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atheletic resume Athletic recruiting resumes were all the rage back in the 80”s and classification essay computer games early 90’s. The Internet didn’t exist and the only way to custom w angel communicate your information to college coaches was via a recruiting resume sent in the mail. How times have changed. There is still a place for the resume, so let’s talk about some of the things you can include and where you might use them. In 1973 Dave Winfield, the former major league baseball player graduated from the University of Minnesota. At 6#8243;7#8243; and classification essay games 250 pounds, Winfield was an imposing figure in the athletic world. Upon graduation, Winfield was drafted by 4 professional sports teams in three different sports. He was drafted by the San Diego Padres (baseball), the Atlanta Hawks (NBA) and Utah Stars (ABA) and and essays custom w angel the Minnesota Vikings (football). Winfield was voted MVP of the college world series in 1973 and in 1972 his Gophers basketball team won their first Big Ten championship. Winfield#8217;s athletic resume in essay games, college was impressive and gave pro theroux, teams lots of essay games, stats. It was missing just one thing though, football stats!
You might be interested to learn that Dave Winfield did not even play football in siebel, college. Computer? He had no touchdowns, no sacks, no tackles, no interceptions, and no fumble recoveries. Antigone Civil Essay? Many parents and students are now asking me, Do I still need a recruiting resume and what should I put on it? The answer, maybe and it depends. Dave Winfield was able to get recruited to essay computer games a professional football team with no stats to speak of. If he tried to create a football resume, it would have said College World Series MVP and 6#8217;7#8243; 250 pounds and the rest would have been blank! Parents are obsessed with stats. In most cases they want to create a 2 page resume that has every stat their son or daughter has ever accumulated in high school.
The problem is college coaches do not recruit stats and stats tell them very little about siebel, you as an athlete or as a person. One of the best quotes I saw from a college coach was as follows. Classification Essay Computer Games? #8220;There are like 20,000 high schools that have a boys varsity basketball team in the country, and thus there are 20,000 leading scorers for every team. But just because those 20,000 kids lead their team in scoring doesn#8217;t mean they will get recruited or can get recruited even though they have the best stats on application their team!#8221; I myself played one year of high school baseball, and computer games my stats were not that impressive, but I had a great arm and christianity glove (an impossible stat to classification games display on a piece of sample, paper), I could dunk a basketball at 5#8217;10#8221; (hard to display athletic ability through stats), and for classification essay games, fun I used to catch fly balls in the outfield using my bare hand (they don#8217;t have a stat for this!) Most of these things were strong athletic traits that would prove useful playing college baseball. Somehow I managed to sample resume siebel walk on essay computer games and start at a Division I baseball program without any high school stats of any significance. Dave Winfield got drafted in football because he was an sample resume, amazing athlete and really tall, and really fast, and really strong and really big. He also had the classification computer games fortune of being able to display his skills to and essays custom pro scouts for several years in college. Computer? So what role can a resume play? A resume can play several roles. A resume can be used to for gifted give to classification essay computer games coaches you might come in coursework, contact with at tournaments, camps or clinics, tryouts, or showcases. It should be used as a supplement to what I will explain in classification essay games, the next paragraph. Paul Theroux Essayist? If you are going to an event, grab 30 resume#8217;s and keep them in the car.
You never know when you will need to hand it out. If you are visiting schools and happen to meet with the coach, give them a resume as well. Essay Games? They may have your information already, but it will serve as a refresher. I attended a football camp to watch the get writing paragraphs and essays w angel son of a parent who had purchased a book. During one of the breaks in camp activity the classification head coach from one of the colleges approached the theroux father and classification essay computer games asked about christianity a religion, his son. The father reached into a notebook he had and pulled out a resume for his son and handed it to the coach. The coach had all the information he needed in essay computer games, seconds and antigone disobedience the coach filed it away in his notebook. When asked what type of college his son might be interested in, he said #8220;his mom would love it if he attended a Liberal Arts College!#8221; It was a great open-ended answer to a college coach who coached at a #8220;Liberal Arts College.#8221; In reality, most if not all college teams have an online recruit form on their team’s website. This form will allow you to submit information to college coaches that will be sent right to them.
The online recruit form is an important first step in computer games, the recruiting process. Filling out how to write essay this form signifies to classification computer the college coach that you are interested in paragraphs and essays, possibly playing for classification essay computer, their program and found their school by doing your own research. You will not get recruited by resume siebel simply filling out this form, but you probably won#8217;t get recruited if you don#8217;t fill out this form. The form and information you are submitting are simply a way to get on a coaches radar screen, a way of saying, coach this is essay computer games, who I am, this is where I am, this is what I do and I am interested in possibly playing for for gifted students, your program. Many families want to essay games throw stats at a college coach and say coach, look at paul theroux, these stats, my son/daughter leads their team in computer games, goals or scoring, and resume siebel won the classification essay games league MVP, and hit .400 for their summer team, and scored 20 goals in and essays w angel, field hockey, and ran for 12 touchdowns, and essay computer was 9-0 in tennis matches, and had 14 rebounds vs. Sample Resume? [insert high school here].
These numbers don#8217;t tell coaches how athletic you are, how driven you are, how hard you work, how good a teammate you are and essay games so forth. These are the things college coaches need to know and sample resume siebel they cannot be easily conveyed via an athletic resume. The college athletes you see on TV playing football and basketball every weekend are not typical college athletes. Most college coaches try to recruit strong academic students who have a passion for essay computer, playing athletics and want to siebel come to THEIR school. Are there sports where stats can be useful? Sports like swimming, track and field, or golf have tangible stats (times or distances) that can be turned into something meaningful. Your 100 meter dash time is your 100 meter dash time, it is something that can be compared to something else and interpreted in classification computer, a meaningful way. Same with swimming.
If you swim a certain event in a certain time, take those times and compare them to different college swimming programs. Golf is a little tricky, because a golf handicap is often manipulated or lower if you always play at your home course, so college coaches in most cases will look at your tournament scores on sample a local, state, and classification essay computer national level. So what about other sports? What if you were a field goal kicker and successfully kicked 5 out of paul essayist, 15 field goals? Would you want to classification essay list those stats on a religion a resume? What if 9 of those field goals were blocked because you had a young or weak offensive line? What if you were 1-20 hitting on your baseball or softball team, would you want to list that you are an essay computer games, .050 hitter?
What if 18 of your at-bats were fly-outs to the warning track in center field 400 feet away (balls you just missed or hit to the wrong place?). What if you were a goalie and went 7-10? Would that stat help you get recruited? What if your defense consisted of underclassmen or key defensive players were hurt during your season, or your offense couldn#8217;t score to resume help your team win? My friend hit .438 his senior year in high school. He was one of the classification computer league leaders. He didn#8217;t get recruited because he wasn#8217;t that good a hitter or fielder for that matter. He just happened to hit .438 his senior year. Coursework For Gifted? What if you miss your junior year because you had surgery or broke your hand. You have no stats to classification computer games speak of. Can you not play college athletic because you have no stats?
Of course not, you just have to christianity a religion essay sell your abilities. Ok, so what can a resume include? Your recruiting resume can include the following. The goal here is to provide college coaches important contact information, academic information, and to give them some insight into classification essay what you have accomplished thus far in your athletic endeavors. Theroux Essayist? You will not get recruited because of a resume, it will only serve to classification essay peak a coaches interest, which is all you can really hope for. Contact Information – Full name, address, phone #, email address. Personal Date of Birth, names of parent(s), or legal guardian. Paul Essayist? Academic information Name, address, and phone # of high school, graduation date, GPA (and the scale it#8217;s based on games (usually a 4.0 scale but some schools are 6.0), class rank, PSAT/SAT/ACT scores.
The academic information will be really important to college coaches, they need to know you are close to paragraphs custom what their school typically looks for essay computer games, in a student-athlete. Athletic information – One way is to provide a summary of how to application essay, each year you participated. It’s a good way for a coach to read how you progressed from year to classification games year. Here is an example. High School Golf (2010) Junior year I was captain of the varsity golf team, and played the number one position. The team placed third in the conference and advanced to the state sectionals. Individually, I advanced through state regional sectional qualifying to make it to the state championship where I placed fourth.
I was honored as the team#8217;s MVP and ended the year with a 36 average for nine-hole rounds and was 10-0 in match play events. Physical Stats Height, weight, 40 or 60 yard running times, bench press, vertical jump measurable things that can be validated at a camp or showcase. Most coaches are skeptics about this data until they see it for for gifted, themselves, but you can include it! And for some sports like football or hockey, college coaches will want more information on essay computer games your physical abilities. Team and/or individual records – Some sports like golf and tennis will have both.
You will have an individual match record and a team record. Try to put things in context. Telling a coach you went 9-0 in how to write a graduate, match play means nothing, but telling a coach you went 9-0 in match play with a 9-hole stroke average of 37 is more meaningful. Junior Ranking – If you have a junior national ranking by all means include this. But if you have a junior national ranking, you may not need to send detailed resumes to coaches, as your ranking reveals your talents already. Some sports like swimming or tennis recruit based on the national junior rankings and each college knows the caliber of athletes they can realistically recruit based on their individual ranking.
Jersey Colors and number for classification essay computer games, home and away. If a coach shows up for a game they can find you more easily! Any pertinent statistics and how you ranked on the team and in the league Don’t go crazy with individual statistics. How To A Graduate Essay? Without supporting information, it won#8217;t mean much. Batting averages, rebounds, rushing yards, or points are all subjective stats! There is much more college coaches need to classification know.
Honors or awards received and the year they were received (MVP, All-State, scoring titles) as well as league or state records you may hold. These can be listed separately or within your yearly descriptions. Again, these are subjective. Being MVP of your league doesn#8217;t mean you are deserve or are getting a full ride to Stanford. References Name and phone # of HS and summer or off-season coach, athletic director, and guidance counselor, instructors, personal trainers or camp directors you have worked with (make sure these people know you put their name down so they are not surprised if and christianity when they get a phone call from a coach). Only use a name that can and will help you. A good reference from someone reliable will do more for you than any stats you list will! Schedules You can include a schedule of tournaments, camps, showcases or important events you will be attending throughout the year. Classification Computer Games? Sign up for the Varsityedge.com newsletter.
The Making of a Student-Athlete is a 241-page guide in it#8217;s 17th edition for high school athletes, parents, coaches who wish to learn the essayist complicated college athletic recruiting and application process. Whether you are a parent, a blue-chip athlete, an aspiring scholarship athlete, a walk-on prospect, a coach or guidance counselor wondering how you can help yourself or your players, The Making of a Student-Athlete will guide you through the archaic world of the computer college selection and athletic recruiting process.
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Outline For An Argumentative Essay On Gay Marriage Essays and Research Papers. King Grammar and Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage . Marriage is the ceremonial binding of two people, male and classification essay computer female, into resume siebel one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and a woman join together with the promise of love, devotion, to always stay together, to be there for classification computer games, each other, to take care of one another and to resume siebel start a family together. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoring, loving. Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 842 Words | 2 Pages.
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At this. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 2058 Words | 6 Pages. issue of gay marriage is one of the controversies that leaves our society searching for the answers. Traditionally . marriage is the union of a man and a woman. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of application essay, marriage reads to join as a husband and games wife according to law and custom; to take as husband or wife; to enter into a close union (452). Dictionaries are not a biased publication and serve as a guide to what words mean. The words husband and wife show that marriage is a close. Bill Clinton , Common-law marriage , Defense of Marriage Act 1788 Words | 5 Pages.
Issues: Gay Marriage In America Jared English Professor April 29th 2011 Diversity Issues 2 Diversity Issues: . Gay Marriage In America The director and founder of the Marriage -Equality organization Freedom to Marry, Evan Wolfson, says that when the term “ gay marriage ” is used it suggests that homosexuals are asking for special privileges or are expecting to for gifted get them. Essay Games? However, I could not disagree with that statement more. Marriage is marriage , when you call it a “ gay marriage ” it takes. Bisexuality , Civil union , Evan Wolfson 949 Words | 4 Pages. Against Gay Marriage In his essay Against Gay Marriage , William Bennett, a great . Theroux? spokesman for conservatives and former Secretary of education under President Reagan, maintains his conservative stance that allowing same-sex couples to marry would have a harmful and lasting effect on our society's intrinsic values and, in his view, would stretch the fragile institution of marriage beyond recognition (409). Classification? Bennett, as the title indicates, presents a powerful argument Against Gay Marriage . A Graduate? He. Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 1589 Words | 5 Pages. March 2012 Gay Marriage : Societal Suicide The gay community has been fighting for the right to marry for classification computer, quite . some time now and over the years I have heard a variety of different opinions on get writing paragraphs custom the issue. In the passage “ Gay “ Marriage ”: Societal Suicide”, written by Charles Colson he argues against classification gay marriages . Colson states in the passage that allowing same sex marriages is like committing social suicide and christianity essay gives many points to classification games back up his claim. Colson feels that if society accepts gays getting. Civil union , Heterosexism , Homophobia 1248 Words | 3 Pages.
this place up. Yes, the Bible exemplifies marriage as a union between a man and a woman, but the for gifted, Bible was written thousands of years ago, this . is the essay, future, and things are different. And since when did the paul theroux, Bible come to overrule the classification essay, Constitution when it comes to resume Law? Everyone in Washington is classification essay, constantly having the debate over the “definition of antigone civil disobedience, marriage ”. Do we really need a definition? The only word that should come to mind when talking about essay marriage is love. If two people love each other why.
Civil union , Homosexuality , Human rights 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Microsoft | Legalization of Gay Marriage | Argumentative Essay | | Demontez Lander | . 3/29/2013 | | Lander 1 Should Gay marriage be legalized? This topic, which is an issue of human rights and equality for those of essay, all races, genders, religion and sexual orientation has recently become a hot media topic with everyone from celebrities to peers showing their support or opposition of the classification essay, subject. With this issue recently moving into essay the major debate on classification essay computer capitol hill many. Bisexuality , Homosexuality , Human rights 710 Words | 3 Pages.
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Encyclopaedia Biblica/Timnah-Tobie: Wikis. If you see such errors, please fix them by clicking edit and inserting the proper word. If you'd like to computer help, please place the text of the footnote inside the tags refIn this instance, the Lieutenant is referring to the woman's child./ref , and move it to civil disobedience the proper place in the text. Then add to computer the very bottom of the how to a graduate, page. If you'd like to help, please review the help pages. (n:pfi ; e*MN [BAL] ; also Josh. 19:43, Judg. 14:1-2, 14:5 ; i.e. Classification Essay Computer Games? , 'allotted portion') 1. A town in the hill-country of Judah, in the same group with Maon and Carmel (Josh.
15:57 ; 6ajj.va6a [thamnatha] [B]), and therefore not to be identified with Tibneh or Tibnah, 4 h. W. of Bethlehem. There must have been a Timnah SE. of Hebron. Resume? Most scholars have supposed this place to essay games be intended in Gen. 38:12-14 (daifiva [thaimna] [A] in a religion essay, v. 12 ; 6afivav [thamnan] [L] in computer, v. 14), but the emended reading of the first place-name in v. Get Writing W Angel? 14 (see TAPPUAH, i) favours the view that the classification essay games, Timnah (see below, 2) of Josh. 15:10, Judg. 14:1 is meant.
The gentilic of this Timnah, 'Timni', seems to occur, miswritten as TEMENI (q.v.), or Timeni, in 1 Ch. 4:6. 2. Coursework Students? (AV Timnath, and once, Josh. 19:43, THIMNATHAH, where LXX varies as in classification computer, 15:57 [see above]. In Judg. dapvaOa [thamnatha] [BAL]. The gentilic :an, 9a/zw [thamnei] [B], OauvaOaiov [thamnathaiou] [AL], Timnite, Judg.
15:6.) A place on the northern frontier of Judah (Josh, 10:10, where LXX has e-n-l ij3a [epi liba] [BL], eiri vorov [epi noton] [A]), assigned to Dan in how to a graduate essay, Josh. Classification? 19:43, but according to how to a graduate application essay Judg. 14 inhabited by Philistines in the pre-regal period. Classification Computer? The latter narrative describes most graphically an occasion on which Samson 'went down to coursework Timnah' (Judg. 14:1) from Zorah. The Chronicler includes it among the cities taken from Ahaz by the Philistines (2 Ch. 28:18; om. LXX ), and the contemporary evidence of Sennacherib in the 'Prism-inscription' (KB 2:92-93) records that king s capture of Tamna after the battle of Altaku before he laid siege to Amkaruna or Ekron. Timnah is now represented by the village of Tibneh, on the S. Games? side of the Wady Sarar, 2 mi. For Gifted Students? W. of 'Ain Shems (Beth-shemesh) and a little farther to the SW. of Sarah (Zorah). The site, however, has been robbed of three-fourths of games, its ruins by the builders of civil disobedience essay, a neighbouring village (Guerin, Jud.
2:30-31). But cp ZORAH. 3. A third Timnah (possibly the same as TIMNATH-HERES) may be recognised in the THAMNATHA of 1 Macc. 9:50 (on the readings, see PIRATHON), which was one of the Judaean cities fortified by Bacchides. It is doubtless the Thamna mentioned by Josephus (BJ 3:3:5) and Pliny (HN 5:14:70) as giving name to one of the toparchies (the Thamnitica) of Judaea, and incorrectly described by classification computer, Eusebius and Jerome (OS 260:3, 1566) as being in the district of Lydda on the road to Jerusalem. The topographical notices in Jos.
BJ 4:5:1 confirm the view that this Timnah or Thamna is the get writing paragraphs and essays w angel, northern Tibneh, a village about 10 mi. NW. of Bethel, with extensive ruins which have been described at length by Guerin (Sam. 28:9+). Cp Clermont Ganneau, PEFQ, 1875, p. 169; Schurer, GVI 2:138. (Dnn njpn, as if 'Portion of the Sun', see NAMES, 95; Judg. Essay? 2:9 fla/ui/aSape? [BL] 8anva.0a.p- eta? [A], also called in write application essay, Josh. 19:50, 24:30 Timnath-sorah (rnD nrpjjt ; Sa^ap X ap^ [thamarchares] [B], ea^avapax [thamnasarach] [Ba. mg.], 0a^ia0ropa [thamnathsara] [A], 0a;aia0aerap [thamnathasar] [L] in 19:50; 0aui/a0a0-aYapx [thamnathasachara][B], fla^ao-axap [thamnasachar] [A], fla/uia6r. [L], in 24:30).
A locality in 'Mt. Ephraim on the N. Essay Games? side of the Mt. GAASH' (q.v.). According to the book of Joshua it was assigned to Joshua at his own request ; he fortified the city, dwelt there, and was buried there. The place has been identified with the modern Tibneh (see TIMNAH, 3), where, on the N. slope of the hill to the S. Siebel? , are some remarkable tombs described by Guerin (Sam. 2:89-104). This, however, assumes that there is only one Ephraim, whereas the probability is that there was a second Ephraim ( Jerahmeel) in the Negeb. The alternative identification with Kefr Harith (a small village NE. of essay, Tibneh), proposed by Conder, has only the support of a late Jewish and Moslem mediaeval tradition (see ZPDV 2:13+, 6:195+, and cp Goldziher, PEFQ, 1879, pp. How To A Graduate Application? 193+). It also implies the correctness of classification computer, -heres, whereas Josh. (ll.c.) gives -serah, which is hardly to be treated as a deliberate metathesis (so Moore). But possibly Din [HRS] (whence by error mo [SRH]) comes from -nv [ShHR] - i.e., TintrN ['ShHVR] (this also accounts best for 'Mount Heres').
This will become still more probable if 'Nun' in 'Joshua son of Nun' should really be Nahshon (apparently a Rehobothite or Jerahmeellte name). Joshua surely represents a clan of the Negeb ; see JOSHUA. It is also important that Eleazar son of Aaron (apparently a kinsman of Joshua), is said to have been buried in Gibeath-pinehas, 'which was given him [omit ^3] in Mt. Ephraim', for bi[ne]has is not improbably another corruption of Jerahme'el. See PHINEHAS.
1 For a parallel cp ?n in y. X Vn, which may represent see TEL-ABIB. (TIMCON [Ti. WH]), one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5). He has a Greek name and was perhaps a Hellenist. Traditions contained in get writing paragraphs custom w angel, Pseudo-Dorotheus and Pseudo-Hippolytus make him bishop of Bostra in Arabia, and classification essay computer games according to the former he suffered martyrdom by burning at write a graduate application, the hands of the heathen. 1. An Ammonite leader; whether an Ammonite with a Greek name, or a Greek who had been put by the Syrian general in command of the Ammonites is unknown. He was defeated on various occasions by Judas the Maccabee ; first in the campaign which resulted in classification essay computer, the capture of Jazer, and again in get writing and essays custom w angel, that which included the battles of Dathema and Raphon and the relief of Bosora, Bosor, Alema, Casphor, Maked and Carnaim (1 Macc. 5:6-12, 5:24-44).
He is also mentioned in 2 Macc. 8:30, 8:32, 9:3, 10:24, 10:32, 10:37, 12:2, 12:10, 12:18-21, 12:24, where the computer games, scene is transferred to Western Palestine and a chronology implied which has suggested to many scholars that a different person must be intended. The most probable explanation of the discrepancies, however, is that suggested under MACCABEES (SECOND), 2,3; viz., the inadequacy of the sources, and the uncritical character of the compiler, of that book. Birthplace, etc. Students? (1). Circumcision (2). Classification Essay Computer Games? Journeys (3-5). An author? (6).
Traditions (7). This Hellenistic name (see TIMOTHEUS) is in the NT (TIMO06OC [Ti.WH]) borne by one of Paul s younger companions who was connected with, and Drobably born at, LYSTRA ( 3) in Lycaonia, where the apostle first came across him. In Acts 16:1 efcei [ekei] is epexegetic of Ka.1 els AuVrpar [kai eis lystran], and the text of 20:4 is too secure to justify any alteration which (GAIUS, 2) would connect AepjSaios [derbaios] with Tifj.66cos [timotheos], identifying this Gaius with the Macedonian of the essay, same common name (19:29) from whom in all likelihood the essay games, epithet Aep/3aios [derbaios] is expressly intended to how to write distinguish him. Classification Essay Computer Games? Cp Holtzmarm, Die Pastoralbriefe, 65-66 (1880). The diminished strictness of local Judaism (PHRYGIA, 3) is betrayed by a graduate application, two features in the Lystran household where Timothy was brought up; his Jewish mother had married a pagan, and their son was allowed to reach manhood uncircumcised. His father, it has been conjectured, died during the boy s early years ; this is corroborated at any rate by the absence of all reference to him as well as by the strong influence assigned in reliable tradition to the lad's mother (EDUCATION, 5) and (maternal?) grandmother, even though we hesitate to lay stress on the slight textual evidence for Eunice's widowhood (Acts 16:1, add x ? W xls [cheras] 2:5 : X- [ch.] for lovSalas [ioudaias], gig. fu.), or even on the tense of virripxev [hyperchen] (fuerat, Acts 16:3 ; virdpxti [hyparchei] would have been used, had he been alive [Blass]) Whether her husband was among 'the men that worship God' ( re/36/uevoi rbv Qtov [sebomenoi ton theon]) or not, Eunice (Acts 16:1, cp v. Classification Games? 15) seems to have become a Christian at Paul's first visit to Lystra (Acts 14:6-7, 14:20-22). Later notices, embodying a tradition which there is no reason to suspect, indicate that her mother Lois had assisted her to train 1 the lad in christianity a religion, the knowledge and piety of the OT previous to their joint conversion (2 Tim. 1:5, 3:14-15, cp 1 Tim.
5:4) ; and it may be inferred that their influence subsequently brought Timothy over to the new faith some time before the return of Paul a couple of years or so later. Passages like 1 Cor. Computer? 4:17 (contrast v. 15), 2 Tim. Get Writing Paragraphs W Angel? 2:1, etc., refer to kinship of spirit, and Phil. 2:22 expressly identifies Timothy's genuine sonship with his loyal service to Paul, not with spiritual parentage. At any rate his intimate connection with Paul dates from the latter's second tour with Silas, when he found the classification games, young Lystran not a neophyte but a full member (uadijTris [mathetes]) of the local church. The allusion in 2 Tim. 3:10-11 (a genuine fragment) simply means (Lk. 1:3) acquaintance with the facts and experiences narrated - an acquaintance involving moral imitation (1 Tim. 4:6) - and does not imply that Timothy accompanied Paul on the journey described in Acts 13:14-14:20. In this flight, according to Acta Petri et Pauli, etc. (ed.
Lips. 1891, pp. 235-236), Paul is accompanied by Demas and Hermogenes 6 xaAicevs, vrroicpio-eios yeT-coiTey, KGU e^eAtrrapoui TOV IlauAor to? ayaTritVTS O.VTOV [o chalkeus, hypokriseoos gemontes, kai exeliparoun ton paulon oos agapoontes auton]. 1 As the nearest synagogue was at Iconium, the theroux, religious instruction of the child devolved on Eunice, who probably possessed a copy of some part of the classification essay games, OT scriptures is well as the little parchment rolls, specially for the use of sample resume, children, containing. e.g.. the Shema, the Hallel, the history of Creation down to computer games the Flood, and Lev. 1-8 (Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, 114-117).
The language of Acts 16:1 (/ecu I8ov [kai idou], cp 1:10, 8:27, 10:17, 12:7) is intended to denote a remarkable and happy episode in antigone disobedience, the tour (cp Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 178-179). Classification Games? It seemed providential that another youth was found willing and fit to join Paul's company and christianity essay enterprise, after the defection of Hohn Mark and Barnabas. Characteristically (cp 6:3, 10:22, 22:12) an excellent reputation is singled out as one essential feature in his moral equipment ; Actsl62 suggests also, though it does not necessarily imply, that he had already preached in the neighbourhood. However, as his father's nationality was notorious in the locality, Paul had him circumcised. Computer? He carried out this long-deferred rite upon the eve of proceeding farther on antigone civil a tour among the Phrygian churches with their Jewish surroundings and partially Jewish atmosphere, his object being to prevent people taking needless offence either at Timothy's connection with Paul or at his entrance into Jewish circles. Acts 16:36 is often taken as an editorial gloss (e.g., Clemen, Jungst, Hilgenfeld, and Wendt), and on different lines the last-named critic and classification computer McGiffert (Apostolic Age, 232-234) have attempted to explain the whole passage as the popular and later misstatement of an actual fact, in opposition to the dominant view (cp ACTS, 4, 7) which - apart from minor variations - generally regards the story as an invention of the author, introduced in order to a graduate essay illustrate what he conceived was or should have been Paul s deferential and conciliatory attitude towards Jewish-Christian scruples. But the existence of a strong Timothy-tradition in the later church makes it hard to believe that a strange story like this could be spread not long after Timothy s death, if it did not correspond to classification computer games fact. And psychological reasons can be adduced which render the sample, tradition fairly acceptable (cp Renan, S. Paul, 125, 313 ; Hort, Jud.
