar essay brutu tragic, the students in class. With the observational data, four variables were measured: students’ time on task in class, their level of student participation, the questions students asked in class and the teaching formats applied in class. For homework assignment 2 (fragmented assessment) only christianity a religion essay, students’ questions were collected as no variance was expected for the other three variables. A delayed post-test was administered in lesson 7 for group 1 only. Students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes were measured by means of a questionnaire. The coding units were 3 ? 6 units of 30 s of each lesson.
This means that there were eighteen 30-s coding units per lesson. The three periods of 3 min were spread over the lesson, based on different teaching formats used. Students’ time on task was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = completely off-task and 5 = completely on task . Caltech Instructions? Students were on-task when they made notes, participated in the discussion, asked questions, or were listening. Students were off-task when they did not pay any attention to the tasks or the teacher. The time on task was registered for each individual student in class. Interobserver agreement was established between two researchers based on 48 coding units, the correlation between both scores was satisfactory ( r = 0.74).
For the level of student participation in class, we used the same coding units as with time on christianity a religion, task. Thesis Instructions? Student participation in class was measured using a five-point Likert scale, with 1 = very passive and 5 = very active . Students were active when they took notes, asked questions, and discussed; and essay they were passive when they were listening, kept quiet, or were reading. Julius Hero? The interobserver agreement, based on 48 coding units and two researchers, was r = 0.72. For each lesson, all student questions were coded with the question as coding unit. Christianity A Religion Essay? Two main categories of student questions were distinguished: questions that focus on the content and questions aimed at learning a (historical) skill (e.g., How can I see the propaganda technique ‘prestige’ from the high school homework help source?). For the essay main category content, student questions were clustered into five subcategories (based on the typology of Bloom 1956 ): knowledge questions (When did Hitler come into power?), comprehension questions (How did Hitler come into power?), application questions (How did Hitler make use of the political context?), analysis questions (Can you compare society in Germany in the 1930s with the one in Italy?), and evaluation questions (Could the political coup by caltech instructions, Hitler have been prevented?). Motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Students’ motivation and their perceived learning outcomes with respect to the four homework assignments were measured in essay, both groups by means of a questionnaire in lessons 7 and 11, respectively (i.e. the first lesson after the final implementation of the homework assignment).
The questionnaire was piloted with grade 10 students. Motivation with respect to their homework in caltech thesis instructions, the four interventions was measured by three items. First, students had to report the extent to which they completed their homework (on a five-point Likert-type scale with 1 = in total and 5 = not at all ). Second, two statements were provided: one that homework was nice to do and one that home work was challenging. These items used a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree . Perceived learning outcomes were measured by christianity, four statements (on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree), for each of the thesis instructions four interventions (By doing my homework it improved my understanding of the christianity a religion essay lesson, doing homework was a meaningful activity, I learned a lot of doing my homework, and it would be good to repeat this homework next time). Based on an inspection of the observation data, five teaching formats were distinguished: (1) self-regulated individual work, (2) self-regulated group work, (3) teacher-task instructions, (4) teacher-led classroom discussion, and (5) teacher explanation of the subject matter. Each time on task/level of participation unit received a teaching format code (W1, W2, W3, W4, or W5) As the write a graduate essay two groups did not differ significantly in time on task and level of participation, we merged the data from both classes. And as the two pre-tests did not significantly differ in time on task and essay the level of participation, we used their average scores as pre-test. Paired t tests were used between the pre-test, on the one hand, and each of the post-tests and the delayed post-test, on the other hand, to obama mccain paper answer research question 1 (with time-on task and christianity a religion essay level of application, class participation as dependent variables) and research question 4 (with student motivation and perceived learning outcomes as dependent variables).
Independent sample t tests were used to answer research question 2 with gender as independent variable and the difference scores (between pre-test and post-tests) on time on task and the level of class participation as dependent variables. As we performed a series of t test in a religion essay, these cases, we adapted the original significance level of 5 % based on the Bonferroni correction method (5 % divided by the number of analyses). Information about student questions was analyzed at the level of each lesson. Descriptive statistics were used to provide information about the frequencies of student questions. Univariate analysis of variance with Scheffe post hoc analyses were used to answer the research question about differences between teaching formats (question 5). Teaching format was the independent variable and time on task and level of provided, class participation were the dependent variables.
Time on task and level of a religion essay, class participation. Means and julius essay tragic hero standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and level of class participation. Preparing analytical skills. Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for time on essay, task and level of homework help, class participation. After all the homework assignments were completed, a post-test and essay a delayed post-test was carried out. The students differed significantly in time on task and caltech instructions class participation between the pre-test and both post-tests. Students were more time-on task in lessons 6 and 7 ( t (36) = ?7.35, p 0.001, d = 2.22 and t (26) = ?7.95, p 0.001, d = 2.4), compared to the pre-test. Similar results with respect to class participation which showed that students participated more in lesson 6 ( t (36) = ?6.01, p 0.001, d = 1.81) and in christianity, lesson 7 ( t (1.26) = ?7.48, p 0.001, d = 2.26) compared with the pre-test. This describes the effect of the total amount of homework assignments. Differences between boys and girls in time on task and the class participation.
There were no significant differences between boys and writing services provided girls in increase in time on task and in class participation between the pre-test and a religion all post-tests. So, the effects of the homework assignments as mentioned above were not different for boys and girls. In all lessons girls scored higher than boys on caltech thesis, both time on task and class participation. Number of questions asked (in pretest, interventions, and both posttests) Preparing analytical skills.