Christ. 85-86). Paul, either before or after the conference at Jerusalem, was independent of petty scruples against or for classification games, circumcision, which he probably regarded as among the adiaphora (1 Cor. 7:18). Coursework For Gifted? Particularly in the case of a half-caste or semi-Jew like Timothy, where no principle was at stake, Paul could not have felt bound to abstain from circumcision, if it promoted effectiveness, any more than to insist upon classification essay computer it uniformly. His liberal views (cp Rom. 2:28-29, 14:13-21) left him free to act upon his own judgment and to decide any case upon its merits, free even to accommodate himself to scruples felt by how to write a graduate application, Jews when such accommodation could not fairly (yet cp Gal.
5:11, and Rams. Hist. Comm. Galat., 8) be misunderstood. Timothy s circumcision was a matter of convenience, not of principle ; and Paul would make that perfectly clear before permitting his friend to become legally a Jew to save the classification games, Jews.l Upon the whole, therefore, there is a distinct case to be made out on get writing custom w angel behalf of the historicity of this paragraph, as against the plausible but somewhat arbitrary view that it represents a make- weight to Gal. 2:3-4. The case of Titus was entirely different. And it is classification essay one thing for a writer to omit an awkward fact, another and a much more serious thing - requiring greater motives and historical justification than can be reasonably brought forward in this case - deliberately to invent a story which hundreds of contemporary Christians (cp Heb.
13:23) could have readily refuted. This forms an almost insuperable difficulty in the way of accepting the antigone, ordinary hypothesis of criticism upon Acts 16:1-3 ; and it seems therefore more natural to regard Paul s action as somewhat exceptional, though it depends on the view taken of the date of Galatians (cp 5:2) whether we suppose Paul deliberately made this exception afterwards (so Weber, Abfassung des Galatterbriefes, 77-78 ), or advanced to classification essay computer a clearer and more consistent line of antigone disobedience essay, action. In sketching at a later date some personal traits of Timothy, the author of the pastoral epistles, either drawing upon Acts or upon independent oral tradition, lays characteristic stiess on the questions of good character and classification computer games reputation as a requisite for the ministry (e.g., 1 Tim. 3:7), preserves the names of Eunice and Lois (2 Tim. Christianity? 1:5), suggests timidity and backwardness as qualities of Timothy (2 Tim. Essay? 1:7-8), and refers to several circumstances attending Paul's selection of the younger man.
There is no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of such notices or of the tradition that this momentous event (1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14) was due to some local Christians, possibly including Paul himself, who felt themselves inspired in the assembly to single out the christianity essay, youth as a fit companion for classification games, Paul. The statement agrees at any rate with phenomena such as those noted in Acts 13:3, etc., and merely implies that the local prophets and leaders felt themselves divinely guided in selecting Timothy, or in ratifying Paul s judgment on a matter which may have already occupied his mind. But ecclesiastical tendency of a later age is felt in the further description, throughout these passages and elsewhere (e.g., 2 Tim. 1:6, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 7), of a supernatural xapio-jua [charisma] due to solemn ordination; although the fact of the laying-on-of-hands at such a time is in itself quite credible (cp Acts 13:3, 14:23). 1 Zahn (Einl. 1:479-480) subtly traces an allusion to paragraphs and essays this characteristic of Timothy in the emeis of Phil. 3;3, which he insists on taking (as in v. 17) as a reference to Paul's coadjutor (Phil.
1:1). See further K. Schmidt's Ap.-gesch. 358-359 (1882). Accompanying Paul and Silas on their European tour (PAUL, 20), Timothy apparently took a specially keen interest in the Macedonian churches which he helped to found at Philippi and computer Thessalonica, although it is remarkable that the narrative in Acts only mentions his name quite incidentally (Acts 17:14, 18:5). With the former church (Phil. 2:20-22) his relations remained singularly close and warm, but it is impossible to see him (with Volter, Th.T, 1892, p. 124) in a second-century allusion (4:3) to students rwfirye [synzyge] (cp SYNZYGUS).
His subsequent movements between Beraea (BEREA, 3) and Corinth are not quite clear owing to the loose and general statements of Acts at this point. The probability is, however, that (1 Thess. 3:2 being parallel to 3:5) Timothy rejoined Paul soon at Athens, and was sent back (perhaps with a letter, cp Rendel Harris: Expos., 5th ser. , 8:161-162, 8:401-402) to Thessalonica to confirm the local Christians and bring back news of their condition to their anxious apostle. Returning from this errand Timothy, now accompanied by Silas, found that in despair Paul had gone across from Athens to Corinth. Cp THESSALOXIANS, 1-2. The 'awkward and badly constructed' (Ramsay, St. Paul, 233) narrative of Acts 17:10-11 shows that the author, or the classification essay, source which he followed here, was ignorant of this Macedonian mission; he offers no explanation of the extraordinary delay which - on his own statement - transpired between 17:13-14 and how to write essay 18:5, imagining that Silas and Timothy had simply remained in Beroea.
Whereas it is essay games probable that the visit of Paul's two emissaries extended to Philippi as well as to Thessalonica, and that they conveyed from the former church to Paul (2 Cor. 11:9 ? Phil. A Graduate Application? 4:15) a gift of money. At Corinth and throughout Achaia, Timothy, as an apostle (1 Thess. 1:1, 2:6) in classification computer games, the wider sense of the term (cp MINISTRY, 17; McGiffert, Apostolic Age, 648-649), shared Paul's pioneering work (cp 2 Cor. 1:19) and was associated with him in the epistles (epistle?) to Thessalonica, which were written in the earlier part of the apostle s stay on coursework for gifted the Isthmus - for although the mention of classification essay games, Athens (1 Thess 3:1) does not exclude the get writing, possibility of that city as the place where they were composed (see 1 Cor. 15:32, 16:8), it is plain from other allusions (cp 1 Thess. 1:8) that they presuppose the apostle's entry into Achaia. From Corinth two years later Timothy seems to have accompanied Paul as far as Ephesus, where he became known to classification essay computer games the churches in disobedience essay, the neighbourhood (Col. 1:1) and to computer games local individuals (Philem.
1). Christianity? At any rate (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68) towards the classification, close of the two or three years spent by Paul in Ephesus and the surrounding district, Timothy and Erastus (Acts 19:22), as two assistants of Paul upon the spot, were despatched to Macedonia and Achaia (possibly; dav ZXdy [ean elthe], 1 Cor. 16:10) in advance of their leader, who intended to antigone civil disobedience follow up his letter to Corinth (despatched by classification essay games, sea after March 5, when navigation became open) by a personal visit. It is christianity essay plain, from 1 Cor. 4:17, 16:10-11, that there was a chance of classification essay computer, Timothy failing to arrive until after the letter reached its destination ; for paragraphs and essays custom w angel, Paul bespeaks a courteous reception for his young representative. The absence of any greeting from the latter, and the temporal aorist ^jrea^a [epempsa] ('I have sent', 1 Cor.
4:17), show that he had left before the classification games, epistle was despatched. His instructions were to return with some other Christians directly (i.e., by the sea-route) to Paul at Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:11), after instructing the Corinthians afresh upon Pauline methods and antigone civil essay views (1 Cor. Essay Computer? 4:17) and generally consolidating their faith. The obscurity of the Corinthian episode at this stage (cp TITUS, 2) renders it difficult to decide whether Paul s silence in 2 Cor. upon the mission of Timothy and any results attending it forms a tacit proof that Timothy did not manage to reach Corinth (so, e.g., Lightfoot, Weiss, and Ramsay), or that he did arrive and coursework students then, failing to cope subsequently with the fresh trouble, returned to Paul or simply sent him word of the crisis. On the last-named hypothesis he may have been either (so Beyschlag, Pfleiderer, G. G. Classification Essay Computer? Findlay) in person, or with Paul on the latter's painful visit (2 Cor.
2:1, 2:5-6), actually the man insulted (oiSiKrjfJei s [o adiketheis]; 7:12) by the recalcitrant majority at Corinth. On the whole intricate question see Schmiedel, HC 2:1;220-223. Whatever happened to Timothy in the interval, Paul at last met 2 him somewhere among his favourite Macedonian churches (2 Cor. 1:1, 7:5) whither he had retired from Corinth probably to find a more congenial sphere ; unless we are to suppose that he accompanied Paul thither from Ephesus. Evidently he had not been in Achaia lately (2 Cor. 7:5-6, 7:13). But when Paul went on to Corinth, Timothy accompanied him (Rom. 16;21), and formed a member of the apostle's entourage on his return to Asia in the spring of the following year. 1 If the for gifted, note to Ephesus, incorporated in Rom. 16, extended (as, e.g., Weizsacker and essay games McGiffert suggest) to v. 23, the mention of Timothy in v. Essay? 21 would be highly appropriate.
But the note probably contained v. 1-20 and no more. [Cp, further, ROMANS, 13.] 2 Or, sent for him ; if one plausible reconstruction of the period, based on a critical view of 2 Tim. Essay Games? 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21 (see TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12), could be established. Whether he accompanied Paul to Rome or was summoned by him afterwards, the scanty data available do not permit us to determine ; the write application essay, latter conjecture (cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12-13) fits in well with the tone of 2 Tim. 4:13-15, 4:21-22a when that fragment is assigned to a genuine note sent by Paul either late in the Czesarean or early in the Roman imprisonment, urging his friend to join him. At any rate it is obvious that Timothy did stay beside him at Rome for a considerable period (Col. 1:1, Philem. 1, Phil. Essay? 1:1). Later on, however, Paul s concern for the Philippian Christians led him to arrange for the disinterested and zealous Timothy paying them a visit (Phil.
2:19-22) in order to coursework relieve the apostle s mind by bringing back news of his old friends. Timothy had a tried character by this time and his 'solicitude for the Philippians had become a second nature' (Lightfoot). Clearly he was not a a prisoner, but free to come and go. Essay Games? His journey may have detained him ; or he may have proceeded farther to Ephesus. How To Essay? 1 At least a genuine fragment preserved in computer, 2 Tim. Resume Siebel? 1:15-18, 4:6-12, 4:16-19 shows that at some subsequent period Paul had been forced to classification essay computer games abandon his hope of release and now, in view of a martyr s death, wanted to have Timothy beside him again in his isolation.
We do not know if the summons was obeyed in time, or at all. A final glimpse of the students, envoy is afforded, some twenty years later, by a casual remark in an epistle apparently addressed to some Christians at Rome (Heb. 13:23), from which it would appear that Timothy, who was familar to this circle of readers (cp Rom. 16:21, HEBREWS, 9), had been recently released from imprisonment somewhere and might possibly revisit Rome in company with his friend the writer. Apart from a hypothesis, which needs only to classification essay be chronicled, that he actually edited the two pastoral epistles bearing his own name, three lines of critical reconstruction connect Timothy with authorship either independently or as an amanuensis of Paul, (i.) Least probable of all is Spitta's ingenious attempt to find in him the author of 2 Thess. (Zur Gesch. u. Antigone Civil? Lift, des Ur-christenthums, 1:22-23), an epistle written by him in the name of his companions (2 Thess. 1:1) - hence its somewhat formal and official tone - and saturated with apocalyptic fantasies of Judaism peculiar to himself (cp Acts 16:1, 2 Tim. 3:15-16, 1 Tim. 1:4, 4:7) See THESSALONIANS, 14. (ii.) When 2 Cor.
10-13 is accepted as part of an intermediate letter to Corinth, written previous to 2 Cor. Classification? 1-9, it is natural (Pfleid. Das Urchristenthum, 106-107) though far from necessary to suppose that these four chapters were preceded by christianity a religion, a part (no longer extant) written by essay computer games, Timothy or by some other companion of Paul interested in the local church. On this view the avrbs 5e eyoo IlaCAos [autos de egoo paulos] means that Paul now strikes in to speak alone and independently, (iii.) With more plausibility the christianity essay, composition of the essay games, 'We-journal' in Acts has been assigned occasionally to Timothy (e.g., by Konigsmann, Ulrich, Beyschlag, de Wette, Bleek, and [?] Weizsacker), although the threads of positive proof are extremely subtle (cp ACTS, 9b) and the general probabilities point rather to Luke as the diarist. A Religion? Besides, even if the Bezan reading in Acts 11:27-28 be rejected, a passage like Acts 20:4-6 (unless we are to suspect a serious dislocation of the text) tells against the composition of the journal by Timothy.
Sorof, however, has followed a modified form of Mayerhoff s theory in attributing to classification essay computer games Timothy the students, task of editing Acts in its extant shape from. (a) a Lucan sketch of early Christianity in essay computer, connection with Paul and (b) a rather legendary Petrine source (Die Entstehung der Ap.-gesch. 1890). 1 If so, this would be the get writing paragraphs w angel, basis for classification essay computer, the literary setting adopted by the later author of the pastoral epistles in his third composition (1 Tim. 1:3-4, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 11). The casual way in which Timothy's connection with Ephesus is assumed there, may be pure fantasy; but it is more likely that it may reflect some actual tradition of his career after Paul's removal ; certainly (although the far from exhaustive or accurate nature of essay, Acts as a record of Paul's later life does not make this an insuperable objection) there is no recorded period in Acts when Paul started for Macedonia leaving Timothy to essay computer superintend matters at Ephesus. The widespread belief of Christian tradition (Ap. Const. 746, Euseb. HE 3:4, Photius, Bibl. 254), that Timothy was appointed by Paul as the first bishop of Ephesus, is probably nothing better than an inference from the pastoral epistles (1 Tim.
1:3-4), which, however, may echo some historical relationship. The story is occasionally improved by some circumstantial details: e.g., that he was succeeded in his episcopate by the apostle and the presbyter John, suffering martyrdom (Jan. 22, Greek church ; Jan. 24, Latin ; Sept. 27, Ephesus) during the former s exile at Patmos towards the close of the first century A.D. (see Nicephorus in HE 3:11). No miracles are narrated of him in the fifth century Acta Timothei (ed.
Usener, 1877). For these and other legends see further Lipsius, Apokr. Ap.-gesch. Christianity? (1884), 372-400, and, for the traditional connection of Timothy and Ephesus, Zahn, Einl. 1:426-427. His martyrdom 1 Tim. 6:12-13) is connected in one tradition with wild orgies in vogue possibly at the local festival of Diana, the mob having clubbed him to computer death for protesting against their licentiousness.
Contents of epistles (1-3). Period and object (4). Essayist? The errorists (5). Paulinism (6). Sub-Pauline elements (7). The faithful sayings (8). Style and essay computer games diction (9). Antigone Civil Essay? Second imprisonment (10). Genesis of pastorals (11). Critical analysis (12-14). Order of essay games, composition (15).
Author (16). Pseudonymity (17). Siebel? Bibliography (18). These three epistles commonly form a group 1 in computer games, the NT canon, 2 and the general similarity of a religion, their diction, aim, and atmosphere makes it convenient to discuss them side by classification essay, side. 1 As 'personal' letters ('pro affectu et dilectione', Murat. Can.) they usually share with Philemon the last place in the list of Pauline epistles. After the Murat. Canon, where for paul essayist, some reason Titus precedes the other two, the normal arrangement is computer games 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Titus. 2 The allusions and citations in a religion, early Christian literature simply prove the existence and (by no means unanimous) acceptance of these epistles during the classification computer, second and third centuries. Antigone? Neither their rejection by essay, writers and leaders outside the civil essay, catholic church, nor their welcome within it, can be supposed to throw independent light upon the question of their actual origin and classification computer authorship.
Errorists usually refused to admit what was in resume, more or less plain conflict with their own tenets, and one has always to suspect the bias of moral dislike (Clem. Alex. Classification Essay Computer? Strom. Paul Theroux? 2:11) behind their so-called literary verdicts upon authorship. But as little do the employment and the approbation of such writings by church-authors tell in favour of their reputed authorship. When admitted to the canon as documents bearing Paul's name, they were judged healthy in classification, religious tone, practically serviceable to the church ('in honore ecclesiae catholicae in essay, ordinatione ecclesiasticae discipline sanctificatae sunt', Murat. Can.), and generally congruous with the Pauline tradition and essay computer games temper. Those who thus stamped them with approval had no independent knowledge of their composition ; it was enough that the epistles contained nothing which jarred with what was judged to be apostolic or Pauline ; and the early Christian attitude towards 'Hebrews' is abundant evidence of how loose that judgment could be. The modern critic is therefore justified in going behind such ecclesiastical tradition in order to face directly problems of origin and authorship which, in the nature of things, could hardly have been present to the consciousness of those who with sound instinct preserved writings handed down by religious usage from the past. No one would dream of challenging the verdict of the Homeric ioptfoi Te [chorizontes], simply because in common with antiquity generally Aristotle (with the same facts before him) found no difficulty in treating the Iliad and the Odyssey as products of the same mind.
And the a religion, identification of canonicity or worthiness with direct apostolic authorship, which tacitly controlled nearly all early Christian discussions upon the primitive literature of the church, is a literary convention which it is classification computer games needless at this time of day to antigone essay spend space in classification computer games, refuting. Consequently, in the case of the pastoral epistles, there need not be any hesitation in concentrating attention upon their internal evidence when problems such as pseudpnymity are raised. This is just one of the instances in which the naive presuppositions of early Christianity imposed limitations upon its judgment, when that judgment was exercised upon the remote literary and historical sources of how to a graduate essay, its treasures. 3 J. Turmel, 'Histoire de l'interpret. de 1 Tim. 2:4' (Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. Classification Essay? 1900, Sept.-Oct.).
Their contents are as follows : 1 Tim. is somewhat loosely knit together; the contents are miscellaneous rather than orderly, as if the writer had had no single topic dominant in his mind. But in sample resume, spite of this desultory character the general trend of the epistle is not obscure. After the usual greeting (1:1-2) the epistle opens by essay computer, describing the commission already given by Paul to his lieutenant at Ephesus and write essay now urged afresh upon his attention that he may be able to games counteract local errorists of antinomian proclivities. This commission enforces sincerity and moral earnestness, according to the Pauline standard presented as an apostolic trust and coursework students tradition to classification which Timotheus is naturally heir (1:3-11). Here a digression occurs, suggested by the closing words of v. 11; Paul claims to be the staunch though unworthy representative of this evangelical standard, and summons Timothy to unflinching loyalty (1:12-20) in view of some recent instances of aberration (HYMENAEUS and ALEXANDER). Sample Resume Siebel? The epistle then passes away from polemic and personal allusions into the first of its two sections (2-3). Directions are laid down for the regulation of church-life in general: (a) for whom (2:1-2) and by whom (2:3) prayer is to be offered in church - both paragraphs expanding into slight digressions upon the universality of salvation in the Pauline gospel (2:3-7) and upon the subordinate place of women (2:9-3:1).
The writer then proceeds from classification essay computer Christian worship to the more vital question of (b) organisation, laying down the moral criteria (see EDUCATION, 16-17) of episcopi (3:2-7) and paul essayist diaconi (3:8-13, incidentally deaconesses are included), and classification computer games closing the whole section with a lofty stanza or fragment of a primitive confession upon the incarnate Christ (3:14-16). The second section (4-6), which resumes the application, tone of polemic, is thrown into the form of rules for the personal conduct and ministry of Tim. in view of serious moral aberrations fostered by the ascetic tendencies of certain Christian teachers; these sophistries and superstitions he is authoritatively to refute (4:1-16). He is further advised upon his attitude to the practical problems created by differences of age and sex within the classification essay computer, membership of the churches (5:1-2), and some space is devoted to the maintenance and control of paul, two special classes of officials - widows (5:3-16) and classification essay presbyters (5:17-25). After a word on the relative duties of slaves and coursework masters (6:1-2), the epistle comes round to lash the errorists, attacking them with considerable vigour for making a trade of religion. Naturally this suggests a warning to Christians in general against the passion for money (6:3-10), and with an impressive charge addressed to the 'man of God', the classification essay, epistle dies away in a doxology (6:11-16). Coursework Students? In a postscript, some words to rich people are appended, together with a supplementary warning to Timothy against contemporary yccocris [gnoosis] (6:17-21). In 2 Tim., after the greeting, Paul gives thanks for Timothy's inheritance and experience of faith (1:1-5). He then warns his friend against false shame, urging his own life and teaching to the contrary (1:6-14), as well as a recent example of energy and fearlessness on essay games the part of an Asiatic Christian called Onesiphorus (1:15-18).
Especially for one who like Timothy is christianity a religion heir to the Pauline trust and tradition, endurance for Christ's sake and adherence to the Pauline gospel (of which, indeed, endurance is a note) form a pressing duty; the former is certain of a reward (2:1-13), whilst the latter is the one useful and essay computer honourable course of action open for a Christian teacher (2:14-26) amid the heightening temptations of unpractical controversy and immorality. After vigorously exposing the principles and methods of these errorists (3:1-9, see JANNES AND JAMBRES), Paul bids Timothy maintain the principles of the coursework, Pauline gospel, even when they involve suffering and obloquy, and at the same time adhere to the OT scriptures (3:10-17); then follows a resume containing his final charge and classification computer the swansong of his own confession (4:1-8). Data of personal information and private messages close the letter (4:9-22). 1 The personal reference elsewhere in the NT (Gal. 2:9, Rev. For Gifted Students? 3:12) does not justify Bois in bracketing 'which is the essay computer, church of the living God' (TJTIS . . . Ju)fTOs [epis . Siebel? zoontos] : 3:14-16) and essay games connecting 'pillar' (crri/Aos [stylos]) with the subject of essay, 'behave' (ayacrTpfV/ietrOai [anastrephesthai]). 2 The concern to essay keep the widow-class under the paul theroux essayist, bishop's control is thoroughly sub-apostolic (cp Ignat. ad Polyk. 4, 5). See MINISTRY, 41, and Hastings' DB 4:916-917. 3 The interpolated remark (5:23), if not an aside suggested by 'pure' (dyrdr [agnon]), may have originally lain between 4:3 and 4:4 or 4:12 and 4:13, from classification games which it has got displaced (instances of this in Hist. New Test. Application? (2) pp.
39:676 ; also Jahn on games Juv. 3:12, 3:16 and Che. on Is. 38:22). Get Writing And Essays W Angel? Its insertion after 5:22, which must have taken place very early, would thus be due to a copyist who read the sentence as a qualifying definition of 'pure' (ayvuv [agnon]) - Christian purity being no Essene-like abstinence. Epictetus (Diss. 3:22) similarly regards bodily health as a necessary part of the true Cynic's religious equipment; 'for if he has the appearance of a consumptive, pale, and classification thin person, his testimony has not the paragraphs custom w angel, same weight'. Julicher and Bacon group vv.
23-25 together, and von Soden links 25 to 23, 24 to 22, whilst Calvin plausibly suggested that 22c-23 was a marginal note of the author. 4 In particular to teachers who found Christianity a lucrative trade (cp Did. 11-12, Barn. 10, Ignat. Ephes. 7, Tit. 1:11). 5 The absence of any greetings to members of the Ephesian church, together with the paucity of personal allusions, shows that the epistle is not a letter in the strict sense of the word. Classification? The author is writing with his eye on the Christian church of his own day, as the phrases (2 Tim. 4:22, Tit.
3:15, 1 Tim. 6:21) prove for all three epistles. In Philemon, the one genuine 'private' note of Paul extant [cp, however, PHILEMON], the 'your' (uuwv [hymon]) in v. 25 refers to the different persons associated with Philemon in the introduction. Cp also the variant 'know ye' (yivtuCTxeTe [ginooskete] : Lachm.) in 2 Tim. 3:1. Theroux? The alternative open to the traditionalists is the gratuitous assumption that passages like 1 Tim. 2:1-3:13, etc., were meant to be communicated by computer games, their recipients to wider circles (Zahn); which of essay, course destroys the character of the writings as private letters.
Cp 1 Tim. 2:8 (1 Cor. 7:17). 6 On the contents of 1:6 see below (section 7). Classification Essay Computer? But even if 'us' in v. 7 referred to Paul and Timothy (which is not absolutely certain) it would simply allude to write essay them as the persons immediately under consideration, not as officials. The passage, therefore, does not in itself betray the narrowing of the Spirit to classification games a class ; and a religion the contents of the computer, Spirit are distinctly ethical : vigour issuing in how to write a graduate application essay, love to others and in self-control. 7 On 3:13 cp Aristides 6:16 (Wendland, Klicin. Mus., 1894, 49:309).
8 The curious antipathy of the writer to second marriages on the part of presbyters, episcopi, diaconi, and 'widows' (?pu [cherai], see WIDOW), is quite un-Pauline, but corresponds to classification computer games the more general cast of feeling prevalent in the second century throughout the churches (e.g., Athenagoras, Leg; pro Christ. 33, 'respectable adultery', euvrpeTri)? /aot^ eta gt [euprepes moicheia]; Herm. Mand. 4:1:4 ; Clem. Alex.
Strom. Essay? 3:1). See Jacoby, Neutest. Ethik (1899), 378-399. After a somewhat elaborate greeting (1:1-4), the epistle to Titus opens by reiterating Pauls instructions with regard to classification essay computer the choice and duties of presbyters or episcopi in Crete, in order to sharply check erroneous teaching and immoral practices on the part of some Judaising propagandists who were upsetting the churches (1:5-16). Titus is then instructed how to enforce the moral obligations of Christianity upon aged men (2:1-2), aged women, and married women (2:3-5), younger men like himself (2:6-8), and slaves (2:9-10). Paul insists on this moral life as an essential of the Christian faith (2:11-14, see PECULIAR PEOPLE), and urges Titus to press home the positive duties of obedience to authority and of pure conduct, instead of wasting time over-controversialists and sectaries (2:15-3:11; cp EXCOMMUNICATION, 3 ; HERESY, 2). With some brief personal notices (3:12-15) the epistle closes; the mention of the jurist Zenas and how to write application the evangelist Apollos is classification perhaps intended to suggest that it was conveyed by their hands to its recipient. The cluster of problems offered by these epistles is intimately connected with the dual nature of their contents.
Within a setting and alongside of material which, upon all available criteria of internal evidence, must be pronounced distinctly sub-Pauline, 4 the reader meets passages apparently alien which have high claims to be considered as directly due to christianity a religion essay the apostle whose name the letters bear. The task of criticism is to do justice to both of these elements. The sub-Pauline element is primary, and in view of classification essay, it any reasonable appreciation of the whole question, not merely of isolated details, leads almost inevitably to the conclusion - one of the best established in paul essayist, NT research - that the essay computer, three epistles are pseudonymous, composed by a Paulinist in Asia Minor 5 not earlier than the close of the first century, and christianity a religion essay not later than the second decade of the essay computer, second century, based in part upon genuine fragments from the apostle s pen as well as upon more or less reliable oral tradition, and intended to express and get writing and essays custom instruct the classification essay computer games, common Christianity 6 of the day in terms, as far a! was possible or useful, of the great Pauline tradition. Substantially they were written and circulated early in the second century, as is evident from their employment in the epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp. During the period 90-120, and during that period alone, they possess a career and for gifted object which corresponds to their own internal evidence as well as to the data afforded by more or less contemporary literature.
The latter point is minor though real. Their literary affinities are beyond question with Lk.-Acts, 1 Clem. Rom., Barnabas, and the epistles of Jude and 2 Pet. , as well as with the fourth book of the Sibylline oracles (Asia Minor, circa 80 A.D. ) which, like 4 Maccabees, reiterates the term 'pious' (eire,i?7s [eusebes]). Unlike Paul, the author also makes copious use of the vocabulary of 2 Maccabees, and, at essay games, least in Titus and 1 Tim. , there are traces of acquaintance with 1 Pet. 1 The concrete and bitter description of the Cretan character - with its prevalent traits of falsehood, avarice, drunkenness, and restless sedition - does not favour the ingenious hypothesis that Cretans in this epistle are an allegorical equivalent for Philistines (Kprji-es [kretes], cp CRETE), whom tradition occasionally connected with the island. There is no evidence for such personification in the pastorals as would represent the church under the figure of the antigone civil essay, twelve tribes scattered in the dispersion (Jas. 1:1) and opposed by enemies of the true Israel. 2 In v. 16 o/j.ooyovcriv [homologousin] (EV 'profess') is (as Heb. Games? 11:13) 'to make public avowal', especially when called upon (1 Pet. 3:15).
The writer s point is, not that the errorists made extravagant claims, but that they did not act up to the normal profession of the Christian faith. 3 For npfcrBuTis [presbytis] in early Christianity see Achelis, ZNTW, 1900, pp. 92-93; 'young men' (vfwTfpoi [neooteroi]) came to mean 'laymen' as 'presbyters' (npfcrbuTfpoi [presbyteroi]) passed into an official term (see MINISTRY, 43). 4 It is only fair to the ascertained results of criticism to adopt this position, although one still meets statements like the following: 'It may be asserted without fear of get writing, contradiction that nothing really un-Pauline has been proved in any of the essay, disputed epistles' (Sanday, Inspiration, 338-339, 363-364, 379-380, 1896, a discussion characterised by Dr. Hincks of siebel, Andover thus: 'General assertion, bolstered up by the opinion of those like-minded this is not the way in which an intelligent man, who has solid arguments at his disposal, maintains an computer imperilled cause'). 5 Cp von Dobschutz, Die urchristlichen Gemeinden, 127-139 (1902), Harnack, Ausbreit. d. Christ. (1902) 461-462. 6 The motto of the pastorals lies in a sentence like (RV) 'For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us' (Tit. 2:11, eTre^afr; yap TT apis TOV 9eoO cramjpio? iracrti/ ayflpiuTroi? TraiSev ovtra rjfias).
In their age Christianity had to fight for its life against a subtle spirit in the air rather than against civil persecution ; visionaries and sophist? were more deadly than proconsuls and lictors. Thanks to the moderation and steady sense of paragraphs and essays custom w angel, writers like the author of the pastorals, however, ordinary Christians came safely through the classification essay computer games, struggle with four truths as a secure possession; the unity of the Creator and the Redeemer, the unique and sufficient value of Jesus for redemption and how to application essay revelation, the vital tie between morals and faith, and the secure future assured to the church of God. The distinctive element, however - i.e. , the prominence assigned to Timothy and Titus, is intelligible only upon the supposition that the author had specially in view the ulterior end of vindicating the legitimate evangelic succession of contemporary episcopi and essay other office-bearers in provinces where this was liable for various reasons to be challenged. The pastorals were composed, says Tertullian, to expound church affairs ('de ecclesiastico statu'). The craving (visible in Clem. Rom. ) for continuity of succession as a guarantee of get writing and essays, authority in doctrine (and therefore in discipline 2 ) underlies the effort of this Paulinist to show that Timothy and Titus were genuine (yvrjcrioi [gnesioi]) heirs of Paul, who himself (as the author goes out of classification games, his way to repeat and assert) was a divinely commissioned herald of the gospel. Inferentially, the successors appointed by Paul's lieutenants possessed the civil, true central deposit of the essay games, faith. Paul Theroux Essayist? Conscious of this inheritance, and alive to its value, they are urged even as novices to instruct 3 the churches personally upon the faith in a peremptory and games positive manner, 4 instead of allowing converts to lie exposed to unreliable teachers or false leaders. Such teachers and leaders abound. Write Essay? Indeed, one note of the age is the flaunting confident temper of the errorists (2 Tim. Computer? 2:23-24, 3:1-2, 4:3-4, Tit.
1:10-11, 3:10, 1 Tim. 1:7, 4:1-2, 5:24, Acts 20:29-30, Jude 8-10, 12, 19, Rev. 2:20, 1 Jn. Civil? 4:1, 4:5, 2 Jn. 7, 3 Jn. 9 ; Ign. Ephes. 7, Trall. 6, etc. Classification Games? ). 1 Cp von Soden, Theol. Abhandlungen, 133-135 (1892).
A comparison of the pastorals with Lk.-Acts, etc., establishes not their priority or literary filiation, so much as the relatively late period at which all were composed. Diction, ideas, standpoint - all indicate unmistakably the sub-Pauline period, with its stereotyped expressions and current phraseology. 2 The concern of the pastorals, less avowed yet none the less real than in Ignatius and paul Clement, is to vindicate the authority of the elders or bishops over the enthusiasts and ascetics in the church ; the second century reveals this perennial struggle going on particularly in Asia Minor. Classification Computer? Hence this Paulinist is paul theroux essayist forward to classification essay claim Paul s authority on behalf of the organised discipline of the churches. 3 The prominence given to 'teaching' qualities shows that one danger of the contemporary churches lay largely in the vagaries and crude speculations of unauthorised teachers (Did. 15:1). The author's cure is simple. Better let the episcopus himself teach ! Better let those in authority themselves be responsible for the instruction of ordinary members ! Evidently teaching was not originally or usually (1 Tim.
5:17) a function of the presbyters ; but abuses had led by this time, as the Didache proves, to a need for resume siebel, combining teaching with organised church authority. Classification Essay Games? A contemporary spirit of contempt for and essays custom, young episcopi (Ignat. Magn. Essay? 3 etc.) is answered by the repeated encouragements of Paul in 2 Tim. 2:22-23, Tit. 2:6-7, 1 Tim.
4:11-12, 5:1; these are effective from the writer's standpoint, though such a tone would have been singularly inappropriate from Paul to lieutenants of mature experience. Here, however, they are types of loyalty to the Pauline gospel; that is all. 4 Timothy (2 Tim. 4:5), eg., is not an evangelist, but he is to do an evangelist's work as part of his full service. See EVANGELIST, MINISTRY, 39b, and Dieterich in ZNTW, 1900, pp. 336-338. The whole evidence from the allusions to ecclesiastical organisation points to the period immediately preceding that of Ignatius (MINISTRY, 54).
5 Also to the statement of Clem. Alex. (Strom. 7:17) that Gnostic heresies first became threatening about Hadrian's reign, whilst the apostolic age and teaching ended with Paul's ministry under Nero. 6 Emphasis on the visible church as a bulwark of morals (2 Tim. 2:19-20 etc.) is accompanied by its elevation to the rank of foundation (#e/xe Aios [themelios]), hitherto reserved for sample resume siebel, Christ (1 Cor. 3:11), or, at least, for the prophets and apostles (Eph. 2:20). The church now takes her place in a fairly stable world; the old anxious outlook for an immediate return of Jesus is no longer central. The really pressing questions concern not the next world but the present, and institutions are brought forward as a means of moral discipline and religious settlement.
Open attempts, as well as cunning intrigues (2 Tim. Essay Games? 3:6, Jude 4), are on foot to exploit the principles of the faith, and the new tone of overbearing petulance, among other traits, answers to the tradition preserved by Hegesippus (circa. 160 A.D.) that such a phase occurred first of all during Trajan's reign (Eus. HE 3:32), previously to which the church had remained 'a pure and coursework for gifted students incorruptible virgin' (mtpScvos KaOapa. KO. aidtji0opo; [parthenos kathara kai adiaphthoros]), her seducers lurking somewhere in obscurity (ev afiijAo TTOU cr/corei [en adeloo pou skotei]). This comparatively virgin purity of the church lasted not merely till the death of the apostles, but till the close of the next generation, 'of those thought worthy to be immediate listeners to the very words of the computer, divine wisdom' (riav avrals dicoats TTJS evBiov rofia.f eTraicoGcrai /caTTjfiiojitei coi [toon autais akoais tes entheou sophias epakousai katexioomenoon]), when the deceit of teachers of other doctrine (TO eTepo6ifiao-/taAui^ [toon eterodidaskaloon], cp 1 Tim. 1:3, 6:3) produced impious error in the communities. Since none of the apostles survived, these [eTpo6iSd(rcaAoi [eterodidaskaloi]] now attempted, unabashed and openly, to preach 'so-called gnosis' (TTJC l/tvtawnov yvtatriv [ten pseudoonymon gnoosin], cp 1 Tim.
6:20) in opposition to 'the preaching of the truth' (TUJ TTJS aArjSei a? (cijpuy/maTt [too tes aletheias kerygmati]; cp 2 Tim. 4:17, Tit. 1:3). Of these Marcion 1 was the foremost. In the pastorals, as in sample resume, Jude and 2 Peter, this movement in its incipient stage is met by equally frank methods, which seem denunciatory merely because we no longer possess any statement of the other side and are, therefore, prone to forget that such rough and games decisive ways are at times the soundest method of conserving truth. Popular applications of paul theroux, gnosticism were, as a rule, brilliant and poisonous fungi. Essay Computer Games? Instead of writing a botanical treatise on their varieties, this writer felt the paul essayist, simpler and games more practical plan was to make people either avoid or destroy them. It was a short and easy plan, and probably effective at the time, although its expression in literature runs the how to write a graduate essay, natural risk of being reproached for containing more heat than light. Firmness and essay even ridicule have their own place as ethical weapons of defence, and the opening of the second century offered Christianity some admirable occasions for their use. The physiognomy of the civil essay, errorists is indistinct, for several reasons.
The author had to preserve the verisimilitude of a Pauline situation, for classification computer, one thing ; and the desire of avoiding undue anachronisms prevented him from being more explicit about the details of errors which had arisen in his own later age. Besides, the errors were familiar to his audience and might be taken for granted on paragraphs custom w angel the whole. It is even probable that he abstained purposely from confining his range to any one set of visionaries and opponents, inasmuch as his letters were intended (like 1 Peter, James, and 2 Peter) to be manifestoes to classification computer the church in general, rather than homilies for any local audience. The numerous forms of opinion and conduct in and around contemporary Christendom, which by a sound instinct he regarded as a menace to the faith, had certain common features; and to describe these as due to a syncretism of and essays, Gnosticism and (Tit. 1:10-11, 3:9, 1 Tim. Computer Games? 1:7) Judaism, is to go as far as the evidence of the pastorals warrants.
The environment (as in Rev. 2-3, and the Ignatian epp.) is marked by the incipient phases of christianity a religion essay, what afterwards blossomed out into classification computer games, the Gnosticism of the second century : an amalgam of disobedience, tendencies towards dualism and docetism (1 Tim. 2:6, 3:16, as in 1 jn.), the multiplication of media between God and essay games man (1 Tim. 2:5-6), a distinction between the God of creation and the God of redemption (1 Tim. 4:3-5, cp Herm. Vis. 1:3), a depreciation of the OT (2 Tim. 3:16), and a penchant for magic and a graduate application essay superstition (2 Tim.
3:8, 3:13 ; cp. Acts 8:9-24, 19:11-19 for Ephesus, 13:6-12 for Cyprus). Classification? These tendencies were allied to ascetic predilections (like the prohibition of marriage among the Encratites, of marriage and flesh among the coursework students, Saturninians and the Marcionites), which as usual bordered on antinomian license, to computer an aristocratic exclusiveness (opposed in non-Pauline fashion, 1 Tim. 2:4-5, 4:10), to a semi-philosophic evaporation of primitive beliefs - e.g., on theroux the resurrection (2 Tim. 2:18 ; so Menander and Dositheus), to indulgence in superficial theories and rhetoric, and so on.
To our author's eye these errorists were heterogeneous. Essay Computer Games? 'For there are many insubordinate people, chatterers and essay cheats, especially those who have come from the circumcision' (Tit. 1:10). The mischievous feature about classification essay, them was their presence within the sample, churches and classification essay games their combination of plausible errors with apparent, even ostentatious, fidelity to the principles of the faith - a trouble elsewhere reflected (Acts 20:29-30) in connection with the Ephesian church towards the close of the first century. 1 Marcion's omission of the students, pastorals from his canon tells heavily against their origin as preserved in tradition. Essay Computer Games? Philemon was accepted by him, though far more of a private note than any of the pastorals; and the presence of for gifted, elements antagonistic to his own views need not have made him exclude them, since he could have easily excised these passages in this as in other cases. 2 Cp von Dobschutz, 180-187, 189. 3 The lack of homogeneity in the description of the errorists prevents this trait from telling against the reference (GENEALOGIES, 4; Hart, Judaistic Christianity, 135-136) of the 'genealogies' (yei/eaAo-yuu [genealogiai]) in Tit. Essay Games? 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4 to legendary pedigrees of Jewish heroes. But the phrase came to have a conveniently appropriate colour afterwards in view of the paragraphs and essays w angel, interminable series of aeons and emanations developed especially by Gnostic sects like the Valentinians.
The Jewish legalism of Tit. 1:14, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7-8 recalls Cerinthus decidedly. Even if the author had any single system of error in mind (which, in view of the contemporary fusion of paganism and Judaism, is unlikely), the classification essay, vague and somewhat indiscriminate fashion in which he endeavours to coursework for gifted confute their pretensions, renders it impossible to reconstruct any coherent picture of games, his opponents. Several traits suggest influences similar to resume siebel those which fostered Essenism ; others 2 recall the picture of Cerinthus sketched in later tradition, others again the computer, errorists Carpocrates, Menander, and Dositheus. The two in get writing and essays custom w angel, disputable facts are, that the collective evidence of the early Christian literature, as well as of later tradition, places the origin of such phenomena (upon any considerable scale) not earlier than the close of the first century, and classification that their locus was primarily Eastern, in coursework students, Syria and particularly Asia Minor, where we find the pastorals, like the classification, Ignatian epistles, pouring a scattered fire upon manifold forms of antagonistic theosophy. Against the seductive influences of local paganism, with its ethical miasma and coursework for gifted students religious cravings, the computer games, author assumes a moralistic standpoint based upon the popular conception of Paulinism.
No writer after Paul s death could maintain, even when - as in siebel, Marcion's case - he happened to sympathise with, the deeper aspects of the apostle's thought, which survived mainly, so far as the subsequent literature was concerned, but in altered form throughout the Fourth Gospel. As a general rule Paulinism was either misunderstood or modified. The sub-Pauline epistles, like the essay computer, Roman symbol (Kattenbusch, Das Apostolische Symbol, 2:498-499, 596-597, 720-721 ), show instances of both attitudes, and the pastorals are a vivid proof of how even a devoted Paulinist had to paragraphs and essays w angel alter the emphasis at many points of his master s teaching upon religious and practical topics 3 in a restatement of it for some later age - being forced, for example, to meet the common objection to Paul's severe view of the Law, and to admit the high estimate of its value throughout the diaspora as an ethical code and check (1 Tim. 1:5-11), as well as to correct abuses and classification essay computer misunderstandings of certain Pauline ideas (e.g., the resurrection, 2 Tim. 2:18). 1 This notion is either ultra-spiritualist (cp Jn. 5:24, qualified carefully by 5:28-29, etc.) and due to essay Gnostic tendencies, or chiliastic - the classification essay computer games, reign of Christ, eternal life, has already begun; therefore there can be no marrying (Lk. 20:35-36, 1 Tim. 4:3).
2 If Cerinthus and Carpocrates really rejected the get writing and essays, virgin-birth (Iren. Classification Essay Computer? Adv. haer. How To Write A Graduate Essay? 1:26:1, 1:25:1), it is strange that neither the games, author of the Fourth Gospel nor the author of the pastorals defended this point. The former, probably, had reasons of siebel, his own; but the classification, latter, who had no semi-philosophic christology to state, seems to have omitted the virgin-birth from get writing custom his rhythmic summary (1 Tim. 3:16-17) owing to his genuinely Pauline standpoint. This adherence to classification computer games the older view is a religion essay all the more remarkable side by side with the eager insistence on it in Asc. Isaiae., 11:2-22, and Ignat. ad Eph.
19 (where a Pauline citation occurs, 1 Cor. 2:8), both contemporary writings. 3 Note, e.g., the varying proportion of the two currents - one spontaneous and prophetic, the computer games, other veering towards order and organisation. The former is in some writings of this age almost wholly subordinated to the latter (Clem. Sample Siebel? Rom., Past., even Ignat.) : in others it is dominant, almost exclusively important (Barnabas, 1 Jn., Rev., Jude, 2 Pet.). 4 Antiphanes (Fragm. Com. Graec.), 'He who does no wrong needs no law' (6 jUTjSep aSiiciuv ovfierbs 6f ITCU vonov [o meden adikoon oudenos deitai nomou]). The author rightly felt that Paul was essentially anti-Gnostic, and that the tenets of the incipient Gnostic theosophy would have been repugnant to the man who had theoretically and practically attacked its precursors at Colossae. But his own practical bent and prudent sense of the classification, situation prevent him from developing in reply Paul's peculiar theory of gnosis as a special endowment, superior to faith, and mediated by the spirit. Such methods would not have been appropriate.
Popular Christianity had always been wider and more varied than Paulinism, even during Paul s lifetime, and the new period which found Christianity in fresh relations with the sample resume, wider empire in the generation following Paul s death, stimulated fresh energies and fresh methods of expression, native to the age but more or less an advance upon all previous conceptions. To the author of the pastorals, loyal to the apostolic and especially the Pauline tradition, but none the less free to interpret afresh his Christian consciousness, God appears - in un-Pauline fashion as a Saviour ; Jesus not as the son of God but as a mediator, 1 or rather the mediator ; baptism (Tit. 3:5) as almost a sacrament of salvation, the Law simply as a useful code of morals. Anthropomorphism is carefully avoided, as in the Fourth Gospel ; God is the Absolute - his unity, awe (1 Tim. 6:16, cp En. 14:21-22), and eternity, his universal purpose, but not his fatherly love, being prominent. 2 The pressing question of religion is the consolidation of the churches rather than the extension of the gospel to essay computer games those as yet unreached. We are in the age of the Epigoni, when the creative genius has almost disappeared and is yielding place to practical activities which are mainly devoted to conserving ground already gained.
The spirit of defensiveness has increased. Christianity is paul theroux essayist now more self-conscious than ever. Her outlook is not eschatological so much as secular, directed to a useful though troubled career in the world. The church has behind her a sound body of classification computer, religious truth, which it is how to write a graduate application her business to teach and enforce ; and this is presented by the writer in brief, crystallised phrases and paragraphs, which recall the incipient liturgies and symbols of the church. 3 Faith consequently is tending to become more than ever fides quae creditur. It is predominantly the confident apprehension of the truth or the conviction that the gospel-message is authentic, sometimes the virtue of fidelity ; but neither the classification games, author nor his age has any intelligent sympathy with Paul s characteristic idea of faith as the warm tie between Jesus and the redeemed Christian. Nay more, the old Pauline antithesis of faith and works (like the idea of resume siebel, justification by faith, or of salvation from sin's guilt) is put into the background, evidently as misleading or apt to be misunderstood. 'Piety', nourished by sound 4 teaching, is the root out of which all human virtues spring ; and the conceptions of essay games, reward, a good conscience, and disobedience the value of essay games, a respectable reputation, come to the front. In effect, this is practically the ethical result of Paulinism. How To? But how differently 5 the apostle and the later church reached even the same conclusions ! Here eternal life is the classification, boon granted to good works, and get writing and essays 'faith' (iriffris [pistis]) is a man's relation to the 'truth' of 'the teaching'. Similarly the church, to this unmystical author, is no longer the bride or the body of Christ but God's building, or rather a familia dei, quite in the neo-catholic manner. It is beginning to classification essay assume the place occupied by sample siebel, the Holy Spirit in Paul's theology, the latter doctrine having become liable to abuse as well as proving too profound for classification, later generations.
As in books like the Apocalypse, Jude, and 2 Peter, the Spirit in the pastorals is essentially prophetic ; 1 as a means of union between the individual and Jesus, it is almost if not entirely ignored. The exceptions - and they are apparent or partial exceptions - are Tit. Paul Theroux? 3:5-6, 2 Tim. 1:14 ; even the personal relation of the believer to Jesus is not cardinal (2 Tim. 1:12, 2:11-12). 1 Sub-Pauline idea (Heb.
8:6, etc.). In Test. Dan. Classification Essay Computer Games? 6, the angel of peace is the mediator between God and man. 2 The heaping up of predicates, especially in paragraphs custom w angel, the negative, recalls earlier attempts by Jewish thinkers (e.g., Philo and Josephus) to define God semi-philosophically, as a reaction from the earlier realism and its love of theophanies.
Passages like 1 Tim. 1:17, 6:16 mark the essay computer games, sub-Pauline transition from a religion this to the later efforts of the Greek spirit, as in the 'Preaching of Peter' and Aristides. Games? The pastoral 'Trinity' corresponds, however, to the apocalyptic (e.g., Rev. 14, Lk. 9:26, etc.) - i.e., God, Jesus, and the angels (elect); while Christ s appearing (1 Tim. 6:14-15) is stated in Pauline terms of subordination, and with the antigone essay, substitution of epiphany (eTrt^xxveta [epiphaneia]) for the Pauline parousia (wapowia [parousia]). 3 The pastorals, like Ephesians, are absorbed in an un-Pauline devotion to the church which ignores the classification essay computer, local churches. This trait, absent even from Ignatius, significantly illustrates their authorship and real aim as tracts for the officers of the Catholic church. Timothy and Titus are portrayed as receiving instructions and ideals which were to control the contemporary teachers and a religion essay other office-bearers of the author's age. 4 This un-Pauline use of vyiaiveiv [hygiainein] in 8iSacnca.ia vyiaivovcra [diaskalia hygiaiousa] ('sound doctrine') is anticipated in the Philonic phrases 'sound learning' (vyiaivovcra |ud#T)ris [hygiainousa mathesis]), and 'sound words' (oi vytai j/orres Aoyoi [oi hygiainontes logoi]); it tends occasionally to become almost equivalent to 'rational', or 'sane'. 5 Paul could have written Tit.
2:11, 2:14; but he would have had something to say also about peace with God and classification essay computer reconciliation. He 'could no doubt have said all this' (i.e., Tit. 3:4-7) also, but 'probably he would have said it otherwise, and essayist not all at a time'. Practically it is the use of such stereotyped and almost formal language which makes it reasonable to say that 'St. Paul was inspired, but the writer of these epistles is sometimes only orthodox' (Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, p. Essay Computer Games? 203). These and essayist other items of the creed, now rapidly crystallising in Rome and Asia Minor, are conveyed partly in classification computer, hymnal fragments which, like those in sample resume siebel, the Apocalypse of John, sprang from the essay, cultus of the churches ; partly in the shape of aphorisms such as the terse and weighty axioms called the five 'faithful sayings' (cp Ps.
111:7-8). These are like proverbs; they mark a comparatively advanced stage of antigone, experience, expressing in classification games, concentrated form the outcome of prolonged reflection. (i.) 2 Tim. 2:11-13a. - Here the 'faithful saying' (TTIO-TO? Ao-yos [pistis logos]) resembles a fragment of some primitive hymn or confession, if it is not - like the rhythmical snatches (cp also Rev. 21:5, 22:6, Adyoi TTIOTOI [logoi pistoi]) in the Apocalypse - an outburst of the Spirit-raptures in the early church (cp Weinel, Die Wirk. des Geistes, 80-81 ). (ii.) Tit. 3:8. - As the paul, phrase implies a condensed and pregnant statement, it seems better in Tit. 3:8 to find its contents in v. 7 rather than in classification computer, 4-7, which it is sometimes supposed (e.g., by von Soden, Bernard, Weiss) to recapitulate. Essayist? (iii.) 1 Tim.
1:15. Here the essay computer games, phrase not merely is expanded by how to application, the non-Pauline addition 'and worthy of all acceptation' (/cai Trao-rjs aTroSoxrjs a to? [kai pases apodoches axios]; as in 4:9), but also precedes its contents which are in this instance introduced by 'that' (on [oti]), (iv.) 1 Tim. 3:1 - The use of the phrase in games, this verse, which of course refers back to 2:15 ('saved in child-bearing'; Chrysost. Erasm. And Essays W Angel? etc.) - a wife's salvation being worked out in essay computer games, her own sphere of motherhood (despite the associations of Jewish tradition), not in ecclesiastical position - is remarkable for the variant (accepted by resume, Zahn. Einl. 1:482) 'human' (avdpuiwivo; [anthroopinos) 5 in classification essay, D*g (Ambrosiast. Sedul.). In 1:15 as here, 'save' (ra$ei.v [soozein]) has an essay indirect eschatological reference, (v.) 1 Tim. 4:9. - In this verse (which Bois and essay Baljon delete) the contents of the 'saying' (Adyos [logos]) might be either v. 8 (Chrysost.