The fragmented assessment. Pretest is an average of the two pre-tests. A Religion Essay? The delayed post-test was only carried out in one group. In all classes taken together, knowledge-oriented questions were asked most frequently (45 times). Questions in which students analyzed the subject were asked especially in school homework help, the preparatory assignment (five times) and the fragmented test (10 times), with a total of 22 questions. Three out of four evaluative questions were asked during the fragmented test. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes.
Preparation analytical task. I have done the homework for this assignment. I found the assignment useful. I could understand the teacher better. I could participate better in a religion, class. I have learned a lot from this assignment. I liked the assignment. I found the assignment challenging. I find the high school help assignment repeatable. Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four indicators: usefulness, improving teacher understanding, improving class understanding, and perceived learning. The scores on the fragmented test were significantly higher for usefulness (compared with jigsaw, t (39) = 4.99, p 0.001 and student choice, t (38) = 3.32, p = 0.002), for christianity a religion understanding the ptsd essay titles teacher (compared with the christianity a religion jigsaw assignment, t (36) = 3.40, p = 0.002), and for perceived learning (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (38) = 5.07, p 0.001).
For perceived learning, we also found significant differences between the jigsaw assignment, on the one hand, and preparing analytical tasks ( t (38) = 3.07, p = 0.004) and student choice ( t (35) = ?3.04, p = 0.004), both with lower scores for the jigsaw assignment. No significant differences were found between the four homework assignments with respect to the extent to which students understood what was told in class. Finally, we asked students whether they would like it when the homework assignments were repeated. In two cases, we found a significant difference. The jigsaw assignment again generally scored lower than preparing analytical tasks ( t (37) = 4.71, p 0. 001) and student choice ( t (36) = ?3.52, p = 0.001). Teaching formats and time on ptsd essay, task and christianity essay activity. We found a relationship between teaching formats applied in a lesson, on the one hand, and high school students’ time on task ( F (4, 637) = 16.72, p 0.001) and class participation ( F (4, 637) = 45.43, p 0.001), on the other hand. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) showed that teacher’s task instructions led to less time on task of christianity a religion essay, students (all differences with p 0.029) and lower class participation of students (all differences with p 0.01). Furthermore, students participated significantly more in class during self-regulated work (whether this was individual or group work) compared to the other teaching formats (all differences with p 0.001). In general, the homework assignments developed to enhance students’ homework activities, did have an effect on students’ time on writing services provided, task in class as well as their class participation. Although students were the least motivated, the jigsaw assignment led to the largest increase in both students’ time on task and class participation, compared to the other homework assignments.
The strategy of preparing analytical tasks also increased students’ time on task and a religion their class participation, compared to the baseline as indicated in the pre-test. Students were more motivated for this strategy than the jigsaw assignment. Although students were more motivated by the strategy student choice compared with the jigsaw assignment, we did not find a significant increase in the level of class participation, compared to the pre-test, and even a significant decrease in students’ time on task. Subsequently, students reported to be mostly motivated by the fragmented test: they experienced the strategy as meaningful and julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero challenging, and they perceived the largest learning outcomes. However, as the teaching format of working on a test is christianity essay, quite one-sided, no information about students’ time on task and class participation was collected. Finally, both the immediate and the delayed post-tests showed that students attained a higher level of time on task and of class participation. This might indicate that there was a long-term effect of the combination of julius caesar essay, homework assignments on students’ activity in class.
The highest activity level was obtained when students were self-regulating their learning process, individually or in groups, more than during the teacher-led instruction formats. Student choice resulted in the lowest time on task and class participation of students. A Religion? Unlike the jigsaw and thesis instructions the preparation of analytical tasks, this assignment was performed completely individually. The other two assignments had a shared goal, in small groups or in class. The jigsaw with a high degree of interdependence yielded the highest scores on time on task and class participation. Some critical reflections are justified here. First, these interventions were designed and implemented by the first author. However, the homework assignments were verbalized in the digital learning environment before the christianity essay start of the study in order to carry out the homework help interventions as they were designed. Second, students were aware that they participated in a research study, which might have caused them to behave in a socially desirable manner. Christianity Essay? However, our pilot study showed that being part of a research study did not change behavior of grade 11 students at all. Writing Services? To accustom students to the video cameras, we used these cameras in previous lessons as well.
Thirdly, our study was limited to only one level (pre-university education) and grade (11). This means that the conclusions about the effects of christianity a religion, homework assignments can probably only be generalized to this specific group of students. Julius Essay Brutu Tragic? The way this kind of homework assignments might work out with younger students and/or students in christianity a religion essay, lower educational levels should be part of further research. In teaching, there are many possibilities to increase knowledge, deepen insights, and widen horizons. How To A Graduate Essay? All these initiatives require some kind of activity from both teachers and students. Teachers have a duty to inspire and activate their students to a religion essay attend their classes. Obama Mccain Research? For students, class participation is crucial for their own learning process.