Weizs. Hilg. Weiss, von Soden, Horton) or v. 10 (Bengel, Schleierm. Write A Graduate Essay? Holtzm., cp 'for' [yap [gar]] and ayuiv [hagion]. 2 Tim. 2:11). 1 In 1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14, where a symbol is trembling into a sacrament (cp Acts 20:28, not 13:1-3 which denotes a commission for some special service), divine inspiration prompts the Christian prophets, of whom Paul is one, to select men for office in essay computer games, the church, and to confer upon them a supernatural charism (xcipicrjiia [charisma]) by means of the rite of imposition of hands (see HANDS, LAVING ON OF, and SPIRITUAL GIFTS, also MINISTRY, 37b, 37c). Get Writing Paragraphs W Angel? The idea of such a special rite, even in the form of 2 Tim. 1:6 (1 Thess.
5:19-20), could hardly have come from the man who wrote 1 Cor. 12:4 (diversities of gifts), 1:11 (dividing to every man), and represents the water-mark of later Catholicism; the semi-official tinge lent to classification essay computer a primitive ceremony is palpable (see Gunkel's Wirkungen des heilig. Geistes,(2) 7 , and especially Weinel's Wirk. des Geistes und der Geister, 140-142, 216-218 , with the conveyancing of a religion, influence through physical contact as traced by Volz in ZATW 21:93-94 ). The other function of the Spirit in the prophets - i.e., prediction of woes and classification perils (1 Tim. 4:1-2, 2 Tim. 3:1-2) - is naturally referred by the sub-apostolic age (Acts 20:29-30, Clem. Rom. 44:1, Jude 17-18, 2 Pet. 2:1) to the apostles. They foresaw what their successors suffer.
Hence the pseudonymous pastoral epistles credit Paul with anticipations of the errors current in their own age. 2 In 1 Tim. Sample Resume? 3:16 the statement of the classification essay computer games, resurrection ('justified in the spirit', eSixaiiaOr] ei n-i/ev/ixaTi [edikaioothe en pneumati]) is an un-Pauline development of Rom. 1:4 (cp Iren. 2:32:3-4) after 1 Pet. 3:18, 4:6 and Jn. 16:10, as that of the incarnation is for gifted students un-Pauline and distinctly Johannine (1 Jn.
3:5, 3:8, cp 1 Pet. 1:20); 'seen by angels' is games a sub-Pauline development (Eph. 3:10, 1 Pet. 1:12, 3:18-19), 'world' (edoyios [kosmos]) appears to have its sub-Pauline emphasis of 'evil', and 'was taken up in glory' (di/eA^i^r) f v Sofrj [anelemphthe en doxe]), if an resume siebel allusion to the Ascension, is thoroughly un-Pauline. On the Messiah as the copestone of this new temple of Truth, see Briggs, Messiah of Apostles, 228-232 . 3 The reference is neither to v. Classification Computer? 8 (Weiss) nor to what immediately precedes (Chrysost.), but to v. 11b-13a. which, like Tit. Essayist? 3:8 and classification games 1 Tim. 4:9, looks out directly upon the future and final hope of the Christian disciple. v. 13b is probably an explanatory comment ; but there is no need to regard v. 13 (with Ewald, Hesse, Hilg.) as a gloss or interpolation.
4 Cp En. Christianity A Religion? 9:41, 'the paths of essay games, righteousness are worthy of acceptation'. 5 So r (humanus), 1:15. It is noticeable that of these sententiae (i.) alone is in thought anil style somewhat parallel to Paul, who never associates 'heirship' or 'hope' (as Tit. 3:7-8) with 'eternal life' (fior) aiiovios [zooe aioonios]).
The colouring of for gifted students, (iii.), as of essay computer games, Tit. 3:5 (2 Tim. 1:10, 1 Tim. 2:4 6:13-14, Tit. Antigone Civil Disobedience Essay? 1:1-2, 1:16) is Johannine, whilst (iv.) contains the pastoral triad of faith, love, and soberness, and the air. Aey. [ap. leg.] childbearing, which is besides an idea generally strange to Paul's mode of thought (particularly if childbirth is considered as a means of salvation). In (v.) characteristically un-Pauline terms abound (e.g., 'bodily' [erw^uiTiKos [soomatikos]], 'bodily exercise' [yvuLvatria [gymnasia]], 'profitable' [ot^e Aipof [oophelimos]], v. 7-8, niaTrjp [sooter] of God, v. 10). The 'faithful sayings', therefore, not merely are characteristic of the pastorals, but betray an classification essay essentially un-Pauline conception of the regula fidei.
This difference in ground-work is endorsed by the difference in style and diction between Paul and the author of the pastorals, an argument which forms a cumulative and almost final proof of the sub-Pauline origin of the epistles. Out of the 176 hapax legomena, a proportion two or three times as great as in the Pauline epistles, nearly 80 are in LXX and were therefore consciously neglected by Paul. Favourite Pauline phrases and essay words are totally wanting (e.g., 'unjust' [afiixos [adikos], 'uncleanness' [aKaBaptria [akatharsia]], 'adoption' [vio0ccria [hyiothesia]], 'our Father' [n-ar)p ijjuui [pater emoon]], 'covenant' [6ia07jier) [diatheke]], 'reveal' [aTroKaAun-Teiv [apokalyptein]], 'free' [eAeutfepos [eleutheros]] and compounds, 'be operative' [ei/epyety [energein]], 'perform' [Karepyd^ftrdai [katergazesthai]], 'boast' [(cauvao-Sai [kauchasthai]], 'folly' [fiuipia [mooria]], 'tradition' [napaSocn; [paradosis]], 'persuade' [TruBeiv [peithein]], 'abound' [7repirTfvftv [perisseuein]], 'do' [irpa.va eLi [prassein], = iroielv [poiein], in past.], 'perfect' [re Aetof [teleios]], 'be gracious' [apifea-0ai [charizesthai]], 'think' [fjtpovclv [phronein]], with 'ordinance' [SiKautyia [dikaiooma]], 'greater' Oaeafiof [meizoon]], 'small' [ju/epo; [mikros]], 'body' [crw^a [sooma]], 'good' [pr)cTT6? [chrestos]], etc. ; also particles like 'then' [apa [ara]], 'wherefore' [fiio], 'because' [fiiort [dioti]], 'then' [en-ftra [epeita]], 'still' [en], 'behold' [tfie, iSov [idou]], etc., etc., prepositions like 'with' [rvv [syn] = fj.eTa [meta] of classification essay computer, pastorals], 'instead of' [ai/Tt [anti]], 'until' [dxpt [achri]], 'before' [HiJLirpor6ev [emprosthen]], 'beyond' [irapd [para], acc.]). Many fresh terms are coined, new compounds and Latinisms are introduced, whole families of words appear for the first time (cp those in a [a] privative, SiSaovc- [didask-], otico- [oiko-], Taijp- [soophr-], iAo- [philo-], etc.), and others are used with unwonted frequency (e.g., icdA- [kal-]). The extent and significance of coursework, this change in vocabulary cannot adequately be explained even when one assigns the fullest possible weight to computer such factors as change of amanuensis, situation, or topic, lapse of time, literary fertility, or senile weakness ; for siebel, the wider evidence of syntax and style, to be felt even through a translation, comes in to verify the impression already made by the vocabulary. Particularly where the essay computer games, writer is most himself and least dependent on previous letters (as in 1 Tim.), the idiosyncrasies of his composition appear, neither accidental nor trivial by any means. The comparative absence of rugged fervour, the smoother flow, the heaping up of how to write application essay, words, all point to another sign-manual than that of Paul. In short, the relative proportions of likeness and unlikeness (especially to Romans and Philippians) between the style of Paul and the style of classification essay games, these three letters, are explicable only upon the hypothesis that the get writing paragraphs w angel, writer of the classification essay, pastorals modelled his diction in part upon that of his master, but not slavishly - certainly not to theroux essayist the prejudice of his own originality and essay games cast of thought. These proportions are precisely what we should expect in such a literary relationship. Upon any other hypothesis they do not seem credible or reasonable.
Questions of essayist, style are proverbially delicate, but the linguistic data of the pastorals and the Pauline epistles may be said to resemble those of the Apocalypse and classification essay games the Fourth Gospel ; both ratify the conclusion that we have to do with kinship, not identity, of authorship. * 1 Yet 'deny' (apvelcrOat [arneisthai]) is non-Pauline, and the stanza reads like a popular version of coursework, Paul's own words, adapted to the requirements of classification essay, a martyr-period. See Denney, 202. 2 The knowledge of paul essayist, God or of the truth = salvation or eternal life (Jn. 17:2-3, 17:17); cp Jn. 17:3 with 1 Tim. Essay Games? 2:5, the same combination of monotheism as against polytheism, and of Christ's unique and sufficient position as against Judaism or Gnosticism, besides ('the man Christ Jesus') a Johannine protest against the Gnostic or Docetic tendency to resolve Christ into a phantom of abstract spirit. On the for gifted students, Christology of the epistles (1 Tim. 3:16), see A. Klopper in ZWT (1902) 339-361.
3 No possible change of circumstances could make Paul oblivious (through three separate letters) of God's fatherhood, of the believing man's union with Jesus, of the power and witness of the Spirit, or of reconciliation. They might be taken for granted? But surely in enforcing the ethical requirements of the pastorals, Paul would never have demanded the blossom without urgently pressing the need of these spiritual facts as its root ! 4 There is no ground for games, the idea that the prosaic tone of the pastorals is due to coursework for gifted their preoccupation with the practical steps of essay computer, organisation, whilst in Paul s earlier letters he had been mainly employed in sketching the ideal of the church. A letter like 1 Cor., to say nothing of passages in the other letters, is christianity a religion essay enough to refute this explanation and to show how Paul would have dealt with the problems of organisation and church order, had these met him in an acute form. It would have been different from the method of this Paulinist, for Paul ever came down upon classification essay computer games ethical tasks from a spiritual height. Still further proof in corroboration of their un-Pauline origin flows in from the impossibility of placing the epistles within Paul s lifetime. With practical unanimity defenders of the traditional hypothesis abandon all attempts to fix them previous to Paul's Roman imprisonment ; but their conjecture of a release, followed by how to a graduate application, a further extension of activity and a second imprisonment, is quite gratuitous and hardly furnishes a more tenable ground for essay games, the pastprals. It is not indeed bound up with the acceptance of their Pauline authorship ; the two positions are independent and maybe held separately. Hut even apart from the siebel, evidence of the pastorals (which never mention Spain, nor allude to so momentous a tour in the Western Mediterranean), the evidence for computer games, this second imprisonment must be pronounced inadequate (CHRONOLOGY, 79-80, PAUL, 31), resting mainly on a vague rumour (Xtryos ?x et [logos echei]) reported by Eusebius, and the allusion in the Muratorian Canon (possibly derived from how to write a graduate application essay apocryphal Acta) which is simply an expansion of Rom.
15:24, 15:28 - the classification essay, devout and imaginative fantasy of later tradition being convinced that because Paul proposed a visit to Spain, he must have carried it out. No such tradition lingered in Spain itself, whilst the express statement of Acts 20:25, 20:38 and the significant silence of Clemens Romanus imply that the tradition nearest to Paul's life knew of no return to Asia Minor. The very passage in Clemens Romanus (5), which has been supposed to refer to this western journey, tells against it. Charged with rhetorical feeling, as Baur pointed out, it narrates (like Rom. 15:19) the sweep of a religion essay, Paul's career from Jerusalem to Rome: 'after teaching righteousness to computer games the whole world, and reaching the limit of the West, and bearing testimony tefore the authorities, so he left the world'. Paul's sun had ended its course (Acts 13:47). Clement is speaking from the standpoint of his Eastern readers who would naturally take 'the limit of the west' (rd repfj.0. Trji Srcrews [to terma tes dyseoos]) as the Imperial capital (cp 'east' [dvaToXrjs [anatoles]] and 'west' [5wns [dysis]] of Syria and get writing paragraphs and essays custom Rome in Ignat.
Rom. 2), and incidentally clinches the games, proof by adding that the Neronic martyrs of 64 were 'gathered unto Paul and Peter', implying that the latter had already died. Were the 'earlier' chronology adopted, which brings Paul to Rome early in the sixties if not even earlier, space would of get writing paragraphs custom w angel, course be won before 64 for the two or three years' interval required by the traditional hypothesis of the 'pastorals' (CHRONOLOGY, 64-66). Otherwise no time is left, and it is almost incredible that the 'pastorals', if written after 64, should breathe no hint of the shock produced upon the Christian consciousness of the age, especially at Rome, by Nero's massacre which outraged even the Roman conscience. But even chronological resetting only makes the hypothesis possible ; its acceptance or rejection rests on other grounds, and - to put it mildly - these do not seem at games, any point secure. 1 Bartlet, Bowen (Dates of Pastoral Letters, 1900), and Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, 1900) are the chief exceptions recently.
2 Especially Spitta in Zur Gesch. und Litt, des Urchrist. 1:2-108 ; also Lightfoot (Biblical Essays, 215-233), Zahn (Einl. 1:435-436), Steinmetz (Die zweite rom. Gefang. des Apostels Paulus, 1897), C. H. Antigone? Turner (Hastings, DB 1:421, etc.), and Frey (die zweite rom. Gefang. und das Todesjahr des Apostels Paulus, 1900). The genesis of the pastorals is computer games therefore sub-Pauline. To account for the Pauline, or presumably Pauline element, including not merely phrases and conceptions such as could be gathered pfrom the paragraphs and essays custom, extant letters of the classification computer, apostle or from tradition, but also private details and personal matters affecting about sixteen new figures (some of whom are not mere names) - recourse must be had to how to write essay theories of compilation, whose common feature is the presupposition that the author was in possession of computer games, genuine reliquiae Paulinae. Essay? No doubt a pseudonymous writer would endeavour to stamp his figures and scenery upon the reader's mind by means of circumstantial details, especially when (as in essay computer games, this case) the authentic letters would suggest the introduction of a certain quantum of essayist, personal matter - though in the sub-Pauline letters (Eph. , Heb. , 1 Pet.) this quantum is computer games noticeably small. But, while it is conceivable that this may be sufficient to account for 1 Tim., it fails to afford an adequate rationale for paragraphs and essays custom w angel, 2 Tim.
The latter is classification flooded with items which by no means fall under the category of romantic ornament or literary vraisemblance, and lift the letters quite above the paul, level of later Pauline romances. Even when such passages do not part from their context, they suggest to a critical inquirer the advisability of admitting that they are based upon authentic tradition and that they reproduce, with more or less freedom, information still accessible to the immediately sub-Pauline generation. It may be allowed, still further, that genuine notes have been incorporated, although these cannot any longer be deciphered. But the advocates of compilation attempt the subtler task of actually separating original notes from the strata in which they lie embedded, 2 upon the hypothesis that, whilst the authors direct aim was to instruct and move the church of his own day and not to preserve literary relics, he was able to use certain Pauline notes in the composition of 2 Tim. at least and even Titus. The preservation of such letters is far from incredible. Essay Computer? 3 Paul was the first 'man of letters' in early Christianity, and the extant canonical collection represents only a part of his actual correspondence. In the nature of things, private notes would be more likely to remain overlooked than others, unless, like the resume, letter of games, recommendation to Phoebe (Rom. 16:1-20), they were attached by late editors to some larger epistle.
In addition to this, the pastorals have suffered accretion as church documents, and thus three stages of their composition must be distinguished: (i.) the primitive notes from Paul's lifetime, (ii.) the incorporation of these by the author of the pastorals in his epistles, substantially composed about forty years after Paul's death, and (iii. Custom W Angel? ) glosses added to essay computer these epistles by subsequent copyists to render them more suitable than ever for the needs of the second century. The last-named process naturally ceased by the time that the letters passed into the canon. Whether the letters are substantially Pauline and only interpolated by some editor, 4 or whether - as is highly probable, in the case of i Tim. at any rate - the Pauline element, such as it is, has been submerged in later work, cannot be decided till each letter has been separately examined upon antigone civil disobedience the principles of literary morphology. Classification Games? As the amount of presumably authentic material is disobedience obviously largest in 2 Tim. and least in 1 Tim., it will be advisable to discuss the epistles in that provisional order. 1 1 Tim. 1:3-4 might be developed from the hint in Philem. Essay Computer? 22 (the Asiatic locus being shown in the failure to use the companion allusion in Phil.
2:24 to a return visit to Macedonia). The personal matter here is principally meant to furnish a suitable setting for an epistle dealing with general questions of church life and work in the Asiatic provinces, and custom reflecting that cardinal importance of Ephesus as a centre of early Christianity to classification computer which Lisco has rightly but extravagantly called attention (Roma Peregrina, 1901). Cp Harnack, Ausbreitung, 333, 462, 482. 2 Perhaps 2 Pet. also contains material worked up from earlier sources ; certainly it has incorporated parts of Jude. And the canonical 2 Cor. is paragraphs custom a compilation of two separate letters in reverse order. Classification Computer? But even were the pastorals, as compilations, without any analogy in the NT literature (cp, further, JAMES [EPISTLE], 5), this would not of itself discredit the paul theroux, analytic hypothesis. Tlie pastorals present quite unique features, and it is only reasonable that the complexity of essay, their structure should demand somewhat unique and exceptional methods of treatment. 3 E.g., the correspondence of Cicero and Atticus, the letters of King Agrippa II. (Josephus), etc. See Peters, Der Brief in christianity a religion, der romischen Litteratur (rgoi), 27-28, 78-79, and Wehofer, 'Untersuch. Computer? zur altchristliche Epistolographie' (SWAW: phil.-hist.
Klasse, 143, 1901). 4 Menegoz, for example (Le Peche et la Redemption, 5-6), treats them as authentic, but supposes that copyists under the direction of bishops subsequently added glosses; these, however, affected only questions of discipline and order, leaving the genuinely Pauline spirit unimpaired. 5 The insertion of paragraphs, 'mercy' between 'grace' and 'peace' (so 2 Jn. 3) is un-Pauline. Deleting it among other phrases Hausrath (Neutest.
Zeitgeschichte, ET, 1895, 4:160-163) finds a genuine letter to Timothy in 1:1-2, 1:15-18, 4:9-18, Sabatier in 1:1-18, 4:6-22. Second Timothy. - Although the essay computer, address of 2 Tim. Paul Theroux Essayist? (1:1-2) is fairly 5 Pauline, the strange emphasis on the fact and purpose or standard of Paul's apostolate ('according to the promise' [/car 1 eTrayyeXiai [kat epaggelian]]) in a letter to games one who could hardly have doubted it, at a religion essay, once reveals the real genius of the writing and corroborates the general evidence afforded by all three epistles, especially by 1 Tim. and Titus. Classification Games? They are not private letters at all, not even semi-private, and the very form of a private letter is not strictly preserved. They resemble rather 'pastorals' in the modern sense of the term , and theroux essayist find their real audience among people (primarily teachers and officials, it may be) 1 inclined to doubt the validity and misunderstand or misapply the tenets of the Pauline gospel. As even Liddon admits (Explan.
Analysis of 1 Tim., 1897, ad loc.), of Paul's apostolic authority 'Timothy did not require to be reminded ; St. Computer Games? Paul has other readers of the epistle - perhaps false teachers 2 - in view'. Behind 1:3c-6a lies a tradition of Timothy's temporary absence (Phil. How To Application Essay? 2:19-20) from Paul during his last captivity ; but neither here nor elsewhere is it feasible in 1:3-14 to classification computer games disentangle any written source. On the other hand, 1:15-18 is perhaps a displaced (after 4:10 M Giffert, 4:13 Knoke), 3 and at any rate a genuine, fragment, probably written from get writing and essays Paul's Roman captivity.
So most editors and critics (Lemme, 4 Hesse, 5 and classification essay computer Krenkel 6 omitting rather needlessly 1:15b and 1:18a). Again, 2-3 hardly seems homogeneous (cp 2:16, 3:13 with 3:9); 2:2 [or 2:22] seems a gloss (om. Coursework For Gifted? Hesse, Hilg. ZWT, 1897, pp. Classification Games? 1-86); 2:14-15 is awkwardly introduced, and the thoroughly un-Pauline passage 3:1-9 may well be a later insertion, due to the process of accretion. 3:10-12, however, is an interpolated genuine fragment ; its isolated position and contents mark it off from the a graduate application, surrounding context. Furthermore, the essay computer, bulk, if not the sample siebel, whole, of 4:(6)9-22 is generally allowed to classification essay games have come directly from Paul's own hand (4:9-18a, except 'having loved this present world' [a.ya-n-qa-a.^Tbvv uva.i^va [agapesas ton nyn aloona]] 4:10, 4:11b, Bahnsen ; 4:9-15, 4:19-22, Ewald ; 4:9-18, Immer ; 4:9-21, Pfleid.). But it is paul not homogeneous ; evidently 4:11a and 4:21b, like 4:6-8 and 4:9-15, reflect different situations in Paul's life, and essay games the whole passage offers an admirable proof of the composite character of even the directly Pauline strata in the pastoral epistles. Following the various dates and moods, one can detect approximately in 1:15-18 4:6-12, 14:6-19 a note (or part of a note) written after Philippians ; the christianity a religion, situation has become more grim, and Paul pines in loneliness for his younger ally.
Again, 4:13-15, 4:21-22a go back to a still earlier period, when Paul had left Troas on some journey; 4:20 (cp Acts 21:29) seems to belong to Acts 18:18-19, though the historicity of Acts 21:29 is not above suspicion (cp ACTS, 11, TROPHIMUS ; with J. Weiss, Ueber die Absicht u. d. literar. Charakter der Ap.-gesch. Classification Essay? 39-40 ). A dual analysis of sample resume, 2 Tim. has been carried through by several critics from Credner onwards. Hesse, e.g. (pp. Classification Essay Games? 170-180), regards it as the compilation of a genuine brief letter of recall (1:3c-4, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 4:9-22a) with a later pseudonymous letter (1:1-3b, 1:5-10, 2:3-8a, 2:14-26, 3:1-8, 3:13b-17, 4:1-5). Lemme's reconstruction of the coursework for gifted, genuine letter underlying 2 Tim. is even more intricate (see O. Holtzmann's critique, ZWT, 1883, pp. 45-72) and less convincing (=1:1-9 except 'pity' [eAeos [eleos]] 1:2, 1:3b, 1:6b, and 'a sound mind' [cat crujcJpoi ij7xoG [. sophronismou]] 1:7, 'in Christ Jesus before the classification computer games, world began' [ef . . . nioji ioji [. aioonioon] 1:9, 1:10, except 'but is now made manifest by the appearing' [la.i epu6(iTa.v, . . . nri^opctaf [ranerootheisan . epithaneias]], 1:11 except 'and a teacher' [ai i .Sa.TKaos [kai didaskalos]], 12 except 'against that day' [ets . Paul Theroux? . . Classification Essay? rmtpav [eis . emeran]], 14 except 'that good thing which was committed' [TTJI . . . jv. [ten . oul.]], 1:15a, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 2:1, 2:3-5, 2:8a, 2:9b, except 'with eternal glory' [ju.era 56f) aitaviov [meta doxes aiooniou]], 4:6+ except iv ec. r. Paul Theroux Essayist? 17.[en ek. t. e.], 4:9-22), while Hilgenfeld's analysis of the epistle into two sub-Pauline notes is quite in the air (A = 1:1-2, except 'according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus' [KO.T . . . IrjaoO . iesou], 1:3a, 1:5-10, except 'before the classification games, world began; but is now made manifest by the appearing of antigone, our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light' [irpb poviav . Essay? . . afflapaiav [pro chronoon . Resume? aphtharsian]], 1:11-12a, 1:16-18a, 2:1, 2:3-8a, 2:9-12, 2:19-26, 3:1-4, 3:10-12, 3:14-15, 4:1-2, 4:6-8, 4:19-22; B = 1:1b, 1:3b-4, 1:9c-10, 1:12b015, 1:18b, 2:2, 2:8b 2:13-18, 3:5-9, 3:13, 3:16017, 4:3-5, 4:9-18). More is to be said for McGiffert's hypothesis that the epistle is a redacted version of essay games, one written by Paul towards the close of antigone disobedience essay, his Roman imprisonment (1:1-12, 2:1-13, 4:1-2, 4:5-8, 4:16-19, 4:21b, 4:10, 1:15-18) (so Clemen for 1:15-18; from Rome 61 A.D.), whilst 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a represents an essay games earlier note written from Macedonia before 2 Cor. which was composed (1:1) after Timothy had obeyed his summons. Theroux? Similarly Bacon places 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a, 4:22b in the period immediately previous to 2 Cor.
2:12-13, when Paul was in Macedonia, whilst von Soden takes 1:15-18, 4:9-19, 4:21b-22a as a note written after Philippians from Paul's Roman captivity. Hitzig had already found a letter of Paul written about 58 A.D. from Caesarea in 1:15, 4:13-16, 4:20-22 (so Clemen : 4:9-18, about 60 A.D. ?), and another letter written from Rome about 63 A.D. in classification computer games, 4:6-12, 4:19, 1:16-18, 4:22b ; whilst Kartlet recently has distinguished (in 4:9-13, 4:21-22a) a note written between Ephesians and Philippians, the rest of 2 Tim. Write? being the swan-song of the apostle. Classification Games? Less probably Clemen puts 4:19-21 into 57 A.D. (from Jerusalem, previous to his imprisonment), dating the epistle as a whole slightly earlier than Titus (circa 100 A.D.), which again preceded 1 Tim. (100- 110 A.D. Asia Minor) and antigone civil disobedience the author's interpolations in 2 Tim. (1:13-14, 2:14-26, 4:1-8) and Titus (1:7-11, 3:1-11). 1 'Les communautes vaudront ce que valent leurs conducteur? ; voila l'idee generale qui se degage de ses instructions' (J.
Reville). 2 Cp Ascension Isaiah 3:20-21 (before 100 A.D.) for games, the contemporary feeling that an apostasy would precede the latter days, when the disciples of write essay, Jesus would desert 'the prophecy of classification computer games, his twelve apostles and their faith (cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.) and love and purity (1 Tim. 4:19), and there shall be many sects', etc. (rrji/ npo^Tfiav TWV StaSfxa. Paul Theroux? ajroo-ToAoii/ avroO ai -rrv rriemv [cp 1 Tim. Classification Computer Games? 1:19, etc.] (cai TIV ayaTriji O.VTMV, icai -rr]v ayveiav aiiTtav [1 Tim. 4:19] Kai eVoi Tcu aipeVet; TroAAai K.T.A.). 3 Praktisch-theol. Comm. zu den Past.
1887-1889. 4 Das echte Ermahnungsschreiben des Ap. Paulus an Tim., 1882. 5 Die Entsteh. der NT Hirtenbriefe, 1889. 6 Heitr. zur Aufhellung der Gesch. und der Briefe des Ap. Paulus, 395-408 .
7 Chap. 2 contains two passages paralleled in Epictetus (Diss. 3:10, 'God saith to thee, Prove to sample me whether thou hast contested according to classification essay computer requirement' [et POjiu /uios TJyAT)ras [ei nomimoos ethlesas]] = 2 Tim. 2:3 ['good soldier']; and 3:22 where, as the Cynic is in theroux, an army arrayed for computer games, battle, it is urged that he should not be 'entangled' [e/u.7re7rAeyju.eVoi [empeplegmenon]] but wholly devoted to write application God's service - cp 2 Tim. 2:4 ['entangleth himself', efiirAefceTat [empleketai]] - and free from games distraction; aTrepio-TraoTios [aperispastoos], 1 Cor. 7:35). Theroux? Five parallels to the pastorals in Seneca are cited by Lightfoot, Philippians, 290. 8 Upon the difficulties of geography in v. 10, see CRESCENS, DALMATIA, GALATIA 32. The figurative expression in v. 17 is paralleled by an old proverb that one should 'visit the poor in his affliction and speak of him in the Sultan's presence and do one's diligence to save him from the essay computer games, mouth of the lion' (Rendel Harris, Story of Ahikar, p. 67). The conjecture 'Melita' [MeAiVn [melite]] for 'Miletus' [VIiAtJTto [miletoo]] is neither probable nor helpful.
9 II. Timothcus (1876). 10 Sieben Sendschreiben (1870). 11 Theologie des NT, 399 (1877). 12 These 'commissions and cautions' at least are 'unlike a dying man ; the writer is in a hurry for Timothy to come simply because he is old and lonely', not because he fears his friend will be too late (G. A. Simcox, Expos. T 10430-432, finding in Heb. 13 also two commendatory letters). Titus. - The attempts to find in Tit. 1:1-4 a genuine address interpolated by some redactor are not convincing.
But, even when the epistle as a whole is taken as sub-Pauline, 1:7-9 certainly appears a further g]oss (so O. Ritschl, TLZ, '85, 609; Knoke ; Harnack, Chron. 710-711; Clemen, and McGiffert). The sudden transition from presbyters to episcopi, and paul theroux essayist the general contents of the classification essay games, passage, mark it off as the coursework for gifted students, insertion of some later editor who was interested in promoting the classification essay, monarchical episcopate. Hesse and sample siebel Clemen carry the computer games, gloss on to the end of 1:11; but, although 1:10 connects with 1:9 (which partly explains the insertion of the students, gloss at this point), 1:12 would be abrupt after 1:6, for essay games, naica. 0. [kaka th.] are not an antithesis to dwir. [anup.], nor 'slow bellies' (yaartpes dpyai [gasteres argai]) to 'riot' (duwrias [asootias]), much less 'liars' (^ePcrrat [pseustai]) to 'faithful' (TTicrrd [pista] which here = believing, not reliable or trustworthy). The passage 1:7-9, then, was inserted, perhaps from the margin, in the original text which ran : 'unruly, for there are many unruly' (avvTroraKra. Fjlfflv yap TroXXot dvvir6Ta.KTOt, K.T.. [anupotakta Eisin gar polloi anupotaktoi, k.t.l.]). No man could discharge a presbyter's duties effectively, if the write a graduate essay, members of his own family were tainted with the local disease of computer, insubordination and profligacy.
2:1-14 and 2:15-87 are somewhat parallel (cp 2:5 and 3:2, 2:14 and 3:1) ; but no analysis of the passage into a Pauline and coursework for gifted students a later source is plausible. The 'genuinely Pauline ring' of much in 3:1-7 (McGiffert) is essay games not very audible, though Sabatier detects genuine material in it and 3:12-15. The latter passage certainly, 3:12-13 [3:12-14], 3:15b, contains an authentic fragment, as is admitted upon almost all hands (e.g. , Weisse, 1 Ewald, Krenkel, Knoke, Hesse, von Soden, Clemen, M'Giffert). Hesse (pp. How To Write A Graduate Application Essay? 150-151) finds further in Titus (1:1-2, 1:4-6, 1:12-13a, 1:16, 3:1-6, 3:12-13, 3:15) a complete letter of Paul, written shortly after he left Crete; it has been expanded by classification essay games, the addition of passages which, although rising out a religion, of the computer, original text (with the possible exception of get writing paragraphs custom, 2), are intended as a proviso against heresy. Similarly McGiffert regards the classification essay, canonical epistle as a redacted version of some letter (1:1-6 partly, 3:1-7, 3:12-13) written to Titus before Paul reached Corinth in Acts 20:2. The alternative to these dual hypotheses is to reconstruct (with Krenkel) out of 2 Timothy and Titus three letters of Paul; (a) one written to Titus at paul essayist, Crete, perhaps from Illyricum during Paul's second journey to Corinth (Acts 20:1-3) = Tit. Classification Computer Games? 3:12, 2 Tim. 4:20, Tit.
3:13; (b) another, from his Caesarean imprisonment, to Timothy at or near Troas = 2 Tim. 4:9-18, subsequent to write a graduate essay Colossians and Philemon; (c) a third = 2 Tim. 4:19, 1:16-17, 1:18b, 4:21, written from his Roman imprisonment to Timothy at Ephesus. The Caesarean date of Colossians, however, is untenable; and otherwise this ingenious resetting of the fragments fails to explain satisfactorily how such notes came into their present curious position. 1 Philosoph. Dogmatik, 1:146. First Timothy. Computer? - In spite of christianity a religion, its unwieldy anacoluthon (cp Rom. 1:1-7), 1 Tim. Essay Computer? 1 is probably a unity as it stands, modelled on Pauline letters and tradition, though vv. 12-17 resemble in paul, part something more definite. Certainly 1:13-11 and 1:18-20 hang together.
After 1:1-2 a thanksgiving would naturally follow, in the Pauline manner; but when the classification games, thanksgiving does come (v. 12-17) it is occasioned not by the person addressed but by Paul himself. Even the antigone disobedience, 'therefore' (o$v [oun]) of classification essay games, 2:1, resuming either 1:3-11 or 1:12-17 or 1:18-20, forms a loose transition; but it illustrates the antigone civil disobedience, zigzag course of the epistle rather than any phenomena of essay computer games, compilation. Similarly with subsequent passages like 2:6b-7, which has a poor connection with its context and only repeats the protestation of 1:12-17 (so Holtzm., Hesse, Hilg. And Essays? ), 2:9-10 (the odd juxtaposition of rules for prayer with a sumptuary regulation for women) 4:1-8 which would readily part from its context, and 5 which has suffered accretion towards the close. No fragment of the epistle can be referred, however, to the apostle himself with much confidence. Computer Games? The incidental allusions to Paul's personality (3:14-15, 4:13) merely betray the christianity a religion essay, writer's consciousness that there was a certain awkwardness in such elaborate commissions and instructions upon the commonplace regulations of a Christian community being addressed to essay computer one who was not merely himself in mature life but ex hypothesi separated from his superintendent only for christianity, a short time. Essay Computer? In such touches we feel the author's literary conscience and his tactful attempt to preserve the vraisemblance of the situation or to justify the antigone civil essay, existence and classification essay computer point of such an how to a graduate epistle. As it stands, in classification essay games, fact, 1 Timothy is a free composition; it consists of a sub-Pauline letter which has been subsequently enlarged by interpolations, especially in paul theroux, chap. 6. 6:17-21 is plainly an addition (Harn.), in thought and diction perhaps the classification essay computer games, least Pauline paragraph in all the pastorals ; its contents and context are against it as an integral part of the letter. The 'antitheses' of 6:20 are not the casuistic subtleties of dialectic in the Halacha, but the tabulated passages from the OT and the gospel arranged by Marcion to antigone disobedience prove the diversity of the two dispensations and the superiority of the later. Classification Essay Computer Games? Such arguments are dismissed as secular and verbose and pseudo-scientific.
See 2 Tim. Siebel? 3:16, 'every scripture', etc. , and the significant collocation of an OT sentence and an evangelic saying in 1 Tim. 5:18. Classification Essay Games? Another un-Pauline element is resume siebel of course the connection between eternal life and almsgiving (vv. 17-19) as already between salvation and religious work or personal conduct (2:15, 3:13). Classification Essay Games? Hence, like Tit. A Religion Essay? 1:7-9 and some other passages in 1 Tim. (3:1-13, 5:17-20 ?) or even 2 Tim. (2:20-26 ?), 6;17-21 shows the process of accretion familiar in essay computer games, documents bearing on church organisation and discipline. 1 The motive of this section is to throw the glorious gospel into relief against the unworthiness and weakness of its original bearers, as in Harn. For Gifted? 5:9: 'he chose for the preaching of his gospel his own apostles ovra; vnep ira.a av a/uapriai/ ai-o/uiorepovs [ontas hyper pasan amartian anomooterous], that he might show he had not come to call the righteous but sinners'. Classification Essay Computer? See Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis (1901), 107-108.
Here again Hesse, admitting (like Schleiermacher) the irregular course of the epistle, attempts acutius quam verius to disentangle an original letter of commission (1:1-10, 1:18-20, 4:1-16, 6:3-16, 6:20-21) containing the sample, duties and rights of an episcopus at Ephesus. This is conjectured to have been enlarged by the addition of classification essay, independent pieces bearing on the work of the episcopate: e.g., 1:11-17 (justifying the apostolate to the Gentiles), arrangements for the worship (2:6b-7, so Hilg., and 2:9b-10, glosses) and the officials of the church (3:14-15a, a further insertion to justify the author dilating on resume siebel such topics; 3:15b-16, to connect with 4:1-2), a general mandate for bishops (5:5, 5:23, however, being genuinely Pauline), and extracts (6:1-3, 6:17-19) from a table of ethical duties. Knoke pushes the epistle much nearer Paul by his hypothesis of two letters from Paul's pen, one - an instruction (n-apayyeAta [paraggelia]) written to Timothy from Corinth (1:3-4, 1:18-20, 2:1-10, 4:12, 5:1-3, 5:4c-6, 5:11-15, 5:19-23, 5:24-25 ?), another - more doctrinal in character - composed in his Caesarean imprisonment (1:12-17, 3:14-16, 4:1-11, 4:13-16, 2:12-15, 5:7-8, 6:17-19, 1:5-11, 6:2c-16, 6:20-21 ?). These have been combined with an un-Pauline church-directory (3:1-10, 3:12-13, 2:11, 5:9-10, 5:16, 5:4a-b, 5:17, 6:1-2), whilst passages like 3:11 and 5:18 are to be regarded as marginal glosses. It is not easy, however, to see adequate psychological motives for this sort of extensive compilation, and the criteria of style are by computer games, no means equal to the inferences drawn from them. Hypothetical and contradictory as such conjectures may appear to be, however, a not inconsiderable agreement prevails even amid the most independent analyses of these epistles. All partition-theories presuppose an resume siebel editorial function which certainly is unexampled in previous early Christian literature, even in classification essay computer games, Acts and the Apocalypse. But this is not an write a graduate insuperable objection; and essay games whilst it is idle to dogmatise upon the particular and original setting of verses, or at every point to distinguish precisely between redactor, author, and source, the composite nature of these epistles and (within general limits) the antigone civil disobedience, main strata of their contents have been substantially proved. Such analytic criticism is upon the right lines, and as a working hypothesis it is historically superior to the conjectures which attribute the writings en bloc to Paul or as unpromisingly set down the Pauline element to vague tradition or the essay computer, inventiveness of a literary artist. As the titles formed no part of the original autographs, the early church naturally argued from the internal evidence that 2 Tim., with its reflection of a climax and rich individual references, represented the last phase of the apostle's life, and that 1 Tim. was earlier. But the comparative study of the epistles suggests that 2 Tim. is the earliest, and 1 Tim. the latest production of the author.
3. The relative amount of hapax legomena (46 in 2 Tim., 28 in Tit., 74 in 1 Tim.), the increasingly sub-apostolic colour of 'faith' (TTICTTIS [pistis]) and 'saviour' ((rwrjjp [sooter]), the diminution of freshness and civil disobedience intimate feeling in the allusions to Paul, the predominance of ecclesiastical interests and essay computer church organisation in Tit. and 1 Tim., 1 the gradual shifting of emphasis from the personality to the sheer authority of the apostle, the gradual increase of severity towards errorists, evident as the epistles proceed - these and other traces form a cumulative and sufficient argument for this order of composition. When the author wrote 2 Tim. he had considerable Pauline material at resume, his disposal. Even in the epistle to Titus, he falls back on genuine tradition, and Pauline material preponderates though to a less degree. But in 1 Tim. the situation has become more advanced ; he writes more freely and less under the influence of his master, confutes errorists with greater sharpness, assigns more dictatorial powers to the officers of the church, and essay elaborates the various ecclesiastical canons with unprecedented care. The third epistle (1 Tim.) is thus, as Schleiermacher was the first to point out, an expansion and in some respects a repetition of the others, further from their Pauline background of reminiscences and tradition, but more characteristic of the writer himself. Coursework For Gifted Students? The superiority of 2 Tim., with its ample personal allusions and less formal tone, is quite obvious; and superiority means here priority. That it comes from the same pen as the others, need not be doubted, although in it the writer is more of an editor than an classification original author. The general sub-apostolic style and spirit of all three is fairly uniform and affords no adequate evidence for suspecting a plurality of antigone civil disobedience, writers.
1 Among the qualifications of the Jewish sheliah tsibbur (rv 7B 1s3gS, the man who on any given occasion offered common prayer in the synagogue) were: 'to have many children and no money . to classification computer games be of sound age, and humble, popular, well-mannered . to be practised in the study of the law, the prophets, and the psalms ; able to sample resume siebel expound the allegoric meaning, traditions, and histories', etc. (R. Jehuda, quoted by Selwyn. Christian Prophets, 208-209). 2 The difficulty of fj^avBavovcn [manthanousi] (v. 13) would certainly be eased by the adoption of the attractive conjecture Aai/0aiou7 [lanthanousi] (Hitzig, Naber, Baljon, Clemen). 4 The pronounced element of ecclesiasticism in 1 Tim., which in several passages is simply a manual of church order, betrays its more advanced situation. For some not insignificant details of style, see 'certain men' (rti/es avBpunroi [tines anthroopoi]), or 'certain' (-rii/e s [tines]) [7 times in 1 Tim., never in others], 'faith' (TTUTTIS [pistis]) in objective sense (4 times in 1 Tim., once in essay games, Tit. 14), 'saviour' (roTtjp [sooter]) of get writing paragraphs w angel, God alone in 1 Tim. (in the second-century piety 'no one could any longer be a God who was not also a soter', Harn., Dogmeng., ET, 1:1:18) ; cp also 2 Tim. 2:17-20 as preceding 1 Tim. 1:20, and the heightening scale of 2 Tim. 2:23, Tit.
3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4, of 2 Tim. 1:11 and 1 Tim. 2:7, of 2 Tim. 3:1 and 1 Tim. 4:1-2, of essay computer games, Tit. A Graduate Essay? 1:7 and 1 Tim. 3:2. Like most of the NT writings, the pastorals have a communal origin. In them a current of the classification computer games, age becomes articulate, and hence the inconspicuous personality of their author 1 cannot be rightly deduced from his writings. It was an and essays custom age when, as in the days of Haggai, men had to 'fetch wood and computer build the house', while others had to encourage and direct their efforts.
To furnish such inspiration may not have been a very heroic task, demanding writers of exceptional insight and pioneering ardour like Paul, but it was timely and disobedience essay serviceable ; and after all 'edification' (oiKodo/j.eiv [oikodomein]) was the criterion and aim of early Christian literature. This Paulinist had singular capacities for the labour of instructing the churches of his day. Thoroughly convinced that he had a message for it, or rather that in Paul's teaching and life lay the pattern for true doctrine and godliness, he addressed himself to classification essay computer the duty of curbing and stimulating his contemporaries in the spirit of antigone civil disobedience, his master, writing like a shrewd and experienced man of affairs who feels (unlike his contemporary, the classification computer games, prophet who wrote Rev. 2-3) that the moral plight of the christianity, age demanded consolidation - consolidation as opposed to speculation in belief or looseness in organisation. Essay Computer? If he lacks the authority of intuition, he at essayist, least possesses the intuition of authority. He has much in common with the unconciliatory element in Paul.
Unlike the later apologists, he refuses to discuss points of disagreement or to meet objectors on their own ground, but is content with the classification essay games, more congenial method of insisting in a rather dictatorial fashion upon the fixed truths of the write essay, faith. In this he is a precursor of Polycarp, yet in all likelihood the majority of his opponents, perhaps even of computer games, his readers, were none the worse for antigone civil, being somewhat sharply reminded that the ultimate proofs of religion lay open to faith and the moral sense ; there may have been an effectiveness in the resolve of this censor to assert and enlighten, not to argue. The genuine faith is to him a 'tradition' (TrapdSocns [paradosis]) or a 'deposit' (irapadriKr [paratheke]), 2 involving 'testimony' (/j-aprvpia [maryria]), which lays a moral responsibility upon the officials of the church especially. The tone of his instructions to them reminds one often of Butler's famous Charge to the Clergy (1751) not to trouble about objections raised by men of classification essay computer games, gaiety and speculation, but to endeavour to beget a practical sense of christianity, religion upon the hearts of the common people. This task demands moral purity above all things, together with teaching ability in the higher officials. True to classification essay computer games his master, this mentor is utterly indifferent to the sacerdotal heresy 1 which was already beginning to tinge unhealthily the paul theroux, primitive ideas of the church (MINISTRY, 59a, PRIEST, 8). In resisting incipient Gnosticism with its attempt to Hellenise the faith into an evaporated intellectualism, the pastorals refuse to computer employ the tendency, which ultimately secularised the sample resume, Catholic church, of essay games, Hebraising the religion of Jesus by means of a retrograde movement to ritual and priestly conceptions. Indeed the impression made by these letters is revealed in nothing so clearly as in the fact that they came to be cherished by those who more or less unconsciously were either ignoring or modifying or defying their principles under the constraining influence of the Zeitgeist. 1 The pastorals in fact voice a tendency of popular Christianity rather than any individual writer's cast of thought ; cp Wrede, uber Aufgabe und Methode der sog.
NT Theologie, 35-36 (1897). Authorship is here quite subordinate to resume siebel function. 2 Cp Herod. 9:45 : Men of Athens, 'I leave these words with you as a trust' (ai/Spes AftjfOlOl, Trapadr/Kujv v^iv TO. ewea raSe riSffnai K.r.A.) with 2 Tim. Essay Games? 1:12-13, etc. Like the authors of Matthew's gospel, Barnabas, Hebrews, the Fourth Gospel and 2 Peter, the students, author of the pastorals belongs to the great anonymous period of early Christian literature. The religious life of the primitive church, as of ancient Israel, was 'at certain periods very intense, and at these periods the spiritual energy of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, through men who forgot themselves and were speedily forgotten in name by others' (Dav. Job, 68).
His work, too, was pseudonymous. 2 To write under Paul's name was, for a Paulinist, quite a legitimate literary artifice'; and although pseudepigrapha in the second century - that period rich in rhetorical forgeries (Jebb, Homer, 87) - ranged from mere fabrications to high-toned compositions, the pastorals, like 2 Peter, belong to the latter class, breathing not a crude endeavour to deceive but self-effacement and deep religious motives. Hence the oblivion in which the writer chose to games work and has been allowed to remain. It was clue not merely to the necessity of throwing a certain air of mystery round the situation in theroux, order to secure the circulation of letters long after their putative author s death, but to a sort of Pythagorean feeling that unselfish piety required a pupil's work to classification essay computer be attributed to his master - a canon of literary ethics not unfamiliar to early Christianity itself (Tertull. Civil Essay? adv. Marc. 4:5). This author wrote from what he conceived to be the standpoint of Paul. 3 But it would be unjust to estimate him by the measure of the man whose spirit he endeavoured to propagate and classification computer games apply in his own way. The correct standard is to be sought in siebel, the sub-Pauline literature. And if the author of the pastorals is inferior to the genius who wrote the fourth gospel, even in appreciating some of the more inward aspects of Pauline thought, he is superior in classification essay, range and penetration to those who wrote Barnabas, Jude, the Ignatian epistles, the Christian section of Ascensio Isaiae, and 2 Peter.
The prevailing deference shown to the apostles and to christianity essay Paul by contemporary and later writers 4 who disclaim all pretensions to equality with them, as well as the games, fact that mere literary ambition was utterly foreign to the early Christian consciousness at this period, may serve to guarantee the ethical honour of the pastorals and to how to write a graduate application corroborate the impression left by themselves that their author 5 was right in essay, feeling himself not merely justified but obliged to sanction and support his message by his master's name. Not long before, another 'Paulinist' had composed speeches for Paul which were based on oral tradition and yet were indubitably free products of a historian who had skill and sympathy enough to give fairly faithful transcripts of the situation in question (Acts 13:16-4i, 17:22-31, 20:18-35, etc.). It was but a step from this to the other recognised method of literary impersonation, which chose epistolary rather than historical expression to ain its religious end. 1 Louw, Het ontstaan van het Priesterschaap in de Christelijke Kerk, 32-33, 62-63, 79-80, 110-126 (1892). 2 See EPISTOLARY LITERATURE, 4; MINISTRY, 35d; and, to the literature cited in Hist. New Test. 597-598, 619-624, add W. Christ, Philologische Studien zu Clem. Theroux Essayist? Alex. 30-39 (1900), and (for the pseudepigrapha, mainly Gnostic, of the classification computer games, 2nd cent., etc.) Liechtenhan in ZNTW, 1902, Hefte 3-4. 3 He is least successful in reproducing what would have been Paul's tone and temper to colleagues like Timothy and sample resume siebel Titus.
The curt, general instructions put into the apostle's mouth are often incongruous with the character of their primitive recipients as well as with the situation presupposed by the epistles in question. 4 E.g., Ignat. Rom. 4, 'I do not order you, as did Peter and Paul; they were apostles, I am a convict'; also Acta Phoc. 4, OVK aTravTO/aoAo) Tt)T Ttav aTrocrroAcoi TOV eou euapeerrtas [ouk apautomoloo tes toon apostoloon tou theou euarestias]. 5 His success, undoubtedly deserved, becomes all the more remarkable where failure was so easy. The Asiatic presbyter who half a century later composed the Acts of Paul and Thekla no doubt acted with a sincerity equal to his affection (id se amore Pauli fecisse), but failed to appreciate the vital elements of Paulinism and was deposed - not for using an illegitimate method so much as for employing it to promote notions which the common-sense of the church rejected as palpably alien to the faith. Pseudo-Pauline epistles ('fictae ad haeresim Marcionis'), were widely circulated during the second century ; the superiority of the pastorals to all such is a difference of degree rather than of classification computer, kind. Since Schmidt and a graduate application Schleiermacher almost a century ago suggested a sub-Pauline date for 1 Tim., a conjecture which Eichhorn amongst others speedily (1812) extended to all three epistles, there has been a remarkable continuity of criticism, starting from *F. Classification Computer Games? C. Baur (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, 1835). For the critical work up to 1880 see.
H. J. Coursework For Gifted Students? Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe kritisch und exegetisch behandelt (1880), a monograph which is far from being superseded. Subsequent contributions in general support of Baur. and Holtzmann, with modifications and adaptations, have come along three main lines:- (a) editions: *H. von Soden (HC 3:1:155-254. (2) 1893); *Moffatt (Histor. New Testament. (2) 556-575 ); O. Cone (Internat. Hdbks. to NT, vol. 3 ). (b) monographs and essays on- (i) general criticism of epp. : Kenan (St. Paul, 23-53, l'eglise Chretienne, ch. 6); *Harnack (Chronologie, 480-485, 710-711); *Pfliederer (Paulinismus, ET, 2:196-214, Das Urchristentum, 801-823 ); *M.
A. Rovers (Nieuwtest. Letterkunde, 1888, (2) 66-78); van Manen (OLD-CHRIST. LIT., PAUL); *Bruckner (Die Chronol. Reihenfolge der Briefs des NT, 277-286 ); Prof. E. Y. Hincks, J BL, 1897, pp. 94-117, Reville (Les origines de l'episcopat,1:262-263), and the NT introductions by Hilgenfeld (1875); H. J. Holtzmann (3) (272-292 ); *S.
Davidson, (3) 1-75 ; B. W. Bacon. (127-139 ); Baljon, Geschiedenis v. d. Bb. d. Games? NT (1901) 150-174; *Julicher ((4) 136-156 ) and Sabatier, art. Pastorales, L'ency. Sciences rel., 10:250-251. (ii) textual features: Henri Bois, JPT (1888) 145-160 'zur Exegese der Pastoralbriefe'; *Clemen, Einheitl. Essay? d. paul Briefe, 142-176 ; P. Ewald, Probabilia betr. Classification Essay Computer Games? d. Text des 1 Tim. Civil Disobedience Essay? (1901) (c) Discussions on special phenomena of epp:- (i) ecclesiastical organisation : See under MINISTRY and computer add (to lit. there cited) defences of conservative standpoint in Hort, Christian Ecclesia (1898), 189-217, and christianity J. W. Falconer From Apostle to Priest, 109-146 (1900): against Kuhl (Die Gemeinde-ordnung in den Pastoralbriefen, 1885), see Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1886, pp. 456-473); and on their connection with Apostol.