Students should already be active before the lesson begins, they should finish their homework so they know what class will be about. This helps them to christianity a religion understand the materials better, ask meaningful questions, and get interested in the subject matter. The current study revealed some characteristics of mccain paper, homework assignments used to prepare class which go beyond the christianity a religion amount of time students spend on julius essay brutu tragic hero, their homework. It appeared that the christianity a religion essay social context in which the assignment was completed and essay the perceived meaningfulness of the christianity homework assignment helped to obama mccain trigger student participation in class. Both aspects were addressed by Corno ( 1996 ) who discussed the a religion complicated nature of homework. How To Application Essay? One of the misconceptions about homework she described is that homework supports what students learn in school. But she argued that “homework only supports school learning when it’s explicitly used with that purpose in a religion essay, mind. That is, teachers have to give assignments that both reinforce what they are teaching in school and prompt students to reorganize and extend their learning into new and richer areas” (Corno 1996 , p. How To Write A Graduate Application Essay? 28).
But reality is different. The lack of class participation is detrimental to students’ learning process. Students tend to be passive in class and teachers get frustrated experiencing that students ‘never do anything’ which in turn results in essay, a lack of motivation to get students involved. This can turn into a vicious circle from which students and teachers hardly escape. Teacher work with homework assignments that promote both homework and class participation might break this vicious circle. How To Write A Graduate Application? In this study, some of these instruments were examined of which the jigsaw assignment and the preparation of analytical tasks were found to be effective.
But we do need more research on how to use homework to enhance class instruction by engaging students in the process of learning and teaching. This article is a religion essay, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and writing the source are credited. Maartje Buijs . University of Amsterdam, Hermelijnstraat 57, 6531 JW Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: email@example.com. Current themes of research:
Student engagement in secondary education. Wilfried Admiraal . ICLON Leiden University Graduate School of a religion essay, Teaching, Wassenaarseweg 62A, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Current themes of research: Social-psychological aspects of education. Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of julius caesar hero, Education: Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., Dam, G. ten. (2011).
The concept of flow in game-based learning. Computers in christianity, Human Behavior , 27 , 1185–1194. Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., Oost, H. (2008). Julius Brutu Tragic Hero? Auditing quality of social scientific research. Quality Quantity , 42 , 257–274. Admiraal, W., Wubbels, T. (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Student teachers’ learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and Teaching , 11 , 315–329. Admiraal, W. Christianity? F., Korthagen, F. A. J., Wubbels, T. (2000). Effects of student teachers’ coping behaviour.
British Journal of Educational Psychology , 70 , 33–52. Admiraal, W. F., Wubbels, T., Korthagen, F. A. J. (1996). Student teacher behaviour in response to daily hassles in the classroom. Social Psychology of julius caesar essay hero, Education , 1 , 25–46. jtj/greinar/Back%20on%20track%20JTJ%20og%20Stella%202005.pdf . Accessed 4 Sept 2008. Maartje Buijs 1 Email author Wilfried Admiraal 2 1. University of Amsterdam Nijmegen the Netherlands 2. Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
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Compare And Contrast Islam And Christianity Religion …
Strange Details in Stephen#039;s Defense. The defense offered by Steven in Acts 7 has confused interpreters as much as any passage in the book of a religion essay Acts. In his excellent commentary on Acts, Howard Marshal says, . . . the purpose of this speech is still much disputed. High School Help! In form it is a lengthy recital of Old Testament history, discussing in christianity a religion, detail what appear to be insignificant points and culminating in a bitter attack on the speaker's hearers. What is the speaker trying to do? 1. later he complains, . . .it is not clear what the theological point of the details is. 2. These are striking statements, coming, as they do, from one who demonstrates keen insight throughout the text of Acts.
Yet, they are hardly unusual. Dibelius is mccain research much stronger,The irrelevance of this speech has for long been the a religion real problem of exegesis. It is, indeed, impossible to essay find a connection between the christianity a religion account of the history of provided Israel to the time of christianity Moses (7:2-19) and the accusations against Stephen. . .The major part of the speech shows no purpose whatever. Services Provided! . Christianity Essay! . The most striking feature of this speech is the essay titles irrelevance of its main section. 3. Gealy asks, . . . How are we to explain the a religion essay fact that Steven does not really speak to the charges brought against him? 4 In fact, Gealy thinks that the whole text is so unrelated to the flow of the Steven narrative that 7:1-53 must be one of three conflated traditions, namely an anti-Jewish polemic which Luke fashioned into a speech for his purposes. 5 He thinks that the only point made in the speech is that the history of Israel is a history of continual disobedience to God. 6. Unfortunately, Gealy has missed the point of this brilliant speech. The speech is julius caesar essay hero certainly not anti-semitic, 7 and the fact that Israel was disobedient to the law, though mentioned, plays a subordinate role in the thought development.
It is only certain kinds of disobedience that Stephen focuses on. In fact, this speech is the lynch-pin in christianity a religion essay, the transition between Christianity as a localized ethnic religion, and a universal body. 8 Stephen the Hellenist was able to see the research paper implications of the Gospel to an extraordinary degree. 9. While there are confusing sections in the speech, there are also sections that are well understood by modern interpreters. Commonly accepted motifs are: The history of Israel demonstrates ineptitude (on the part of the essay leadership especially) in seeing the hand of God and in recognizing His agents. The Temple cultus has been misinterpreted all along, and should now be set aside. 10 These motifs are clearly argued in this speech. This author has no objection to either application. Caltech! On the a religion essay other hand, there must be more involved in the argument, because much of the obama research detailed material in the speech does not address these two points.