Constitutions, Harnack, Texte und Untersuch. 2:5:49-50. (ii) the errorists ; Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1880, pp. 448-464): Havet, Le Christianisme et ses origines, 4:376-380 (1884); and classification essay computer Bourquin, Etude critique sur Paul. epitres, 51-64 (1890) (iii) general setting and religious standpoint: Hatch (EB (9), articles 'Paul' and 'Pastorals'); *Beyschlag's Neutest. Theol. (ET, 1895), 2:501-517, Holzmann's Neutest. Theol. 2:259-281 (1897); O. Cone (Gospel and its Interpretations, 327-338 ); W. Sample? Mackintosh (Nat. Hist. of Christ. Rel. 465, 490 ); Weizs, Das Apostl. Zeitalter, (2) (ET) 2:163-165, 2:329-330; *A.
C. McGiffert, The Apostolic Age, 398-423 (1897); E.P. Essay Computer? Gould, Bibl. Christianity A Religion? Theol. of classification essay computer, NT, 142-150 (1900), also Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (ET) 1:156-162, 1:189-192, 1:215-216, 2:23-24, and Wernle, Die Anfunge unserer Religion, 347-368, 380-381 (1901). Although the general critical position, outlined in paul, these contributions, is unquestionable, it is unhappily not unquestioned. The traditional view survives, with more or less hesitation and a far from classification computer games uniform presentment, in the editions of Rolling (1882- 1887 ; on i Tim.), Weiss (-Meyer, ( G )i893, also Die Paulin. Kriefe, i6yC, 6o4-682_li8g6]), Riggenbach-Zockler (1897), and Stellhorn (1900), and in the representative NT introductions of Weiss, Godet, Zahn, and Belser ; so still most English commentators (Ellicott, Plummer, J. H. Bernard, Horton, J. P. Lilley), writers on NT introduction (Salmon, Gloag, and Adeney), and others, e.g., G. G. Findlay (appendix to ET of Sabatier s L apttre Paul, 341-402 , Hastings D B 3 714-716), and Rams. Church, ) 248^, EJ:/OS. 4th ser. 8no_/T, etc.
Add Bertrand (!-:ssai critique sur [authenticity des cpitres Past., i88b), Ruegg (Ans Schri, t und Geschichte, 59-108 ) ; Roos (Die Briffe des ap. Paulus und die Redcn des Herrnjesii, 156- 202), G. H. Students? Gilbert s Life of Paul, 225-232(1899); and games G. Paul? T. Purves, Christianity in Apostolic Age, 170-176 (1900). Also (published since this article was written) Lock s studies in Hastings DB 4 on the epistles. i. MO. ( 7H2, bedil, lit. 'that which is separated' [from precious metal], see Is. 1:25, where render 'alloy' [RVmg. Che., see LXX] ; KacrriVepos [kassiteros] [4 times], |u6Ai(6]os [molib[d]os] [twice], stannum), Ezek. 22:18, 22:20 (Israel to be cast into the furnace like one of the baser metals), 27:12 (exported from Tarshish), Zech. Games? 4:10 (material of plummet, /cacraiTepu os [kassiterinos]), Nu. 31:22 (cleansed by passing through fire). Being a component of bronze, tin was used as a metal from a very early date (see COPPER).
A ring from a tomb at Dahshur (dated about the third dynasty) contains 8.2 percent of tin ; a vase of sixth dynasty 5.68 percent of tin. When the unalloyed metal was first introduced cannot be ascertained with certainty. All we know is that about the first century the Greek word Ka.TriTfpos [kassiteros] designated tin, and that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the christianity a religion, invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. Classification Computer Games? From what Pliny says (HN 34:16, 33:9), it appears that the Romans in his time did not fully realise the distinction between tin and lead ; the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from plumbum nigrum (lead proper). 1 The word stannum definitely assumed its present meaning in the fourth century. (See Jer. on Zech. 4:10. (D DDi;), Is. 3:18 AV, RV ANKLETS (q.v.). 1 So in antigone disobedience essay, LXX the distinction between Ka(rrtTep09 [kassiteros] and jixoAi/3os [molibos] is uncertain.
i. Essay Computer Games? A place in the Eber-han-nahar (see EBER) mentioned as the NE. boundary of Solomon's empire (1 K. 4;24 [5:4]), corresponding to Gaza in the SW. Resume? It is generally held that Tiphsah is the ancient Thapsacus, and that Solomon's occupation of this place was connected with his commercial enterprises, Thapsacus being the great zeugma, or place of passage, of the computer, river Euphrates alike for caravans and for invading armies. It was there that the Ten Thousand first learned the real object of the expedition of Cyrus the Younger, and paul theroux crossed the stream (Xen. Anab. 1:4:11). There too, Darius Codomannus crossed after the fatal battle of essay computer games, Issus, and Alexander after him. In the sixth century A.D. it passed out of knowledge. The true site was identified about the same time by J. Sample Resume Siebel? P. Peters (Nation.
May 23, 1889) and classification computer games B. Moritz (Ber. der Berl. Antigone? Akad., July 25, 1889) with Kal'at Dibse, a small ruin 'at the bend of the classification essay games, stream where it changes from a southerly to an easterly course, 8 mi. below Meskene, and how to a graduate 6 below the ancient Barbalissus'. Among other points in which the situation of Dibse agrees with the statements of Xenophon and Strabo is the computer, existence of a camel-ford at christianity a religion essay, this very spot. There is no philological objection to this combination, but excavations still wait to be made (cp Peters, Nippur, 1:96+) At the same time, there are good reasons for classification essay computer, testing this theory afresh. The realm of theroux essayist, Solomon was not as extensive as a tradition based on incorrect readings of the text has represented (see SOLOMON, 9). Tiphsah and Azzah are most probably places on the frontier of Solomon's dominion in computer games, the Negeb. The former may come from Tappuah ( = Nephtoah), the latter may perhaps represent the coursework students, strong city Zarephath. These points are doubtful. 2. A town in Ephraim which opposed the pretensions of Menahem, and was punished by him (2 K. 15:16-17), identified by Conder with Kh. Tafsah, on an old site 6 mi.
SW. of Shechem (PHFMem. 2:169). The 'Tiphsah' of MT is as much conjecture as the 'Tirzah' (depua [thersa]) of LXX (Oaipa [thaira] [A]). The right reading, as many think, is that of LXX - viz. TAPPUAH (ra^we [taphooe]). So Thenius, Klostermann, Renan (Hist. 2:450), Kohler (Bibl. Gesch. 3:399), Guthe. There were at least three places called Tappuah (or Nephtoah).
Whether this Tiphsah or Tappuah was really in the neighbourhood of Shechem, and not rather in the Negeb (cp 1), is one of the essay computer, most recent critical problems. See Crit, Bib. on 2 K. 15:16. (DTfl; 9[e]lpc[BADEL]), son of Japheth, mentioned after Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, Gen. 10:2 (P), 1 Ch. 1:5. It is usually assumed that he must be the write essay, representative of a northern folk. The older commentators mostly think of the Thracians (9/a [thrax]; Jos.
Ant. 1:6:1). But after removing the Gk. nom. suffix s, we get a form which has no similarity to Tiras. Hence Tuch, Noldeke (HL 5:519-520), and W. Max Miiller (As. u. Eur. 382-383) think of the Tyrseni, who are spoken of not only as Etruscans but also as pirates on classification games the Aegean Sea (cp TARSHISH, 6, and note quotation from E. Meyer on the probable distinction between the Etruscan Tyrseni and w angel the Turusha of the Egyptian inscriptions).
This is certainly plausible, and has suggested (to the present writer) that after correcting DTD in v. Classification? 2 into coursework for gifted students, DTin, the latter word should be substituted for srenn in v. Essay Games? 4. Theroux Essayist? The order of the names in v. 4 seemed to favour this, and granting that Tarshish is the Hebrew name for Tartessus or S. Spain, no better course seems to essay computer be open, for one cannot expect Tartessus to be inclosed between Elishah (i.e., S. Italy and Sicily [Lag., Di. Christianity A Religion Essay? , Kau.]), and Kittim (i.e., Cyprus?). The Tyrseni, however, might naturally enough be so grouped. How easily Tiras (or Tures?)and Tarshish might be confounded is suggested by the fact that in Judith 2:23 [2:13] Vg. actually gives filios Tharsis where Vet. Lat. gives filios Thiras et Rasis. Cp ROSH. A better view, however, can possibly be found (see 2). Jensen connects Tiras with the Hittite T(a)rsh = Tarzi (so Shalmaneser II. ) = Tarsus (Jensen, TLZ., 4th Feb. 1899, col. 70), but see TARSHISH, 6.
The increasing evidence (see Crit. Bib.) that many parts of the OT, which came down to the late editor or editors in a corrupt form, have been manipulated by him in accordance with incorrect views of geography and history, compels us to consider, as we pass through the classification essay computer games, Table of Nations, what may have been the original form of each ethnic or place-name that we find there. It has already been suggested by others (see JAPHETH) that Japheth in the original legend meant either the how to write, Phoenicians or the Philistines. It may be added here that there is classification games great reason to doubt whether either the J portions or the P portions of Gen. 10 in coursework for gifted, their original form extended their range beyond Palestine and Arabia. It is a characteristic of P's lists (and to P vv.
2-4, according to the critical analysis, belong) that he in essay, naive ignorance repeats the get writing paragraphs and essays custom, same name in different corrupt and classification essay games independent forms. Thus 'Tiras' in v. 2 is a graduate essay ultimately the same as 'Tarshish' in v. Games? 4 ; 'Gomer', 'Magog', 'Madai', 'Javan', and 'Togarmah' are all most probably corrupt and independent forms of 'Jerahmeel'. 'Tubal' (cp TABEAL), as the connection in which the name occurs in Ezek. 32:26 ought sufficiently to show, is a Palestinian or rather a N. Arabian name. 1 'Meshech' (TJire) should be 'Cusham' (CJ 2) - i.e., the N. Arabian Cush (see CUSH, 2). 'Elishah' in v. Antigone Disobedience Essay? 4 should be 'Ishmael'; 'Kittim' probably comes from 'Rehobothim'; 'Dodanim' should be Dedanim. If these emendations are in classification essay computer games, the main right - and coursework students the evidence referred to above would seem to make this a reasonable contention - it follows that 'Tiras' as well as 'Tarshish' (see TARSHISH, 7), is most probably a corruption and distortion of the N Arabian ethnic name Ashhur or Asshur ( = Geshur). Cp GESHUR, 2. 1 'Elam' of classification essay games, course should be 'Jerahmeel' (as probably always [never] in OT), and get writing custom most probably (if not certainly) 'Zidonians' should be 'Misrites' [no they shouldn't]. (D ninfi), 1 Ch. 2:55.
See JABEZ. 1. Classification? D Ohnb*, saharonim. Is. 3:18, Judg. 8:21, 8:26, RV 'crescents'. See NECKLACE, 2. 2. -IN2, pe'er, Ezek. 24:17 (AV), 24:23 (EV) ; see TURBAN, 2. 3. Civil? lity, shesh; Ezek. 16:10 RVmg translates '[a tire of] fine linen'. A headtire seems to be meant.
See TURBAN, 2. 4. fj-i-rpa. Judith 10:3, 16:8 (AVmg. 'mitre'), Bar. 5:2 (EV 'diadem'). See DIADEM. (H^rnF! ; OAPAKA [A in 2 K., B in Is.]. Games? 9Ap0AK [tharthak] [L], -pA [-ra] [B in christianity, 2 K.], -p6A [ratha] [XAQ* in Is.], Vg. Tharaca).
According to Is. 37:9 = 2 K. 19:9, the Assyrian general (rab-shakeh) had heard that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (LXX of [the] Ethiopians), was coming forth to fight against the Assyrian armies occupying Judah before the siege of games, Jerusalem (701 B.C.) in order to christianity essay assist Hezekiah. This is the essay computer games, third king of the twenty-fifth (or Ethiopian) dynasty of Egypt (EGYPT, 66b). His name is written in coursework for gifted students, Hieroglyphic signs Ta-h-ru-k. The vowels (a and u) are written quite constantly, although they appear to us unintelligible and games useless. Sample Resume? The cuneiform transcription is Tarku. Manetho gives Tarkos or Tarakos, Strabo, 1:3:21, Tearko (he strangely makes the king a great conqueror, who reached the pillars of Hercules ; cp Megasthenes, Fragm. 20, in essay computer games, Strabo, 686). The biblical rendering would seem to need a transposition ; Teharko, Teharka (npinn). The king seems to have been an usurper, 2 who legalised his crown afterwards by marriage with the widow of paul theroux essayist, king Shabako. When the usurpation took place, can be determined with certainty (see SO).
Tirhakah reigned, according to a stele of the Serapeum, twenty-six complete years ; according to Assyrian sources he died in 668/67 ; consequently his accession to the throne was in 694/93 B.C. This shows at once that in the biblical account there is an impossible conjunction of facts. Either the original form of the text did not give the name of the 'king of Ethiopia' referred to - later scholars would then attempt to identify the king and insert Tirhaka-Taharko instead of Shabako who reigned in 701 (see, however, So on the improbability of classification essay computer games, Shabako's attacking the Assyrians) or Taharko was mentioned as the students, Ethiopian governor of Lower Egypt, and the later recension made him a king. Otherwise, we should have to acknowledge a confusion of the events of 701 with others of the essay computer games, time between 693 and 676 B.C. The first expedition of the Assyrians against Egypt, in 676, was in all probability caused by such a provocation as military aid from Egypt to sample Palestinian rebels against Assyria.
Esarhaddon mentions indeed that Ba'al, the king of computer games, Tyre, was induced to rebellion by Tarku. This may have occurred earlier ; but 693 is, as has been said, for Tirhakah the superior chronological limit. Tirhakah, however, could not really play the part of an aggressor in Syria. The difficulty of maintaining Egypt and keeping the nomarchs in subjection must as a rule have absorbed his whole strength. An Assyrian army penetrated into Egypt in 676 and civil disobedience seems to have occupied a considerable portion of it, but in 675 was annihilated. 4 In his tenth year, 671, king Esarhaddon secured the road to Egypt by an expedition against the Arabs, invaded (then, or by another army?) Egypt by way of a city in the desert called Magdali or Migdol (see MIGDOL), and met and defeated the forces of Taharko near a place called Ishupri. The Ethiopian king had finally, after losing the third battle, to withdraw from Egypt. The Assyrians marched as far as Thebes, which capitulated and was mildly dealt with. The country was divided among twenty nomarchs, descendants of Libyan generals. Essay Computer? Some of these may have called in the Assyrians to free them from the Ethiopian yoke, and submitted to the Assyrian supremacy without resistance.
Nevertheless we read of a conspiracy with Taharko against get writing custom w angel the Assyrians by the three most influential leaders (Niku-Necho I. of classification essay computer games, Sais and Memphis, Sharludari of Tanis and Pakruru of coursework for gifted students, Pi-saptu. Evidently, they felt too weak to classification essay resist the Ethiopians when these threatened to invade Egypt again, and therefore tried to maintain good relations with them. Antigone Civil Disobedience Essay? In point of fact Taharko invaded Egypt again in 669. Classification Essay Computer? Esarhaddon hurried to essayist the rescue of his vassals, and died on the expedition. His army, nevertheless, entered Egypt, defeated Taharko's army, coming from Memphis, at computer games, Karbanit (near Canopus?), and forced him to retreat as far as Thebes. The cities Sais, Mendes, and Tanis were cruelly punished for joining the Ethiopians ; prince Necho, however, when sent to Nineveh as a prisoner, obtained a pardon and his dominion. Evidently, the Assyrians needed his influence. They even gave the city of how to write a graduate application, Hathribis to his son Psametik and thus furthered the rise of the next dynasty (the Saitic). Taharko, in the meantime, fortified a camp near Thebes and, while the Assyrian troops were engaged in the Delta, forced this city to classification games surrender. At first, the prince of theroux essayist, Thebes seems to have closed the door to classification computer games the fugitive Ethiopian king.
Preparing for a new invasion of northern Egypt, Tirhakah died there. Christianity A Religion Essay? His step-son Ten(wa)t-Amon (Tandamani of the Assyrian reports), son of Shabako, became king, and made the last attempt to expel the games, Assyrians (668/67). 2 See Maspero, Histoire, 3361, on this point. Civil Disobedience Essay? The words of the inscription of classification, Tanis (de Rouge in Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, 1:21, etc) 'he went to christianity essay the Delta at the age of twenty years' do not point, however, to a revolution necessarily. 3 Cp Winckler in KAT (3) 93. Why he places (p. 87 and AOF 1:482) his accession to the throne in classification computer, 691, does not appear.
4 See KAT (3) 88, for the report of the 'Babylonian Chronicles'. On the Egyptian monuments, nothing of this warlike activity of the king can be observed. Tirhakah left many buildings and restorations, especially in his residence Napata (mod. Gebel-Barkal) and at coursework, Thebes. North of games, Thebes, the difficulties caused him by civil disobedience, the nomarchs seem to have prevented him from building much ; but inscriptions bearing his name have been found at Tanis, and at Memphis his name is represented at the burial of an classification essay computer games Apis bull in his tenth and paul theroux essayist twenty-fourth year (directly before the Assyrian conquest?). Nominally, also, the two years following 668/7 seem to have been counted to him in Egypt, so at essay, least later by Psammetichus I. At Thebes, the nomarch Mont(u)-m-he't was in the time of the Assyrian invasion practically independent (he built considerably at Karnak) and how to write a graduate application does not seem to have always been faithful to his suzerain in Napata (see above). A (rather conventionalised) portrait of Tirhakah is given elsewhere (ETHIOPIA, fig. 1, right-hand picture); the Negro blood is more strongly indicated in several other portraits ; the classification essay games, full Negro type on the Zinjirli-stele of Esarhaddon is therefore no caricature. [The view expressed elsewhere (SENNACHERIB, 5) as to christianity the possibility of essay, a confusion between an Assyrian and an Asshurite (N.
Arabian) invasion of Juclah may possibly require a reinvestigation of the meaning of tm t^D in 2 K. 19:9 = Is. 37:9. 'Cush' may be, not Ethiopia, but a region in paragraphs and essays, N. Computer Games? Arabia (see CUSH, 2). If so, npmn (Tirhakah) will have to be admitted into the group of personal names which have (according to a religion essay the new theory) been modified by essay, redactors to suit their own limited historical knowledge. See Crit. Bib. on 2 K. 19:9 and sample siebel other parts of 2 K.] 1 So far after Winckler's arrangement, KAT (3) 90-94.
(narnn ; GARAM [tharam] [B], GARXNA [tharchna] [A], 6ARAANA [L]), a son of Caleb by his concubine Maacah (1 Ch. 2:48). (NJU ; in ; either = tarshata, Pers. partic. = 'feared' [Meyer, Ryssel, and most scholars], or an official title from Old Pers. antare-kshathra, 'royal representative in the province', Lag. Symmicta, 160; A6ARAC0AC [atharasthas] [L generally]), a title like 'Your Excellency' (Meyer), or an essay games official title (Lag., Stade) of the Persian governor of Judah, or perhaps a corrupt form of paul theroux essayist, a personal name, or of a gentilic, of essay computer games, Semitic origin. Antigone Civil Disobedience Essay? The article is always prefixed. (a) Ezra 2:63 (afleptraa [B], -crafla [A], -ar0a; [L]) = Neh. 7:65 (ao-eptrafla [R], aOcp. [NA])= 1 Esd. 5:40 (see below); (b) Neh. 7:70 (om.
B, a.6apraoa [tfc.a mg. A]) ; The sense in (a) Ezra 2:63 = Neh. 7:65 = 1 Esd. 5:40 and (b) Neh. 7:70 depends on the critical view adopted as to classification essay games the origin of the paul, list of sons of the province. If, with Meyer, we admit it to be a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabcl, the Tirshatha will of course be Zerubbabel ; to Kosters, however, it is classification essay computer games a list of post-exilic residents in Judah and Jerusalem, and the Tirshatha is Nehemiah. Cp 1 Esd. 5:40 (= Ezra 2:63), where we find v. [o] Kai uT#x/xas [kai attharias] (BA), XTapao-0aS [atarasthas] [L], ATHARIAS, RV ATTHARIAS). In (c) Neh. And Essays Custom? 8:9 = 1 Esd. 9:49 and (d) Neh.
10:1 [10:2], Nehemiah is essay games mentioned by how to, name as the Tirshatha, but is it certain that the text is correct? Guthe (SBOT) points out that 1 Esd. 9:49 ( = Neh. 8:9) gives simply /ecu elirev aTTO.pa.Ti [kai eipen attarate] ([B], ar^apar. Essay Games? [attharates] [A], adapaaOas [atharasthas] [L], ATTHARATES) - i.e., 'and the paul theroux, Tirshatha said', and infers that N?n rram [nehemiah . ] is classification a gloss. Smend, however (Listen, 18), prefers to omit 'that is, the Tirshatha' (so LXX [BXA] in application essay, Neh.), whilst Meyer (Entst.
200) omits both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha'. In (d) Guthe (SBOT) and Wellhausen (GGN, 1895, p. 177 omit 'the Tirshatha', because it separates the proper name from the patronymic (LXX , but not LXX , supports this). Very possibly here as well as in (c) both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha' are intrusive (cp Marq. Fund. 34). The two laymen, Nehemiah and Zedekiah, are very isolated just before the names of priestly classes (see ZEDEKIAH). Nehemiah's usual title is nns, 'governor'.
It is not certain that Nehemiah had yet returned. To this it may be replied that Nehemiah s change of title may be connected with a limitation of his jurisdiction during his second period of office to matters connected with a religious reformation. Essay? For the grounds of this hypothesis see NEHEMIAH. On the name see, further, Crit. Bib. in ? 'agreeable', 102; 0epc[BAL]; but in Josh. 12:24 0apra [BF], Oeppa. [therma] [A], in 1 K. 14:17 yrji/ ra.pi.pa. [gen sarira] [A ; see ZARETHAN], in sample, 2 K. 15:14 6aprei.a. [tharseila] [B], OepcrtAo, [thersila] [A], in Cant.
6:4 evSoiaa. [eudokia] [BXA], in Targ. Essay Games? NrTjnrY). 1. An ancient city of Mt. Ephraim (see below) which had a king of its own before the Israelitish conquest (Josh. 12:24), and was the residence of the N. Israelitish kings from Jeroboam to Omri (1 K. 14:17, 15:21, 16:6, 16:8-9, 16:15, 16:17, 16:23). According to Klostermann's emendation of has-Tseredah in 1 K. 11:26 (and of the antigone essay, crapeipa [sareira] of LXX in 1 K. 12), Jeroboam was a native not of 'Zeredah' but of essay computer, Tirzah, which place he fortified while still nominally in write application, the service of Solomon (see JEROBOAM, i, ZARETHAN, 2). Shortly afterwards we read (1 K. 12:24-25) that on games Jeroboam s return from coursework Egypt he built a castle (xa/a/ca [charaka] = N3n3) at Sarira. Whether Klostermann is right in holding Tirzah to essay computer games be the original form of the name of Jeroboam's city, will be considered later; at any rate, we may follow him in his statement that Zeredah (rrns), or hats-Tseredah, crapeipa [sareira], and essay Tirzah are fundamentally the classification essay computer, same.
The next fact recorded of Tirzah is resume siebel that, when, after a reign of classification essay computer games, seven days, Zimri saw that he could not hold Tirzah, he burned the citadel, and himself perished in the flames (1 K. Paul Theroux Essayist? 16:17-18) ; the usurper Omri then took up his abode in Tirzah. Even after Samaria had supplanted Tirzah as the capital, it continued to be a fortress of strategic importance. Menahem b. Gadi won Tirzah first and then Samaria, when he slew Shallum b. Jabesh and mounted the throne of Israel. From the context (on 2 K. 15:16 see TIPHSAH) Tirzah appears to essay have been not far from Tappuah (in Ephraim, but on the border of Manasseh). In the Book of get writing and essays, Judges too there is one more reference in the narratives, which, if based on fact, should come first in chronological order. Nor must we omit a famous poetical reference in the ordinary text. In Cant. 6:4, as given by MT (LXX, however, has ws evdoKia [oos eudokia]), we find the Shulammite compared to essay Tirzah. But whether a methodical criticism can accept this reading, is doubtful (see CANTICLES, 14, and cp ROSE). Antigone Disobedience Essay? We need not therefore discuss the classification essay games, question whether Tirzah really was as beautifully situated as the ordinary text of Cant.
6:4 seems to imply. It is enough to find out where this northern city lay. There are three current identifications. (1) Robinson and christianity a religion Van de Velde thought of classification essay computer, Talluza, 1 a picturesque village on a hill 2040 ft. above the sea-level, E. of get writing custom, Samaria, and slightly N. of classification essay computer, Mt. Resume Siebel? Ebal. The phonetic resemblance, however, is classification essay but slight, and siebel the description of Thersa quoted by Robinson from Brocardus ('on a high mountain, three leagues from Samaria to the E.') suits Tubas (Thebez?) better than Talluza. (2) The Midrash represents Tirzah as Tir'an (cp CANTICLES, 14, note) and the Targum as Tar'itha. Hence Buhl (Pal.
203) suggests that Tirathana, a village close to Gerizim (Jos. Ant. 18:4:1), may be intended, and he (doubtfully) identifies this with et-Tireh, on the W. side of the classification essay computer, plain of Makhneh. But this is for gifted not a sufficiently important site. (3) Conder (PEFM 2:216) suggests the village Teyatsir, 11 mi. N. of Shechem, and classification essay computer games 12 mi. E. of Samaria (see ASHER, 2). The site appears not unsuitable ; but nothing can be based on the name. But is the name Tirzah really the correct form? Is it likely to have been corrupted into Zeredah or hats-tseredah ? And is it the most natural name for an important fortress? Add to paul theroux this that another corrupted form of the same original may be ZARETHAN (q. v.).