There is still a substantial body of detailed Old Testament material not included in the argument for these two obvious points. It is christianity this extra material (some of it strange), that is the focus of this study. The key to services understanding the inclusion of seemingly irrelevant detail in Stephen's speech is to realize that they deal with geography. The speech is a religion overly concerned with geography, and with the people's and God's relationship to julius caesar essay it. It is the argument of christianity essay this paper that a mistake is being made by interpreters when the second purpose of Stephen's speech is limited to answering charges regarding the temple. The nucleus of the caltech thesis instructions thinking here is not only a response to the temple, but to the broader and more foundational concept of sacred space or sacred land. 11 Stephen will argue that the notion of a religion sacred land, used by God in the past for communication purposes, was not, and should not be viewed as a limitation upon titles, Him.
God can work just fine without the use of any sacred space, is Stephen's argument. Only this broader understanding will account for all of the material in the speech, as well as explaining the strategy Stephen follows in refuting the a religion charges made against him. One of the charges brought against Stephen was that he speaks against, this place, (6:13). 12 Marshal thinks that the accusation that Stephen blasphemed this holy place (tou hagiou topou toutou vs.14) is a reference to the temple. This may be correct, even though the examples he cites do not use the word topos, but naos. 13. Whether the julius caesar essay brutu hero phrase refers exclusively to the temple, or to christianity a religion essay the sacred area around it (Jerusalem, Mt. Writing! Zion or even Israel) it seems clear that the greater question of sacred space in the sense of sacred land had come up in the debate earlier. 14 It would be hard to exaggerate the centrality of the sacred land of Israel in christianity, the understanding of the services covenantal blessings at the heart of Judaism at this time.
15 At the heart of christianity a religion essay ethnic-religious world views are the twin values of Race and Space, or to put it differently, Blood and Soil. These values are hardly unique to first century Judaism. The same terms have been used to understand thought systems such as Naziism. Unfortunately, they would adequately summarize the ethos of much of modern western Christianity. These values can be dangerous substitutes for real spirituality, and may stand as barriers to a truly universal, loving, outreaching, and caring form of Christianity. Most of the book of Acts is concerned with God's efforts to overcome the inertia that emanates from the unbalanced application of these two values in the name of religion. By speaking to the issue of sacred space, including the sacred city and sacred land of Israel, Stephen's speech lays a firm ideological foundation for the subsequent movement of the focus of God's work away from both in the following chapters. Immediately, we find Philip putting into action the lateral movement that Stephen's analysis of Scripture so beautifully justified. Having asserted this theme, we can now briefly note how it is developed in the text of Stephen's speech. That God related personally to Abraham was admitted by all.
The important point to Steven is ptsd titles that He did so, . . .while he was still in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran. (Acts 7:2). Indeed, He directed him to Leave your country and your people. Christianity A Religion Essay! . . (7:3), just as He would now direct the righteous of Israel to obama mccain research paper leave their country and their people for the sake of world-wide witness. Christianity Essay! Stephen admits that Abraham was directed to this land (tain gain tautain), but reminds them that he never owned a foot of ground in it (vs.5). 16 Thus, Abraham was a foreigner in the promised land, just as many of the Hellenists and some Gentiles were. One might be tempted at this point to argue that this state was hardly God's way, since the promise was still unfulfilled. But Stephen reminds them that even after the birth of Isaac, Your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own. Write! . . for christianity a religion essay, 400 years (vs. 6). Obama! Only then would they come out of that country to serve God in this place (en toi topoi toutoi). A Religion! 17.
The significance of the mention of circumcision in mccain research, this context is that the covenant was being practiced while no land was owned by Abraham, thus showing that the enjoyment of this covenant was not dependent on being a native of the Holy Land. Christianity! 18. The career of the patriarchs continues to demonstrate the key motifs that interest Stephen. First, they did not recognize that God was with Joseph, so they sold him. 19 In the same way, the present august assembly (though certainly no greater in stature than the patriarchs themselves) may have failed to recognize God's agent again in Christ. This part of the argument is clear.
However, why include the career of Joseph during the famine? To Stephen, the important thing is caesar brutu hero not that Joseph was sold into slavery, but that he was sold into slavery in Egypt, (vs. 9). A Religion! Did this mean that because Joseph was out of the land, he was out of the center of action spiritually? Not at all. In fact, the center of action moved with Joseph. God was with him, affirms Stephen (vs. Ptsd Essay! 9).
The subsequent events surrounding the famine demonstrated that God was working through Joseph the outcast one, an Egyptian slave living outside of Israel. Indeed, God was working so effectively through Joseph that the entire family eventually moved to Egypt, and the focus of salvation history during this period shifted completely out of the promised land. It is true that though Joseph and Jacob died in Egypt, their bodies were brought back to Palestine. Christianity! Yet, according to Stephen, it was to the city of Shechem that they were taken, in the hated territory of the Samaritans. 20.
Blasphemy of Moses was part of the charge brought against Stephen, so his analysis of this period in how to write a graduate application, salvation history is important. The elements of the christianity a religion story included by Stephen focus on: Moses' relation to other races (vs. 21-23) The failure on the part of the people (including the leadership) to recognize him, or to obey his teaching (vs. 24-28,35,37-39) see esp. vs.
25, he thought that his own people would realize that God was using him to rescue them, but they did not. and ptsd 37 But our fathers refused to obey him. Instead, they rejected him. . . 21 Moses' and the people's relation to sacred space The last point, regarding sacred space, accounts for the seemingly strange and unnecessary material in this section. Christianity! First we find that Moses fled to Midian, where he settled as a foreigner, (vs. 29). High School Homework! It was in Midian, not in Palestine, that he saw the burning bush. It was on an unknown patch of ground somewhere near Sinai that God said, Take off your sandals; the place where you are standing is christianity a religion essay holy ground, (vs. 33). Here was authentic sacred ground if ever there was such a thing! Yet, interestingly, no one in ptsd essay, Stephen's day knew where this ground was. Would it be a good idea to look for christianity a religion essay, the spot in the hope that it was still sacred? Not at mccain research all.
The thing that made it sacred was the presence of God working there. Now that He had moved on to other work, the location of the spot was unimportant. It would have been a serious mistake to stand around at essay this site when God had already moved on! In the essay same way, according to christianity a religion Stephen, God was moving in new directions as he spoke, but He was being inhibited by institutionalized foot-dragging on write application essay the part of his audience. Stephen not only points out a religion essay, that Moses did wonders, but he reminds his audience of the venue for those works-- in Egypt, at the Red Sea and for forty years in the desert, (vs. High School Help! 36). The passage in 40-43 reporting on the practice of idol worship in the wilderness has confused many. A Religion Essay! Why should Stephen pick out this area of sin to report on? Surely there were ample examples of unfaithfulness to the law in Deuteronomy, without having to go to the book of Psalms?
The answer, I suggest is that this passage is also dealing with the issue of sacred space. 22. Stephen shows that the inclination of the people has always been to worship and love the work of their own hands, (vs. 41). It was the fact that the animistic gods were tangible, visible and man-made that appealed to the ancient Hebrews, and the same features, he suggests, commended the temple and the sacred ground idea to his audience. The Tabernacle and the Temple (vs.
44-50) Stephen illustrates the basic difference between the outlook of man and that of God on this point, by comparing the tabernacle and the temple (vs.44-50). The tabernacle hardly fits the usual pattern for high homework help, sacred space. Shrines and temples are usually built around the site of a theophany. 23 A sacred grove, spring, mountain, or stone are the proper loci for religious shrines. But this shrine was mobile. The sacredness of the shrine had to christianity a religion essay do with the pattern he [Moses] had seen, (vs.44) and caltech the teaching value that resulted, not with its location.
Not only this, but the tabernacle sat in the barnyard of a religion essay a farmer for a period of caltech thesis instructions time that must have been about 400 years according to the chronology of essay I Kings. 24 During this whole time--almost equal in how to application essay, length to the whole post-exilic history of Jerusalem--the location of the temple was irrelevant to God's working. Certainly the space Stephen devoted to the history of the tabernacle must relate to christianity a religion the over-all theme of the speech. The best guess as to the significant aspect of the tabernacle is the absence of any tie to a geographical location. It is possible that God's refusal to let David build the a graduate essay temple, in spite of the christianity fact that he was even more favored by God than Solomon, is used to show that the temple was not God's ideal. Certainly, in the original speech, Stephen cannot have failed to teach on the great text in II Sam. 7 where God declares that He has, been moving around in a tent, even in a tabernacle. God goes on to ask, Did I [ask] why have you not built Me a house of cedar?
25. This need not be seen as an argument that the construction of the temple was a mistake. It was not the construction of the temple that was an error, but the false interpretation of the temple that had become a deadly error. 26 No doubt, it was this danger that caused God to reflect some negativity regarding the whole project. Yet, there is no actual statement to hero the effect that God had not ordained the temple. Christianity Essay! Rather, there is the unwavering declaration that the Most High does not dwell in houses made by caltech instructions human hands. Christianity! (vs.
48). This was the critical misunderstanding that was inhibiting God's purposes in Stephen's day, as it still does today. Stephen seems to have realized that he had already signed his death warrant by directly opposing the theology of the Counsel. He certainly evidences no effort at restraint in the denunciation that follows. Titles! 27. I think entirely too much importance is attached to Stephen's reference to Christ as the Son of Man. The fact that this is the only usage of the term outside of the gospels is accounted for christianity, by the unique nature of the titles confrontation, including the fact that the audience is made up of Jewish Old Testament scholars. The allusion to christianity a religion Dan. 7:14 seems natural and mccain realistic in christianity essay, this setting.
It is certainly not what makes the speech important. 28. The fact that the counsel stoned Stephen without Roman approval is an evident breech of Roman law, even if the crimes of blasphemy were capitol offenses. Bruce is probably correct when he observes that, . Ptsd Essay! . .during the closing part of Pilate's administration, especially when he was resident in Caesarea, the Jewish rulers knew that they could take certain discreet liberties. 29. It remains possible in this author's mind that the counsel simply functioned as an illegal lynch mob. 30 The main point is that the church lost a great light the day that Stephen died.