The problem is to find a name out of which all these forms can have been corrupted. Such a name is VIS JV3 'Beth-zur'; such a name, too, is rlSlS, 'Zarephath'. It so happens that all the OT passages referred to above most [least] probably, in their original form, referred to the Negeb (Cant. 6:4 of course is computer games excluded). Sample Resume Siebel? It will therefore be safer to pronounce in essay games, favour of Zarephath.
2. One of the five daughters of ZELOPHEHAD - the a religion essay, fifth (Nu. Computer? 26:33, 27:1 [om. L], Josh. 17:3), or the second (LXX the first), Nu. 36:11, perhaps = Zarephath. (nifa 3Cn ; CK Gee BOON THC p [ RA 1. o eK SecceBtoN THC p [L]) 1 K. 17:1, RVmg, AV 'inhabitants of Gilead', RV 'sojourners of how to write application, Gilead'. See TISHBITE and reff.
CgP Fl; 6ecB(e)lTHC ; Thesbites, i.e., a native of Tishbeh, 1 K. 17:1, 21:17, 21:28, 2 K. 1:3, 1:8, 9:36. See ELIJAH, i, and n. i ; JABESH, i ; and especially PROPHET, 6, and Crit. Bib., where it is conjectured that Elijah and Elisha both came from Zarephath in the Negeb, then perhaps the extreme limit of the southern dominions of N. Israel. Cp THISBE. pb lJP, pi. nnb M?: Aevm [dekath]; decima. 1 Probably the Tarlusa of the Talmud (Neub. Geogr. 268).
2 Konig (Exp. T 12:38 ) explains the ' [Y] in the Gileadite place-name ajj-n [ThshBY] as a radical (/ 3B f [root ShBY]) 3 A om. in 1 K. 17:1, BAL om. 1 K. 21:28 ; LXX has eerj8(e)iTr [thesb(e)ites] also in 1 K. 18:27 [BAL], 18:29 [L] Mal. 4:4 [3:23] [BXAQr[gamma]].
4 The tithe in essay, relation to antigone disobedience essay other sacred dues is computer discussed elsewhere (see TAXATION; see esp. 9+), to antigone civil which the classification computer, present article is supplementary). The tenth, as a rate of taxation, secular or religious, is found among many ancient peoples. See Ryssel, PRE (2) 17:428-429, and for the Greeks, Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. 4:2423-2424; Romans, id., 2306+; Carthaginians, Diod. Sic. Theroux? 20:14 ; Justin, 18:7 ; Egyptians, Maspero, Struggle of Nations, 312 (spoil of war, tribute, etc., to games Amon); Syrians, 1 Macc.
10:31, 11:35 ; Sabaeans, Plin. NH 12:63; Lydians, Herod. For Gifted? 1:89; Nic. Damasc. frg. 24 (FHG 8:371); Babylonians, Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 668 ; Chinese, Legge, Chinese Classics, 1:119, etc. The oldest use of the word seems to have been secular, designating a tax or tribute in kind levied by essay computer games, a ruler from a subject or vassal people, or from his own countrymen. The obligatory offerings to the gods were cnrapxai [haparchai], primitiae, Heb. reshith, bikkurim. When these offerings came to be regarded as a tribute due to the deity as the ruler or the proprietor of the land, the name tithes was applied to them also. The dedication of a tithe of the spoils of war, an early and wide spread custom, may have contributed to this extension of the use of the term.
The 'tenth', doubtless, originally roughly expressed the write, proportion exacted; and in later times also, for example in Sicily under Roman rule ( Pauly-Wissowa, 4:2307+), was the actual rate of taxation ; but frequently the notion of tax or tribute predominated, so that the term tithe might be used in cases where the rate was different - as in games, Moslem law the students, 'tithe' is sometimes 1/20 or 1/40 - or where there was no fixed percent. Classification Essay Computer Games? Thus in the religious sphere dirapxal [haparchai] and deKarat [dekatai] are often synonymous: so, e.g., in Dion. Paul? Halic. 1:23-24, cp SeKarevcris [dekateusis], ib. 24, for the payment of a vow of essay, firstlings ; so Philo calls the tithe which was to be paid the priests out of the Levites' tithe, dTrapxijs a.ira.px.n [haparches haparche] (De mutat. nom. 1:607, Mangey). Similarly in the OT : to exact a tithe from the grain-fields, vineyards, and flocks is a royal prerogative (1 S. 8:15, 8:17). The oldest laws prescribe that the aparchae (reshith) of the first fruits of the coursework for gifted, land shall be brought to essay the house of Yahwe (Ex.
34:26, cp Dt. 18:4, 26:2, Ezek. Essayist? 44:30). The term 'tithe' was in use, however, in the northern kingdom in the eighth century for computer games, religious dues (Am. 4:4, cp Gen. 28;22, E).
In Dt. the word occurs repeatedly (12:6, 12:11, 12:17, 14:22+, 14:28-29, 26:12+); the tithe of grain and wine and oil is to be brought to Jerusalem and - as in Amos - used for a feast ; in the third year, however, a tithe is to be reserved for sample resume siebel, charity (see TAXATION, 9-10). Together with the tithes Dt. 12:6, 12:11, 12:17 names the terumah (terumath yadka ; EV 'heave offering'; more accurately 'reserved portion'), by which it is commonly thought that the first fruits are intended (see Dillm. in loc. ), but this is essay games doubtful ; more probably the terms are to be taken as synonymous ; cp Nu. 18:24. Antigone Disobedience? In Ezekiel we find reshith and essay terumah (20:40), which are assigned to the priests for their support (44:30); but no mention of tithes. There is nothing on the subject of tithing in H. It seems probable, therefore, that the for gifted, name 'tithe' was employed at some sanctuaries in the period of the kingdoms, while elsewhere other names were in essay, use.
It is not improbable, moreover, that the nature and write a graduate essay quantity of the obligatory offerings, and the use made of them, differed at different places as well as times. When the fragmentary remains of old sacred laws were brought together with later rules (P) in one code, these various terms were treated as so many different dues, and essay computer games combined in one system of for gifted students, religious taxation. The critic, on the other hand, sometimes falls into the hardly less serious error of assuming that all the laws lie in one serial development. 1 Ex. 23:19 is brought over by a redactor from 34:26. Until the aparchae were offered to God, the crop might not be used by men in any way (see, e.g. , Lev. 23:14). The presentation was the natural occasion of a feast at essay computer, the holy place.
This is the use of the tithe in Dt. For Gifted Students? (12:6, 14:23). The portion dedicated to the deity may at some time have been actually consumed upon the altar ; or, as in the case of the voluntary minhah, a representative part may have been thus consumed ; but in the rituals we possess the offering is symbolical (cp the essay, wave sheaf and the two loaves, Lev. 23:9+, 23:15+) , God ceded his share to the priest (Nu. For Gifted? 18:11). At the feast given by the offerer the priest had a place by custom ; and classification essay games thus from early times the offerings of first-fruits or tithes indirectly contributed to the support of the clergy.
The poor, also, shared in the feasts by antigone civil, a religious guest-right. The deuteronomic reformers foresaw that the suppression of the village high-places would deprive both the country priests and the poor of the community of no small part of their living. They provided, therefore, that every third year the land-owner, instead of taking his tithe to Jerusalem, should set it aside for charity at his own home. Here, again, it is not improbable that they found a precedent in earlier custom ; there are many examples, e.g. - among the Arabs - of sacrifices left wholly to the poor, this being a work of classification, superior piety. The new model of Ezekiel provides for the support of public worship, including the feasts at the great seasons, by the prince, out of the proceeds of a general tax (terumah, 45:13+) at a fixed rate. Christianity A Religion? The old reshith bikkurim and classification essay terumah, are all assigned to the priests for their support (44:30). Ezekiel s programme was never put into operation, but in the Persian period the tithe seems to have been converted to coursework the use of the temple (Mal.
3:8-10). Some such provision must have proved necessary, not only for the support of the priests but also for the maintenance of games, public worship. In P all sacred dues, under whatever name, go to the support of the disobedience, ministry (Nu. 18:8-20); the 'tithe' is specifically the portion of the Levites (vv. 21-24) ; of essay computer, it they in turn make over a tithe to the priests (vv.
25-32). See NUMBERS, 11. According to Neh. 10:37+ (Chronicler), the plan was for the Levites to collect their tithe in all the cities and christianity a religion villages, under the supervision of a priest, and then deliver the essay computer games, tithe of the tithes into antigone civil disobedience essay, the storehouse in the tern pie for the priests. Essay Computer? There is complaint, however, that the tithes were not paid, so that the Levites had to support themselves (Neh.
13:10+). It is impossible to w angel say whether this system was ever actually worked. It is classification often inferred that Neh. How To Write Essay? 10:37+ represents the practice of the Chronicler's own time; but it is quite as likely that it is one of the many pia desideria which he projects into classification, his 'history as it ought to have been'. The fortunes of the coursework for gifted, Levites in these centuries are involved in dense obscurity (see LEVITES, 7). What is certain is that at the beginning of the Christian era the tithes were collected by the priests for themselves (Jos. Vita, 12, 15; Ant. 20:8:8, 20:9:2). Essay Games? This departure from the law is recognised in christianity a religion essay, the Talmud : Ezra took the tithe away from the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to classification essay computer Palestine (Kethuboth, 26a ; Yebamoth, 86a-b ; Hullin, 131b, etc.). The deuteronomic laws name grain, wine, and essayist oil as subject to classification essay tithe (12:17, cp 14:22, Nu.
18:27); Lev. 27:30 is more general: 'all the essayist, tithe of the soil, whether of the seed of the ground or the fruit of the tree, is Yahwe's. The general rule of the Mishna is: 'Everything that is eaten and computer games is watched over and grows out of the ground is liable to tithe' (M. Siebel? Ma'aseroth, 1:1). The scrupulosity of the classification essay, Pharisees in matter of garden herbs - 'mint', 'anise', and 'cummin' - is commented on in the NT (Mt. 23:23 Lk. 11:42); the Mishna and the Palestinian Talmud go into christianity essay, minute details and discussions of essay computer, what should be tithed, and when, and how. The tithe of agricultural products paid to the Levites or to the priests, is called by the Jewish writers on the law the 'first tithe'. Lev. 27:32-33 puts by for gifted, the side of the tithe of seed crops and fruit (vv. 30-31) a tithe of animals of the flock or herd ; every tenth one, as the flock is counted, shall belong to Yahwe.
The complete parallel between vv. 30-31 and vv. Classification Computer Games? 32-33 naturally suggests two inferences : first, that it is the increase of the year that is to be tithed (so M. Bekoroth, 9:3+, etc.); and, second, that the tithe of coursework for gifted, cattle, like that of the fruits of the classification computer games, earth, was to go to the priests. This is the view of Philo (De praaemiis sacerdot. 2, 2:234, Mangey ; De carit. 10, 2:391) ; so also Tob. 16 (cod.
X [aleph]) and - what seems not to have been noted - Jubilees, 32:15 (on Gen. 28:22) : 'all tithes of neat cattle and sheep shall be holy to God and belong to his priests, who eat them year by essay, year before him'. On the other hand, the legal authorities unanimously take the whole passage, Lev. 27:30-33, to refer to the 'second tithe'; the animals were sacrificed by their owners as thank offerings (todah), or as 'joyous peace offerings' (shalme shimhah at the feasts. Classification Computer Games? 1 Modern critics generally assume that the chapter is a late supplement to the 'Priests Code', and antigone disobedience essay that the classification essay, tithe is christianity essay therefore to be understood in accordance with Nu.
18:21+ But if, as is more probable, it be a supplement to a body of law which included Dt. , the essay computer games, rabbinical interpretation is coursework for gifted equally possible (cp vv. Classification Essay? 9-15). There can be no doubt that the Mishna and Siphre represent in this particular the application essay, practice of the first century. And it is classification computer not difficult to conceive that the claim of the priests to all the firstlings - once the theroux essayist, accompaniment of the tithe of corn and computer wine and oil (Dt. 126, etc. Essayist? ) - made it necessary to make some other provision for the sacrificial feasts ; the classification essay computer, tithe of cattle is a natural form for this provision to get writing and essays custom take.
It is, therefore, not so certain as has sometimes been thought, that Lev. 27:32-33 is the last monstrous demand of a greedy priesthood or the fiction of an imaginative scribe. 1 Siphre, Dt. 63: M. Hagigah, 1:4 ; M. Menahoth, 7:5, etc. See Schurer, GJV (3) 2:251 n. So also Maimonides, Rashi, and the Mishna commentaries.
On the basis of the Pentateuch as a whole, the system included three tithes: the 'first tithe', a tax of one tenth of all edible vegetable products collected by the ministry for its own support (Nu. 18:21-24) ; the 'second tithe', of the same products, which, together with the computer games, cattle tithe (Lev. Coursework For Gifted Students? 27:32-33), furnished a feast for the owner and essay computer his guests at Jerusalem (Dt. 14:22-27); and the 'poor tithe', set apart every third year for charity (Dt. 14:28-29, 26:12).
The last, in the original intention of the law probably only a particular use of the tithe every third year, was in get writing custom, later times made, at least by some, a 'third tithe' falling twice in every seven years, in the third and sixth years of the Sabbatical cycle (Tobit, 1:7-8; Jos. Ant. 4:8:22; Trg. Jer. Dt. 26:12-13); see Geiger, Urschrift, 176+; Schurer, GJV (3) 2;252.
Spencer, De legibus ritualibus, lib. 3, diss. 1, cap. 10 ; Selden, History of classification computer, Tithes; Reland, Antiquitates sacrae, lib. 3, cap.
9, reprinted with extensive notes by the editor in Ugolini Thesaurus, 2:1031+; J. C. Hottinger, De decimis Hebraeorum, also in Ugolini Thesaurus, 20:283-490 (valuable for its Rabbinical erudition); Riehm, HIVR, art. 'Zehnten'; Ryssel, 'Zehnten bei den Hebraern', PREP) 17:428+, lit. ib. 17:444); A. S. Peake, 'Tithe' in Hastings' DB 4:780+; W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. (2) 244+; Nowack and resume Benzinger, HA ; Schurer, GJV (3) 250+ i. |VV. tsiyyun, 2 K. 23:17 RV 'monument'. See MASSEBAH, 1 (e) 2. rtrXos [titlos], Jn. 19:19-20. See CROSS, 4.
(TITOC : on the accentuation see Winer-Schmiedel Gramm. Th. i., 6:2) is the name of a rather enigmatic minor figure in the apostolic age, who is known almost entirely from Paul's allusions to him (in Gal. and 2 Cor. ) as a friend and trusty lieutenant. He is not associated with Paul in the address of any extant epistle, and nothing is known of his birthplace, age, or nationality, except that he was a pagan by birth (EXX?/!/ uv [hellen oon]) and computer games apparently a native of Asia Minor (cp Gal. 2:1-5). Later tradition (Tit. Paul? 1;4) may be correct in hinting that he was brought over to Christianity by Paul himself.
At any rate he appears at an early stage of the apostle's public career (possibly in 49 A.D. ; cp CHRONOLOGY, 74, PAUL, 16) as a private individual who accompanied Paul and Barnabas (cp Acts 15:2) at the former's request upon their visit to Jerusalem, evidently to represent the success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism. The burning question at the conference of Jerusalem was the essay games, value and validity of Christian faith if unsupplemented by circumcision, and (as Paul had foreseen) the case of Titus inevitably came up for discussion. Coursework For Gifted Students? Whether it was made a test case or not, it led to bitter feeling between the conservative party and their challengers. Paul and classification computer games Barnabas, however, stood their ground against the orthodox centre and repudiated any compromise involving their companion; 'not even Titus', says Paul triumphantly, 'was obliged to get circumcised' - much less (as the Judaising Christians appear to have insisted) Gentile Christians in general, who were not (like Titus) in direct daily touch with a circumcised Christian. Sample? Nothing is said of what Titus himself thought and felt.
His attitude is passive. The natural inference, however, is that he left himself in Paul's hands, sharing, or at classification essay computer games, least sympathising, with that 'inward impulse' of Paul's spiritual nature, which 'went straight to students the results of its principles . . . and thus carried him past a form of Christianity which was simply another form of Judaism' (Baur). Classification Essay? Cp COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM. 4, 7. The textual problem raised by the omission of o! ovSe [ois oude] (Gal. Christianity A Religion Essay? 2:5) in classification, some western MSS is not serious (cp Lightf. Gal. 121-123, and Klostermann's Probleme im Apostel-texte , 54-55); besides, even were the external evidence more considerable, the how to a graduate application, internal probabilities of the case put the matter beyond doubt, ihe curious silence of Acts upon this notorious controversy (ACTS, 4) is due to classification games the irenical tendency of the author or of the sample resume siebel, sources which he edited at this point of his story. Classification Essay Computer Games? Even if he did not know the Pauline Epistles, Titus must have been familiar to him, as familiar at antigone essay, any rate as several of the minor figures who flit across his pages. But by the time he wrote, the circumcision-question was obsolete, and he probably deemed it prudent to pass by allusions which might revive unpleasant memories better left unstirred.
Some such explanation is distinctly preferable to Ramsay's hypothesis that the Antiochian Luke omitted the essay games, name of Titus because he was his relative (St. A Religion Essay? Paul, 389-390). Further, the disinclination to report so discreditable and unedifying an computer episode as that of the local dispute at Corinth naturally led to the omission of coursework students, any later reference to Titus, who thus had the essay computer, misfortune to paragraphs and essays custom be sacrificed to the special aims and classification computer games interests of the first historian of the early church. Three or four years elapse before Titus reappears, in connection with the Corinthian church. 1 His lack of circumcision would naturally prevent him from being a suitable companion during Paul's second tour (49-52 A.D.) which embraced as a rule - for so much is visible even under the religious pragmatism of Acts - an initial attempt upon the synagogues in write essay, almost every city. But, since Titus is found at Paul's disposal in Ephesus, it is possible that the apostle took him from Antioch, after the dispute with Peter (Gal. 2:11-21), upon his third tour through Galatia and the Phrygian highlands as far as the Asiatic metropolis - a 'carefully planned stroke of policy', according to Ramsay, which effectually answered the unfair deductions drawn by Judaisers in favour of Judaic Christianity from Timothy s circumcision previous to his promotion. Be that as it may, the keenest interest shown by essay computer, Titus was in the Achaian Christians, an interest only antigone civil disobedience essay, equalled by that of Paul himself (2 Cor. 8:16), who stamped him as 'my comrade and fellow-worker in your interest' (2 Cor. 8:23), my brother' (2 Cor. 2:13), and a colleague actuated by the same high motives (2 Cor.
12:18) - an estimate borne out by the record of what transpired during the Corinthian episode, where Titus proved himself a prudent, active, and reliable commissioner of Paul. Classification Computer? His connection with the resume, Achaian Christians appears to have begun upon the occasion of a visit paid either at the despatch of i Cor. Essay Computer Games? (which he may have carried, as one of 'the brothers' : 1 Cor. 16:11; cp 2 Cor. 12:18) or shortly afterwards, when he set on foot arrangements for a local contribution to the great collection (cp Rendall, Expos. (4) 8:321-336, and E. Lombard, Rev. d. Theol. el Philos. , 1902, p. 113-114) on behalf of the Judaean Christians which Paul was negotiating throughout the Gentile churches, partly as a timely act of charity, partly as a tangible evidence of how to essay, sympathy between the two branches of the classification essay games, church, and paul theroux essayist partly to show his own belief and interest in their unity. Acquainted with the instructions already given by Paul to the Galatians in this matter of the Xoyia [logia] (1 Cor.
16:1), Titus was well adapted 2 for this financial work, which began in the year previous to that in games, which 2 Cor. 8:10, 9:2 were written. 1 On the christianity essay, movements of Titus and Timothy at this period see especially and variously Lightfoot (Bibl. Essays, 273-274), Schmiedel (HC 2:1:82-86, 2:1:267-269), Heinrici (Der zweite Brief an die Kor. [Meyer, 1900], 46-51), and essay computer A. Robertson (Hastings ' DB 1:492-497). For Gifted? The scantiness of the available data renders any outline rather hypothetical at more than one point; upon computer the whole the most satisfactory view of the episode in general and of its extant literary evidence seems to lie somewhere among those which are based upon an acceptance of 2 Cor. How To Application Essay? 10-13 as the 'intermediate letter' (literature in Moffatt's Hist. New Testament (2) 1901, p. 174-175). 2 In describing the collection of temple tribute among the classification computer games, Jews, a custom which no doubt suggested to Paul the idea or at least the form of this collection, Philo notices the periodical assignment of the funds in each district 'to men of resume siebel, good standing whose duty it is to games convey them to Jerusalem. For this purpose it is always men of the highest rank who are chosen, as a kind of guarantee that what forms the hope of every Israelite may reach the Holy City untampered with' (De monarchia, 3, cited by Schur. Hist.
2:2:289). Evidence for civil, such collections in Egypt is displayed by Wilcken, Griech. Ostraka (1899), 1:253-254, 6:15-16, See DISPERSION, 16, and Harnack s Ausbreitung, 133-135. As the context implies (2 Cor. 12:15-17), 2 Cor. 12:17-18 (eweove icTTjcra [epleonektesa]) refers to the collection ; neither in person, nor by my agents (Paul retorts), did I overreach you. In view of this it seems inadequate to deny (with Zahn, Einl. 1:244-245) that the collection is the topic of 2 Cor. 8:6.
As Titus had previously made a beginning (n-poei^pf arc [proenerxato]) with this bounty, so (Paul urges) let him complete it now in addition to classification essay computer games (eai [kai]) the other local tasks - such as that of acting for Paul during the estrangement - which, as 2 Cor. 1-9 implies, he had brought to a happy issue. Then and there he won the esteem of the Corinthians. Along with some other agent, he supported himself as Paul had done, thereby putting his disinterested zeal beyond suspicion ; as Paul s language indicates (2 Cor. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays Custom? 12:18), he was evidently the classification computer games, last man in civil disobedience essay, the world whom the Corinthians would have dreamed of classification essay computer games, accusing (cp J. H. Kennedy, The Second and Third Epistles of resume, Paul to the Corinthians, 1900, p. 119). The business of the collection prospered famously (2 Cor.
9:1-2). But it was rudely interrupted by the painful, discreditable, and contemptible affair which led to a rupture beween Paul and the Corinthian church. At this outbreak of classification computer, bad feeling Titus in all likelihood returned to Ephesus, although this is one of several details which are far from luminous or coherent. It is possible that he contented himself with simply reporting the crisis. At any rate, he seems to theroux have borne somewhat later to classification essay computer Corinth from Ephesus the vehement, severe letter (preserved in whole or part in christianity, 2 Cor. 10-13:10) which Paul precipitately wrote with caustic and passionate indignation, his aim being to test their loyalty and bring them to their senses (2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6-7, 7:13-14). The misgivings and apprehensions 1 of Titus on classification essay games this errand proved happily unfounded. He was received and obeyed heartily by the majority, and eventually found himself able to rejoin Paul with good news of the Corinthians repentance and disobedience affection. Some delay occurred, however, and meantime the outbreak at Ephesus (PAUL, 25) had driven the apostle to Troas.
Dismayed to hear at Corinth of the grief produced by classification essay games, his sharp letter (2 Cor. 7:8), he felt driven by restless eagerness for further news across to Macedonia. There at last he met his friend returning by land, and in paul theroux essayist, an access of delight and relief at his favourable report composed 2 Cor. Classification? 1:1-9, 13:11-13, which he concludes by planning to have the collection resumed and coursework for gifted students completed under charge of Titus accompanied by two anonymous but able subordinates. The former was not only willing but eager to return to Corinth (2 Cor. 8:16, 8:23), so satisfied had he been with his recent experience of the essay computer, church's temper (2 Cor. 7:6-7, 7:13-15). Thus Titus disappears from the scene. He probably returned with the coursework for gifted students, letter to Corinth and reorganised the Xoyia [logia] or voluntary assessment throughout Achaia.
For although no Corinthian deputies are mentioned among those named in Acts 20:4, it is evident from Rom. 15:26 that the long-promised liberality of the Corinthians (2 Cor. 9:5) had not been withheld, and that the financial labours of Titus (2 Cor. 8:6, 9:2) were crowned with success. Computer Games? Curiously enough, among the virtues of the how to write, Corinthian church celebrated some forty years later, liberality (ijdiov didovres f) Xo,ufidvovTfs [edion didontes e lambanontes]) is reckoned as one of its leading and traditional characteristics (Clem. Rom. 1:1, 2:1). 1 As a personal friend of Paul and as a Gentile Christian over whom an acrimonious feud had been already waged (Gal. 2:3), Titus cannot have felt comfortable at the prospect of confronting the Jewish Christian intriguers who were busy at Corinth.
Probably it was dislike of them, if not their active malice, that had driven him away. Essay Computer Games? At the same time his diplomatic qualities, no less than his organising capacity, made him evidently a more capable man than Timothy to deal with a difficult situation of this kind, and Paul's generous confidence in the sterling qualities of the Corinthian church (2 Cor. Coursework? 7:14), as well as his sagicity in classification essay games, the choice of a new envoy, must have been amply justified by events. The genuine fragment incorporated in Tit. 3:12-13 (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68-69, TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 13) probably belongs to the period after the composition of 2 Cor. 1-9, written either from Macedonia (see NICOPOLIS, 3) when Paul was on his way to Corinth or on his way back (Acts 20:3). How the connection with Crete arose, and a religion whether Titus managed to rejoin him or not, it is impossible to classification essay computer say. The only light thrown upon paragraphs custom w angel his subsequent movements is afforded by classification essay computer games, a remark two years later in application essay, a genuine Pauline fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 4:10, from which it appears that Titus, who must have turned up during Paul's captivity in Rome, had left (on a mission?) for essay computer, DALMATIA (q.v.).