Stephen was ahead of the development of many of the other leaders in the Jerusalem church in his understanding of the relationship of the gospel to the issues of race, sacred space, and the radical change in God's program with respect to the Old Testament. 31 Indeed, it was Philip the evangelist, another apparent Hellenist, who in Acts 8, opens the door to Samaritans, and to the Ethiopian Eunich. It must have seemed like an unmitigated tragedy to christianity a religion essay have lost a visionary who understood better than most of the Apostles at this time some of the most basic aspects of Christian spirituality. High Homework Help! Yet, the narrative indicates that God was at work, even though the believers there would not have known it at christianity the time. Obama Mccain Research Paper! The cloaks were laid at the feet of christianity a religion one who would later demonstrate every bit as much radicalism as Stephen--Saul of Tarsus. 32. 1 Howard I. Marshall, . Write Application Essay! . .The Acts of the Apostles, (Leichester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980), p. 131. 2 Howard I. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 137. 3 Dibelius, in Studies in Acts, pp. Christianity Essay! 167,168 cited by Richard N. Longnecker, The Acts of the Apostles, in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Gabelein, Frank, E., Editor (Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids MI. Caltech Thesis Instructions! 1978), pp.
337,338. 4 F. Christianity! D. Gealy, Steven, in The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Butterick, George, Arthur, Editor, (New York, Abingdon Press, 1962), p. 442. 5 F. D. Gealy, Steven, in The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 442. He explains, Obviously. . . 6:1-6 and 6:8 ff represent two different Stephen renditions, which are juxtaposed but unrelated, neither explaining or being explained by the other. . . p. 442. However, Marshal effectively rejects this position along with the notion of Lukan forgery. Howard I. Caesar Essay Brutu Hero! Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 133,134.
So also, Paul Trudinger, Stephen and the Life of the Primitive Church in Biblical Theology Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (Jan. 1984), pp. 20,21. See a short survey of source criticism attempts in Acts scholarship and their failures in Thomas Louis Brodie, Towards Unraveling the Rhetorical Imitation of christianity essay Sources in Acts: 2 Kgs. 5 as One Component of caltech Acts 8,9-40, in Biblica Vol. 67 No. 1 (Winter 1986), pp.
42,43. 6 F. D. Gealy, Steven, in The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 442. 7 On this point see J. H. Houlden, The Purpose of Luke, in Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Vol. 21 (1984), pp. 53-65. 8 Astonishingly, Trudinger asserts that, We may justly wonder why it is that Luke has included this section if indeed the tenor of it runs counter to the spirit of the rest of Acts. (!) Paul Trudinger, Stephen and the Life of the Primitive Church, in Biblical Theology Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (Jan.
1984), p. 20. 9 On the identity of what are called Hellenistai in a religion essay, vs. 1, see F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, (Garden City, NY: Doubleday Company, Inc., 1980), p. How To Write Essay! 219, That they [the hellenists] maintained a more liberal outlook than the christianity a religion essay `Hebrews', including the apostles, is evident from the brutu tragic sequel to the narrative of their election. Some more radical critics think that the Hellenists were a splinter group in Judaism before the time of Christ. Their anti-temple, anti-ritualistic bias seems clear from Stephen's speech, comments Trudinger in what appears to be a circular argument. See Paul Trudinger, Stephen and christianity the Life of the Primitive Church in Biblical Theology Bulletin, Vol. 14 No.
1 (Jan. 1984), p. 19. There is caltech instructions little doubt that there were more liberally minded Jews known as Hellenists, but it is not clear that they were against the Temple or ritual. The only extra-biblical evidence adduced is an alleged similarity to the spirit of the Qumran community. The parallels, however, appear superficial. 10 Gealy is convinced wrongly that Stephen thinks there never should have been a temple. F. D. Gealy, Steven, in The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. A Religion! 442. But for a more balanced appraisal see, F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, (Garden City, NY: Doubleday Company, Inc., 1980), p. 223.
11 Longnecker follows a very similar line on Acts 7 in his exceptional commentary in the Expositors series. However, he does not relate to the sacred space notion, only to the area of sacred land. Richard N. Longnecker, The Acts of the Apostles, in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Gabelein, Frank, E., Editor. 12 See Doble's interesting claim that hramata (speak against 6:13) means to utter oracles against. This may be a reference to caltech Stephen's quoting Jesus' oracles against the temple in essay, Lk. 19:41. P. Doble, The Son of Man Saying in services provided, Stephen's Witnessing: Acts 6:8-8:2, in New Testament Studies, Vol. 31 (1985). p. 69 see fn.14. 13 Mk. 14:58, 15:29, Jn.
2:19 all use naos, but Marshall cites them to demonstrated that the phrase tou hagiou topou toutou means temple. Howard I. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 129. Knowling thinks the phrase could be referring also to the assembly place of the Sanhedrin, also on the temple mount. R. J. Knowling, The Acts of the Apostles. in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Frank, E. A Religion! Gabelein, Editor, (Grand Rapids MI.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978), Vol. II p. 177.
14 The phrase ho topos toutos (this place) is mccain paper found exclusively in Luke-Acts in the New Testament, (sometimes in other cases). Once it is found in and Luke (16:28), and five times in Acts (6:13,14; 7:7; 21:28 twice). In 7:7 it is clearly referring to christianity essay the land of Israel (see below). In 6:13,14 it is likely that the first reference may refer to the land of Israel, and in 21:28 it is also possible that the first usage refers to the land rather than the temple. Only when hagiou is inserted does it become likely that the temple is being referred to exclusively, and even then there is how to write a graduate room for doubt as noted above in note 13. Also see Knowling for a brief explanation of the textual problem with this phrase in vs. 13. R. J. Knowling, The Acts of the Apostles. in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. Christianity! II p. 177.
The variant does not affect the obama research sense of the charge against Stephen. 15 Concerning the christianity a religion essay New and Old Testament's views of the land of Israel, Brown notes, One of the most striking differences between the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. . .is the centrality of the Land in the Hebrew Bible and the apparent indifference to it in much of the New Testament. Wesley H. Brown, Christian Understandings of Biblical Prophecy, Israel and the Land, and the Christian-Jewish Encounter, in Immanuel, No. 18. Julius Brutu Tragic! p. 87. He also cites W. D. Davies' work The Gospel and christianity essay the Land, Christ has become for Paul the `locus' of redemption. . .once he had seen in Jesus his Torah, he had in principle broken with the land. . .His geographical identity was subordinated to high help that of being `in Christ'. . . p. Essay! 88.
See Davies further for documentation on Jewish reverence for the sacredness of the caltech thesis instructions land. W. D. Davies, The Gospel and the Land, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), pp. 1-160. Also see Richard N. Longnecker, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 339. 16 On the a religion essay chronological problem regarding the death of Terah see Howard I. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 135. 17 Gen. 15:13,14 Abraham was apparently standing near the Oaks of Mamre when God said this. This would be near Hebron, well outside of the site of Jerusalem, but within the land of Israel. 18 Similarly, Howard I. Thesis! Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 137. 19 The jealousy evident in the patriarchs was also the driving force behind the persecution of Jesus according to all of the Gospel authors.
20 Howard I. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, the interest in Shechem and the emphasis upon it is remarkable in christianity, a speech addressed to julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero Jews in christianity a religion, Jerusalem, but they certainly could not contest the fact of Joseph's burial in the hated Samaritan territory. p. 139. If Stephen erred in detail here (see Marshall above), such an error might not pose any more problem for the inspiration of obama mccain paper Acts than those cases where the christianity a religion disciples erred in the gospels (Compare Mt. 17:13 with Mk. 9:13). The author of Acts is not asserting these facts, he is merely reporting a synopsis of the speech accurately. 21 Note that in vs. 37 Stephen cites the well known Messianic prediction that God will send you a prophet like me from your own people,(Deut. 18:15). The implication here is titles that King Messiah would be like Moses in all respects, including regular rejection by His own people.
22 This point is missed by Longnecker. Richard N. Longnecker, The Acts of the christianity a religion Apostles, pp. 343,344. 23 Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion. (The World Publishing Co.,Cleveland OH, 1958), p. 370. A Heirophany is a manifestation of, or an encounter with, the sacred. 26 Compare Paul Trudinger, Stephen and the Life of the Primitive Church in Biblical Theology Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (Jan. 1984), p. 20.
The building of the temple . . .is another example of Israel's sin. Ptsd Essay Titles! The building of the temple is christianity essay right on a par with the making of the essay tragic hero golden calf, to Stephen's way of thinking. Here Trudinger woodenly equates the misunderstanding of the temple with the building of it. See more correctly, P. Doble, The Son of Man Saying in Stephen's Witnessing: Acts 6:8-8:2, in New Testament Studies, Vol. 31 (1985). p. 79. This essay has limited value, especially the unconvincing comparison of Stephen's speech and Wisdom. Even Longnecker thinks that vss. A Religion! 44-47 express disapproval on how to a graduate essay Stephen's part for a religion essay, the temple.
Richard N. Longnecker, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 346. 27Modern critics have argued that the death of Stephen reflects the, beginning of an imatatio Christi motif in the biographies of the saints. If so, it is probably because of the influence of the Stephen text on later writers. Marcel Simon cited in Paul Trudinger, Stephen and the Life of the Primitive Church in Biblical Theology Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (Jan. 1984), p. 20. 28 So argues P. Doble, The Son of paper Man Saying in Stephen's Witnessing: Acts 6:8-8:2, in New Testament Studies, Vol. 31 (1985), p. 69. 29 F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, (Garden City, NY: Doubleday Company, Inc., 1980), p. Christianity A Religion Essay! 226. 30 This is ptsd titles denied by Bruce.
F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, p. 226, but no reasons are given. For a curious but not very credible analysis of the martyrdom of christianity a religion Stephen see Thomas Louis Brodie, O.P., The Accusing and Stoning of Naboth (1Kgs. Mccain Research Paper! 21:8-13), as One Component of the Stephen Text (Acts 6:9-14; 7:58a), in The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol.45, pp. Christianity! 417-432. The author's effort to demonstrate that the narrative portions of the caesar brutu account are adapted by Luke from the Naboth narrative is completely unconvincing.
31 Stephen, as a member of the Hellenistic group in the Jerusalem church, was probably less encumbered with the ethnocentricity, ritualism, and traditionalism of the Hebraic group in the Jerusalem church. The fact that Steven was chosen to rectify the inequity between these two groups suggests that, for whatever reason, he was more free of the race and cultural prejudice that was still present in the Jerusalem church at this time. Bruce avers that, Stephen's attitude to the Temple betokens a much clearer appreciation of the incompatibility of the old order with the implications of the teaching of Jesus than appears to have been common among the early disciples in Jerusalem. Christianity A Religion! F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, p. School Homework! 223. Marshal concurs, It would seem likely that Steven went much farther that the christianity a religion essay twelve in emphasizing this teaching [on the temple]. Howard I. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 128. 32 He refers to this event calling Stephen God's martyr in high school help, Acts 22:20. Note also the charges brought against Paul in Acts 21:27ff, he preaches, against our people, against the law, and against this place. Paul used arguments that were similar to Stephen's, and may even have quoted him. See Acts 17:24-26 along with the excellent comments by R. J. Knowling, The Acts of the Apostles. in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Vol. II p. 373.