The trustworthiness of write a graduate, this notice need not be doubted, although the phrase 'this present world' (T OV vvv aiiava. [ton nyn aioona], cp 1 Tim. 6:) is un-Pauline. Nor is a substantial basis to be denied to the tradition (reflected in Tit. Computer? 1:5) that links Cretan Christianity to theroux Titus at any rate (whatever may be thought of the allusion to Paul), although the tendency and object of the sub-Pauline author is naturally to suggest that the anarchic condition of the local Christians 'was one considerable cause of the evidently low moral condition to which they had sunk' (Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 176), and characteristically to lay stress upon organisation as a safeguard. Titus has been occasionally, but unconvincingly, regarded as the author of the 'We-journal' in Acts (ACTS, 9b) - e.g., by Krenkel, Kneucker, Seufert, Jacobsen, O. Holtzmann (ZWT, 1889, p. 409), and Bartlet (Apost. Classification? Age, 69, 100 ). But all that the curious silence of Acts enables us to adduce in favour of such a conjecture is the wholly inadequate fact that Titus was a companion of Paul, possibly - though only possibly - during part of the time covered by the diary in question. Besides, it is significant that no writing, canonical or extra-canonical, is assigned to him in tradition, which is content to a graduate essay elaborate his connection with Crete and - by classification essay games, a strange shift of fortune, after the Venetian regime - with Venice. The meagre allusion to Crete which happens to occur in the Epistle to Titus, may quite well rest upon a nucleus of historical fact ; but the christianity essay, luxuriant fancy of later generations proceeded among other developments to make him the first bishop appointed by Paul over Crete (Ap. Const.
7:46, Euseb. HE 34, Theod., Theophylact, Jerome, etc.), dying indeed at essay games, Candia, as archbishop of Gortyna, in his ninety-fourth year (Fabric. Christianity? Cod. Essay Computer Games? Apocr. NT 2:831-832). Cp Tozer, Islands of the Aegean, 65-66.
In the Roman legends of the paul theroux essayist, gnostic Trpcif ei5 II av Aou [praxeis paulou], Titus is connected with Paul, and plays along with Luke a role in the Passio sancti Pauli Apostoli and Martyrium Pauli, 114-117 (cp Lips. Acta Apost. Apocryph., 1891, 123-44). Like Timothy he is of course reckoned among the seventy disciples by Chron. Pasch.
420 (ed. Bonn), and, according to Acta Pauli et Theclae, 2-3, he gives information regarding Paul to Onesiphorus at classification computer, Iconium. One of the epistles of the pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita is addressed to Titus as bishop of Crete. The rather slight contents of the essay, Acta Titi (see Lips. Apocr. Ap.-gesch.
3;401-406) are as legendary as the panegyric on Titus pronounced by Andreas of Crete (ed. Classification Essay Computer Games? Paris, 1644). Like Timothy, Titus also has had some ado to preserve his individuality. But it seems needless to do more than chronicle even the attempts made to identify him (see Wieseler) with the Titius (TtVov [titou] [XE]) Justus of Acts 18:7 or with Silas (Silvanus) ; against the latter as advocated especially by Zimmer, see the conclusive statement of Julicher, JPT, 1882, pp. 528-552 [, also SILAS, 5-6]. See TIMOTHY AND TITUS (EPISTLES).
(TITIOC loycroc [Ti. WH]), Acts 18:7 RV, AV JUSTUS (q.v., ii.). RV Titus Manius (TITOC MANIOC). 2 Macc. 11:34 . See MANLIUS. rynri; o leAcei [BN], o ecoc^ei [A], o [L] ; ThosaitesVg. A Graduate Application? , all presupposing the form 'yijnn [HThVTsY]; a gentilic attached to the name JOHA (1 Ch. 11:45). Classification? David's warriors were presumably, like himself, [not] from the Negeb. Shimri, the name of Joha's father, also favours this. If TIRZAH (q.v.) was really a place in coursework for gifted students, the Negeb, we might suppose corruption from -ni^n a Tirzathite. (niPl), 1 Ch.
6:34 [6:19]; in 1 S. 1:1, TOHU. (3112 ; rcoB [BAL]), a region in which Jephthah 'the Gileadite' took refuge (Judg. 11:3, 11:5), and whence the Ammonites obtained allies in their war against David (2 S. 10:68, RV ; cp ISH-TOB). Sayce plausibly identifies it with Tubi, a place conquered by Thotmes III., and mentioned a little before Astiratu - i.e.. Tell Ashtera (RP(2) 545 ; cp Maspero, AZ, 1881, p. 124). Essay Games? This does not, however, suit the original story which underlies Judg. Civil? 11:1-33 (see JEPHTHAH); a district of Hauran is not to be expected here. Tubihi is much more appropriate (see TIRHATH) ; this very ancient city was probably in the Lebanon district, NW. of Damascus. The identification also suits the classification, mention of Tob in 2 S. 10:68 in sample siebel, connection with ZOBAH (q.v. ). The same region may be meant by the land of TUBIAS (AV TOBIE; LXX Toi /Stoi [toubiou] ) in 1 Macc.
5:13, the essay, people of which appear to antigone civil disobedience essay be called TUBIENI (2 Macc. 12:17 ; see CHARACA) - i.e., the men of Tub or Tob. These identifications, however, only suit a fairly conservative view of the MT. If the Gilead originally meant in Judg. 11 and in 1 Macc. 5 be a southern Gilead in the Negeb, and if the Zoba originally meant in 2 S. 10 be Zarephath in the Negeb, we must consider whether 3f0 may not be a mutilated form of ^am (see TUBAL). The n in the Gk. and Syr. forms (roujSeicov? [toubeinous] [A], Tov/3iacous [toubianous] [V], jkl*2aJ) is clearly not radical. See GASm. HG 587, n. 5, who agrees, it may be added, with Conder (Heth and Moab, 176) in identifying Tob with mod. et-Tayyibeh, NE. of Pella.
(Pl3n* 3iO; TU)B6.AcoBei [toobadoobeia] [B], -A IONIA [doonia], [AL]), a Levite temp. Jehoshaphat (2 Ch. 17:8). Classification Essay Computer? Note that Pesh. omits the name and that of the siebel, preceding Adonijah and Tobijah ; LXX omits the second. If not a corruption (e.g. , for ITHDJ? [ABDYH = Abdiah] or DIN naj;[ABD 'DM] - y [ayin] and classification games 13 [taw] are very similar in Samaritan script) the students, name should probably be omitted ; a scribe may have begun to rewrite irraia [TVBYHV = tobijah] and then invented the most suitable name he could think of. Games? [But cp Crit. Bib., ad loc. (rVTlD), Ezra 2:60; see TOBIJAH, 2. 1. The son of TOBIT (q.v.). 2. The father of HYRCANUS (q.v.). (royBiOY [ A ^ v ]).
1 Macc. 5:13 AV, RV TUBIAS. See TOB. ,
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alevel essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the classification, types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of christianity a religion them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the classification essay, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an paul essayist, easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to classification computer games find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Essayist! Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too!
So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it.
An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in classification which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at get writing and essays w angel aspects of the text brought you to this view . Classification Computer Games! If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an christianity a religion, essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is essay games, merely a series of theroux PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for essay what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to how to write application have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of classification essay games form or structure ) along with with an christianity a religion essay, explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. Classification Computer Games! The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is get writing custom w angel, a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for classification computer games is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at resume after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and classification essay one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of for gifted your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and computer games support to show that it is a view that is theroux, well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to essay games hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.
This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to christianity a religion an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for essay games example, misinterpreting the and essays custom w angel, text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the classification essay computer games, text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Christianity! The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the games, essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for paragraphs and essays custom an Effective Essay.
As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the classification essay computer games, text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the paul, major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in computer the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the theroux, situation you feel brought the writer to classification computer want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to essayist be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on classification essay games the needs of the essay title or question. This is the paul theroux, bulk of the essay. It is a series of computer paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in essay a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the classification games, four-six aspects you'll be covering in theroux essayist your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. Classification Essay! This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?
Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the students, written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in classification essay computer the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the sample siebel, quotation's literary and linguistic content . Essay Computer! However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to resume siebel explain how and why the aspect of the text or the classification computer, quotation 'works' within the context of the for gifted students, essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to classification make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the essay, writer's methods , e.g. through the classification essay games, creation of christianity a religion realistic dialogue; the use of an classification computer games, effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the coursework for gifted, reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Computer! 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. Christianity Essay! ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of classification computer games your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.
This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and paul waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon essay computer which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to resume create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and essay computer do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and antigone disobedience ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of computer games how to use embedded quotations.
The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. How To Write! Here is computer games, a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from antigone civil disobedience, themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is classification, a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!
I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Paul Essayist! Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to essay games waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the essay, text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . Classification Computer Games! M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an for gifted students, English essay and essay computer games this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for get writing and essays example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the essay computer, quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the paul, quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . Essay Computer Games! 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY.
The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is resume, your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an classification, interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. Antigone Civil Disobedience! 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the computer games, overall view you have developed. Antigone Civil Disobedience! Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and essay purpose intended . Paul Essayist! 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Essay Games! Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. Paul Theroux! your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to essay explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to antigone civil disobedience 'preview' each of the classification games, major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and civil how you intend to answer it.
Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the essay games, text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and disobedience digested the detail of three key aspects of the classification computer, essay: the essay question, the text and antigone disobedience essay its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of classification computer games course, a short suitable quotation taken from the write application essay, text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to games the biographical background of the author and paul theroux any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of essay computer marks in a religion essay an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of essay computer games this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of antigone civil context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context.
TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in classification essay games your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the for gifted, text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the computer, analysis system called P.E.E. Christianity! or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of games quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of christianity these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way?
How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the classification computer games, text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Paul Theroux! This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to essay games the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the a graduate essay, text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to computer games write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and for gifted students a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for games example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). How To Write Application Essay! You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is essay, also the EXPLAIN part of sample P.E.E).
5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from computer, beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Civil Essay! This ignores the work the computer, writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the sample resume siebel, main ideas behind the essay . Classification Computer! 1. Re-state in siebel a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument.
2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from classification essay, each paragraph to give you an idea). Paul Essayist! 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to classification computer the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an christianity a religion, example of classification essay computer games how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is get writing paragraphs and essays w angel, saying that the play is classification, set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the sample, Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and classification essay computer bloodshed shown in the coming scene.
It will be against this violent backdrop that the a graduate essay, pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of computer its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. A Graduate Essay! To give you an idea of the computer, importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the disobedience essay, way the writing is received and interpreted.
A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and classification essay computer paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of for gifted students poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by essay rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by how to using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently.
When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from computer games, language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Christianity A Religion Essay! Form is always worthy of classification computer games comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on paul theroux essayist of a storm'. Classification Essay Computer! This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and theroux essayist given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for classification essay computer games its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning.
E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the siebel, darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the classification essay, darkness seems to christianity a religion essay be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on essay computer games words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Essayist! Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of classification computer games which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of get writing and essays custom w angel meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is classification essay games, intended to hurt someone's feelings by christianity a religion essay ridiculing some aspect of them.
It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and games witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of sample resume language. But irony can also be difficult to essay computer recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by paul essayist which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is classification computer games, because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of for gifted students voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care.
It is a key reading skill to games be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. Sample Siebel! An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. Classification Computer Games! This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in siebel order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for games his watch. Structure is the paul, way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of classification essay writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and coursework for gifted persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is essay computer, quickly recognisable.
John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to sample siebel comment on games its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to paul essayist you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to essay computer games achieve a certain purpose. So. Theroux Essayist! if you are commenting on computer the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from paragraphs and essays, not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the classification, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to christianity a religion essay be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and classification essay computer sparing when you write an overview of sample resume each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the games, techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and write this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the classification essay games, more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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AP Lang Classification Video Games Essay - 726 Words
Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and classification essay games, Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of essay writing which presents the get writing paragraphs and essays custom w angel . author’s point of classification computer games view on a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. A Graduate Application Essay. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages.
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The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and racism are a part of living and coursework for gifted students, people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them? In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and she uses the essay computer games mockingbird is a symbol. A mockingbird is essay a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages.
?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from classification essay computer games, editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to resume his coming from classification essay computer, a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to civil his biography on computer games, IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the paragraphs custom United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the most important invention of . Classification. all time in the history of human civilization and enterprise is the internet. Why the internet?
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Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an a graduate application essay Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to classification games help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . For Gifted. . Games. This is coursework for gifted students not the only way to organize and develop an classification essay essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and get writing paragraphs w angel, will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and classification essay computer games, Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and get writing custom, purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.
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AP Lang Classification Video Games Essay - 726 Words
late homework slips How Does Your School Handle the Homework Dilemma? How do your teachers handle homework? Do you have a school-wide policy? Do students earn a homework grade? What about essay games, late homework? Or the paul essayist, effects of homework zeros on student grades? Included: Education World's Principal Files team shares their thoughts on those questions and classification games, others.
Does your school have a homework policy? How much homework is the right amount for each grade level? Do you have systems in place to help students and christianity a religion, parents keep track of homework assignments? Is homework graded? What about classification games, homework that is resume siebel submitted late? And how about zeroes? Zeroes on homework can quickly affect a students' grade. Education World wanted to learn more about how schools and school districts handle the homework dilemma, so we posed those questions to our Principal Files team. Their responses might offer some guidance to others who are grappling with defining and policing homework. WHAT IS HOMEWORK?
For many schools and essay, school districts, defining homework and get writing paragraphs w angel, its purpose is a first step in creating a homework policy. Is homework a dilemma for teachers, students, and parents at your school? Are you frustrated because you get more excuses than completed assignments? Education World has published many articles and resources about the classification computer games, issue of homework. Be sure to scroll through our Homework Archive for these articles and paragraphs custom, more Homework Club Memberships Grow Homework Study Hall: Mandatory Make Up for Missed Work Put an End to games, Homework Horror! Classroom Rewards Reap Dividends for Teachers and Students And don't miss our newest series of siebel, homework tips -- 30 volumes of teacher-tested ideas -- Help for Homework Hassles. In Arlington, Virginia, district policy defines the purpose of homework as preparing for, building on, or reinforcing classroom learning.
The policy goes on to add that homework encourages responsibility and accountability and strengthens home-school communication about student learning, said Lolli Haws, principal at Arlington's Oakridge Elementary School. According to classification computer, the policy, homework must also acknowledge students' individual differences through differentiation, added Haws. It must be designed to be achievable by all students independent of school staff, access to technology, or materials only available at school; in other words, a child must be able to how to a graduate, complete homework using resources available in the home. The policy also emphasizes that homework is primarily a teacher-student interaction, added Haws. That means that. parents shouldn't have to spend a lot of their time on homework with their child, and teachers should provide timely, consistent, and classification computer, understandable feedback to students about their homework.
Just like it is in Arlington, homework is student -- not parent -- responsibility at St. Martin's Episcopal School in Atlanta. Homework is an how to write a graduate important part of classification essay games, our school's developmental study-skills curriculum, said principal Sue Astley. Parents should consider homework as a contract between the school and the student. It is the student's responsibility to complete homework. Parents can best assist the paragraphs custom, process of learning by providing a consistent time and a quiet place for students to complete their homework and by essay computer games, showing a positive interest in it. At the Edenrose Public School in Mississauga, Ontario (Canada), representatives of each grade, and paul theroux essayist, the school's ESL and special education staffs, drafted a school-wide policy that was shared with all staff and the school council. The policy was recently reviewed and essay games, minor revisions were made, said principal Deepi Kang-Weisz. Each year, the policy is sent home to all families in our back-to-school information package. In addition, each teacher reviews the policy with students. The policy defines what homework is and get writing and essays w angel, provides examples of what homework might look like at essay computer games, each grade level.
At Doctors Inlet Elementary School in Middleburg, Florida, homework is application defined as assignments that support specific concepts taught during the computer, school day, said principal Larry Davis. Incomplete class work that must be completed at home is not considered homework; rather it is considered a continuation of the student's daily classroom responsibilities. HOW MUCH HOMEWORK? We were surprised to find quite a bit of consistency across schools and districts when it comes to christianity, answering the question How much homework should students have? The norm seems to be 10 to 15 minutes of homework per night by grade level. In other words, grade one students might have 10 minutes of homework each night; grade two students would have 20 minutes of homework; grade three students would have 30 minutes of classification essay, homework, and so on. Other schools might spell out specific amounts of homework. For example, at Transfiguration School in how to write a graduate, West Hazelton, Pennsylvania, principal Sherry Ambrose says the following homework guidelines are in effect: Pre-K, Kindergarten -- as assigned Grade 1 -- 20 minutes Grade 2 -- 30 minutes Grade 3 -- 30-45 minutes Grade 4 -- 45 minutes to 1 hour Grades 5 to 8 -- 1 to 1-1/2 hours. At Doctors Inlet Elementary, homework should never exceed 60 minutes per night, said principal Larry Davis, adding, If homework is given, it must be graded for essay games, completeness and accuracy.
Some schools spell out siebel, that homework time does not include time students are expected to spend each night reading to an adult or on their own. Many schools specify that students spend 15-30 minutes reading each day, more on days when they have no other assigned homework. KEEPING TRACK OF ASSIGNMENTS. Among the often-stated purposes of homework is that it helps students develop study skills, time management skills, and essay, responsibility. Sample Siebel. In an essay games effort to help students develop those skills, many schools support student learning by using homework assignment books, sometimes called agendas, and by providing resources that help students when they slip up by not carefully recording their assignments. A school-wide policy at St.
Vincent DePaul Academy recognizes homework as an how to a graduate integral part of classification essay computer games, its effort to how to application, develop student responsibility. According to principal Heather Hamtil, the essay computer games, school's AAA card offers positive recognition to civil disobedience, students who make consistent efforts in three areas: A cademics, A ttendance, and computer, A ttitude. Each week, students are awarded an essay AAA card if they have not missed an assignment in the 5-day period (Academics); been present at least 4 days out of the classification computer, 5 (Attendance); and not had any marks against behavior or uniform (Attitude). At the end of each quarter, students may trade their collected cards for special rewards. Our students must use the school-designed homework notebook in which teachers initial each assignment given (as a means of checking that students have properly recorded the assignment) and that parents initial to indicate that they have looked at the completed assignments, said principal Heather Hamtil of St. Vincent DePaul Academy in a graduate, Kansas City, Missouri. Classification Computer Games. For each assignment, the date given and paul theroux, the date due are recorded. Doing that helps students get organized, but it also aids teachers; they can see if students are getting 'loaded up with homework.' If parents complain about computer games, that, a teacher can often explain that some assignments were given several days before and that part of the and essays w angel, education of the student is computer games learning to prioritize assignments based on his or her evening activities and availability. How To Write Essay. We even have a section of the computer games, notebook where we can help students prioritize those longer-term assignments.
The homework notebook is christianity a tool that aids us in regular, usually daily, communication with parents, noted Hamtil. Students must write their assignments in ink, she added. That prevents them from changing an assignment before going home. At Oakridge Elementary, agenda planners are used by students in grades 3 to 5. Parents sign the agendas each night to verify completion of homework assignments. To cover students who might not get their assignments written down correctly, most teachers in grades 2-up have ongoing email communication with parents who wish to receive daily homework updates. Homework is assigned in weekly chunks at Transfiguration School. Homework for essay, the upcoming week is posted on our school Web site each Sunday night, said Sherry Ambrose. For those who do not have Internet access at home, hard copies of christianity essay, weekly homework assignments are available in classrooms, or students can print them out in the computer lab. In addition, all students have homework assignment tablets, added Ambrose. Homework tablets are signed by classification essay computer games, teachers and parents of how to essay, students up to grade 3. DOES HOMEWORK GET GRADED?
Should homework be graded? If so, how much should it count? Ah, those are the questions that often plague school staffs as they debate the homework issue. Most schools have determined the grading of classification essay, homework to be a teacher-level decision while some districts or principals offer guidelines. In Edenrose, Ontario (Canada), for get writing paragraphs custom, example, we have a school-wide homework policy that was developed following the classification essay games, school board's policy and guidelines, said Deepi Kang-Weisz. Homework completion is considered an essential learning skill and is included on school report cards.
Set criteria are used to get writing custom, determine whether a child's homework-completion skills/responsibilities will earn a grade of classification computer games, needs improvement, satisfactory, good, or excellent. Among the criteria used to determine the grade are. Does the student complete homework on time and with care? Does the how to essay, student put forth consistent effort? Does the classification essay computer, student follow directions and paul theroux, complete all homework tasks? Does the student show attention to detail? Does the student demonstrate interest and enthusiasm in classification computer games, homework assignments? At Gonic Elementary School in Rochester, New Hampshire, principal Martha Wingate offers helpful guidelines to teachers as they wrestle the homework beast. Some of her guidelines are ones she used when she was in resume siebel, the classroom.
Those guidelines include a check system and several other rubrics. The check-system rubric is classification essay pretty straight forward, said Wingate. Sample Resume. Students earn a. if work is classification essay computer complete, neatly done, and directions are followed; + if work includes any amount of how to write essay, extra credit; ++ if work includes above-and-beyond extra credit; - if work is incomplete, messy, or directions are not followed; or 0 if work is not passed in. It is important that the check-system rubric is carefully explained to students and that what qualifies as extra-credit work is explained in classification computer games, advance, Wingate explained. I include an extra-credit assignment almost every night. For example, in write a graduate application, math, extra credit might require doing four more problems than assigned, or, in classification games, spelling, it might require sentences that are 10 words or longer. In addition, all homework is checked first thing in the morning as students work on independent or bell-ringer activities. Paul Essayist. At that point, I am not checking for correctness; I am only checking for completed work, said Wingate. Another grade might be given later for accuracy of the classification games, work.
When I used this system I included a reward component too. Students who averaged a grade of or higher for the week earned a 'No Homework Pass' that they could use on the last day of each month. Students might earn up to three passes in any month and antigone civil disobedience essay, 'cash them in' working backward from the computer, last day of the month. Sample Siebel. I adopted that system because it enabled me to plan the homework assignments that students might miss. I should add that I am pretty generous with the s. I want as many students as possible to feel success. The extra-credit assignments I offer make it easier for a student who might have slipped and earned a grade of - on an assignment to classification games, still earn a for the week.
Wingate's check system is an paul theroux easy one for teachers to adapt. The system can work to improve students' homework skills and attention because. the teacher gives each student daily attention about their homework; students see how important homework is to the teacher; students can see the opportunities to make up for work they didn't complete; and the teacher has the data required to games, give a pure homework grade for homework completion. Wingate also offers her staff other rubrics for homework grading. (See the sidebar for get writing paragraphs and essays custom w angel, sample homework rubrics.) One of the classification games, biggest dilemmas surrounding homework is how to handle the antigone essay, student who earns a zero for assignments not turned in. Zeros can ruin a child's grade, said principal Lolli Haws, adding, This is an computer issue our staff is debating right now in our Teacher Advisory Council. Teachers have varied feelings about this. Students who don't turn in homework typically stay in from recess to complete it, but that does not seem to christianity essay, be effective in bringing about a change in classification computer, behavior, so we're looking for other approaches. WHAT ABOUT LATE WORK? ABSENCES? ZEROES?
Most teachers accept late homework, though many deduct a grade for it. For example, a teacher's policy might deduct 10 percent for each day an assignment is late or it might state that the highest grade a late assignment can earn is a 70. And when it comes to sample resume, absences, many schools set a policy about classification essay computer, making up work; for example, students might be given three calendar days to make up missed work. But what about zeros? That question comes up often in teachers' rooms and staff meetings. If a student doesn't do the assignment, he earns a zero. He gets what he deserves, right? But what about the student who passes all tests but earns a zero for how to write a graduate essay, homework? A teacher who averages a zero homework grade into a C-student's final grade, might end up failing that student. But does that grade really reflect what the students knows? (Shouldn't a grade reflect what a student knows?) More and more schools are revisiting those questions. Many principals have taken the classification computer games, view that educators fail students by failing students.
A few homework zeros are bound to frustrate a student, even to students, the point of classification games, forcing him to give up. To prevent that from happening, some schools have set a grading scale of 50 to 100 percent. Missing assignments are given a grade of 50. In that way, it is still possible for a student who misses homework but passes all tests to earn a passing grade. In the case of quizzes and coursework, tests, many schools' policies require re-teaching and classification, re-testing until a student earns a passing grade. In that way, teachers are certain that students have learned the coursework for gifted, important concepts that are documented in their state's standards and classification, that students have the building blocks necessary, especially in the maths, to move on to the sample resume, next skill.
Alas, the grading debate is a sticky and complex one -- especially when it comes to the effects of zeros on students' grades. The important thing is to have a policy, principal Sue Astley told Education World. I encourage each of my school's grade-level teams to establish a written policy. Essay Computer. That policy might include a statement of whose responsibility it is to handle missed homework; for young students, parents might request missed assignments, but older students might handle that responsibility on their own. Also, the policy might include a statement of how much advance notice is required for teachers to gather homework for a student who will be out of school for essay, a period of time. That way, parents can't notify us the classification games, night before about a student who will be gone and a graduate essay, expect us to have work ready that day. Does your school have a homework policy? Is that policy in writing? If not, it might be time to essay computer, make the commitment to review the antigone disobedience, homework issue, to classification computer, come to a consensus about it and then commit your staff's agreement or consensus to coursework, writing. Education World's Great Meetings series offers some tools for coming to consensus. You might take a look at some of those tools in the practical Great Meetings entries listed here.
Having a homework policy in writing can help teachers avoid having to deal with complaints from parents, added Astley. Principal Deepi Kang-Weisz agreed. Our policy is often referred to essay, when responding to parents' concerns or questions. Having a written policy can be a big help throughout the school year. Education World has published many articles and resources about the issue of homework.
Be sure to scroll through our Homework Archive for antigone disobedience essay, a wide range of computer, articles. Principal Contributors to This Article. The following members of Education World's Principal Files Team contributed to this article. Click here to view an essayist archive of practical Principal Files articles from essay, recent months. Sherry Ambrose, principal, Transfiguration School, West Hazleton, Pennsylvania Sue W. Coursework For Gifted Students. Astley, assistant headmaster and elementary principal, St. Martin's Episcopal School, Atlanta, Georgia Larry Davis, principal, Doctors Inlet Elementary School, Middleburg, Florida Heather Nicole Hamtil, assistant principal, St.
Vincent de Paul Academy, Kansas City, Missouri Dr. Lolli Haws, principal, Oakridge Elementary School, Arlington Virginia Deepi Kang-Weisz, principal, Edenrose Public School, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Martha Wingate, principal, Gonic Elementary School, Rochester, New Hampshire. Article by Gary Hopkins. Copyright © Education World. Last updated 06/11/2012. Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to classification essay games, receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and receive. top education news, lesson ideas, teaching tips and more! No thanks, I don't need to stay current on what works in education!
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