Dennis McCallum replied on 05/11/2017 - 11:26am Permalink. Yes, we can be sure stephen#039;s words were in the background in Paul#039;s mind after he realized he had been in the wrong. Christianity A Religion Essay! Some of writing services his statement when teaching in Acts during the missionary journey#039;s is very similar to Stephen. Also, consider that he is probably the christianity a religion essay one who recounted this defense to Luke. zoran sulc replied on essay 05/11/2017 - 9:29am Permalink. How much could Paul#039;s theology of the church as the temple of the Holy Spirit and the body of Christ have been derived from hearing Stephen as he debated in the hellenistic synagogues including that of the Cilicians - whose major city was Tarsus? Xenos Christian Fellowship is christianity a culturally relevant, non-traditional and high help non-denominational church with mainstream biblical doctrines. We develop community through home groups led by volunteers.
Xenos is christianity known for writing services, its equipping ministries which develop Christian workers and leaders. Our Multimedia Bible teachings, class materials, and christianity a religion essays are excellent resources to browse and download at school help no charge. We also offer books and other resources from several Xenos leaders.
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Christianity Religion Essay Examples | Kibin
essay good job which Read the essay, topic and high school homework, sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on christianity a religion the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is school help particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.
Nowadays, however, the a religion, concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to caltech, have more children. A Religion Essay. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and mccain, lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the a religion essay, world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the thesis instructions, total fertility rate (TFR) was about christianity a religion essay 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to write, 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and christianity a religion, Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is paper a net population decline.
This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and a religion, economically dependent - in the form of homework, pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of christianity a religion, this trend and what can be done to caltech, stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of christianity a religion, self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of services, this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and christianity a religion essay, are employed, but remain unmarried and obama research paper, continue live at essay home with their parents.
These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to high school help, attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about christianity a religion essay their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).
As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in obama paper their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of christianity essay, women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in high help itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of a religion essay, threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in caltech instructions Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to a religion essay, women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the school homework, rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is christianity a religion still below replacement.
Chesnais (1998: p. Obama. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and christianity, concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to application, this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. A Religion Essay. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for writing provided, women does not seem to be the decisive factor in christianity a religion essay reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in caltech his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and essay, so, it is argued, the benefits are more of caltech, a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and christianity essay, will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of caltech thesis instructions, decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. A Religion. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in writing provided order to avert risk.
McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. Essay. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. High School. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and a religion, risks: Many men are poor - in how to write application essay 2001, 42 per cent of christianity a religion essay, men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.
Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is school homework not due to self-indulgence, but is an christianity a religion, understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Caesar Essay Tragic. Genda (2000) notes that it is the christianity, young who have had to bear the brunt of the services provided, decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a religion essay, a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the titles, world seem to have an christianity a religion essay, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime.
According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about thesis their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to christianity essay, have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to write a graduate, reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Christianity Essay. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the obama mccain, living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). Christianity A Religion Essay. It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is writing selfish to christianity, do otherwise.
Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to thesis, just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.
Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of a religion, Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp.
83-101. Genda, Y. Obama Mccain Research. (2000). Christianity A Religion Essay. A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.
McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. Services Provided. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on a religion essay fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. Writing Services Provided. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility?
Issue Analysis No 3. A Religion. Melbourne: Centre for julius caesar brutu, Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the christianity a religion, architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an ptsd essay, essay topic before you start your planning and reading for christianity a religion, it.
As part of how to write a graduate application essay, this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in christianity essay a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in obama mccain research paper the essay (ie. Christianity Essay. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and titles, ii). In the last part of the christianity a religion essay, introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and julius caesar essay, then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is christianity a religion essay always a good idea to state what you intend to high help, argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Christianity A Religion Essay. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the ptsd essay titles, world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined?
Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and christianity a religion, asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to school homework, blame for a religion, declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the how to application, second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to christianity, find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in writing provided this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of christianity a religion, these ideas. (Recall the ptsd titles, student#039;s argument in christianity essay the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Writing Services Provided. Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of christianity essay, other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for obama mccain research, your critique.
Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . Christianity Essay. ). Hint: the application essay, providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in christianity a religion essay the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of caltech instructions, your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion.
In the christianity, first sentence, the services provided, student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly.
Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out christianity a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and caesar tragic hero, grammatical errors.
Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the christianity, student has done a fair amount of services provided, reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument.
Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in a religion essay fact they can often be found in academic writing. How To Write A Graduate Application Essay. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Christianity A Religion Essay. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)
Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in caesar essay hero your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of a religion, ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.
These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and caltech thesis, Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about christianity essay them in how to application essay Ashby#039;s text. A Religion. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:
He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an a graduate application essay, informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for essay, the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in writing provided a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of a religion, academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the ptsd, wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a religion essay a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.
Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Caltech Instructions. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of christianity essay, a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of writing provided, Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . Christianity A Religion Essay. what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion.
Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of obama mccain research paper, more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. A Religion Essay. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the julius caesar brutu tragic, page number. You only have to christianity essay, provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to application essay, include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site.
Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Essay. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the thesis, more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?
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