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How to Write a Descriptive Essay about a Person. There is something about the personal essays - sometimes they are referred to as €ścharacter sketches.€ť But it is difficult to learn how to write a descriptive essay about a person, because we really do not read them often. We get €śpictures€ť in distance learning courses our heads about characters in a piece of international law essay, fiction over many pages of writing; and most non-fiction does not entail character sketches. So, when you are assigned this type of distance courses, essay, you may be at a loss as to caesar brutu hero how to construct it or even what to say. We have explored a lot of information about this kind of paper and have made a whole article about it in order to help you out. Here are some pretty basic tips and strategies to use as you develop your piece. You cannot write a character sketch about anyone you do not know intimately.

This person can be a member of distance, your family, a close friend, or even a main character in a novel or movie if you loved it so much you read or saw it many times. School Homework Help! You can select a totally fictitious person, of course, but it is distance courses, probably wise to make the person at least a combination of different techniques, people you know, so that your description €śsounds€ť authentic to a reader. Most fiction writers admit that their major characters are a bit autobiographical or combinations of people they know, because they are just more believable. Also it will help you to get more ideas about what to write and you won€™t get lost. If you want you may even have some sort of an interview with the person you are writing about in courses order to know more about school help them. Thus you will present them in a way more realistic and truthful way. A descriptive essay about distance courses a person is a failure, if all you do is describe that individual physically and then tell the reader that s/he has three or four personality traits.

Physical descriptions should be revealed indirectly, and those three or four personality traits must be shown be specific words, actions, and thesis on adoption behaviors. Go back and read your favorite short story or novel. How does the author reveal everything about learning courses that main character? Chances are s/he does not spend paragraphs of prose describing what that character looks like. Public! Bits and pieces are revealed along the way, and courses often the details are left up to the reader to fil in. How do you know what the character€™s personality is like?

You get that over time, as that character speaks and julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero takes action throughout the learning courses, work. Consider these two methods of providing a physical description: Carol has long curly brown hair, brown eyes, and public law essay stands about 5€™ 4€ť tall. She is slender, and learning her long legs give a graceful appearance as she walks. Thesis Statement On Adoption! (Very boring.) Carol has a completely contagious laugh. When she laughs her entire body is involved. Those long brown curls fly about her face and shoulders, and all 5€™ 4€ť of distance learning courses, her is somehow involved. Essay Gmat! And when she is distance courses, angry, watch out. Those piercing brown eyes are throwing daggers of light, and those long legs are poised in a true fighting stance, like she is international competition, ready to go 16 rounds. Distance Courses! Same person €“ two different writers. Techniques In Writing! See the distance courses, difference?

When you don€™t have an entire novel to gradually provide a physical description, you have to get creative with the way in antigone civil which you do it. There are a lot of tips and pieces of distance learning, advice from professional writers on the web that can help you to julius caesar essay brutu hero improve your skills in writing character€™s description. Also a lot of distance courses, writers like Chuck Palahniuk, Ray Bradbury, Stephen King and others have written whole books about the art of writing so consider reading them too. Law Essay Competition! Describing Personality Traits. Part of learning how to write a descriptive essay about a person mastering this art of learning courses, showing not telling as you reveal his/her personality traits.

Words and behaviors must be used. Let€™s take a look at statement on adoption, Carol again. Suppose you have decided that she really has extremes in emotions when she is happy or sad €“ there doesn€™t seem to be much €śin between€ť with her. So, that is one of the traits that you want to address in your description. Distance! You can take what was written above and expand it a bit, still keeping the physical descriptors but now giving specific examples of these extremes. You should reveal them in real-life situations.

Incorporate them in a realistic way. Consider this: Carol has extreme emotional responses, both when happy or angry. When she found out she was accepted to her first choice for college, she threw her head back, long brown curls flying, raised those slender arms toward the sky and immediately broke into dance moves that I had never seen before, as she sang €śDon€™t Stop Believin€™€ť and threw those long legs all over the room. And one day, when someone stole a parking space she had been waiting for, I watched her follow that man all the way into the store, shaking her finger and calling him a rude guy and several other terms I won€™t mention here. You have now €śproved€ť to different in writing an essay the reader that Carol has extreme emotional responses and done so in an engaging way. It€™s important to give such descriptions if you want to keep your writing interesting and not to be boring.

It also helps you to carve your own style and to improve writing skills at all. Distance Courses! As you search for public descriptive essay ideas that will make your character €ślive€ť on your paper, you can look online for examples of character sketch or personal description essays €“ you will find plenty to distance learning review that will help you see how to formulate your own €śpicture€ť of your character. It€™s very useful to practice essay gmat read other essays if you want to learn how to write good papers. It may also give you plenty of learning courses, new ideas or to inspire you to write a descriptive essay. Generally, in writing gmat a character sketch essay, you should identify three personality traits that you will present, each in a different paragraph. It€™s not advised to describe whole personality as it will become a novel. Instead consider using this scheme. Your introduction will obviously introduce your person, and the traits that you will be covering. Distance Courses! Your conclusion can either wrap those together to explain how complex, or fun, or interesting this individual is.

A conclusion for Carol might be something like this: Living with my sister Carol has been an adventure, to be sure. And I hope that adventure continues for years to come, even after we are grown and have our own separate lives.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and distance courses Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. Competition. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the learning courses previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of high school homework help that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to learning courses the point of view of reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at homework help, that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of distance production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the high school conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the learning courses bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the school homework help material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the courses average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on practice essay writing, the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of distance courses Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of practice essay Marx who resolved it, we know that the learning reproduction of the material conditions of school homework help production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to learning allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the an essay whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by learning courses, the supply. In order to julius caesar hero think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in distance learning, particular the relations of the circulation of high school capital between Department I (production of learning courses means of high school homework production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into courses, the analysis of this question. Essay. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the distance courses reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the caesar essay hero means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the distance learning observation of what takes place in school, the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and distance learning investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the international law essay competition material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at learning, least almost entirely so, and for different techniques an essay good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is distance learning courses ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the practice essay writing gmat material reproduction of learning labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the julius caesar brutu tragic hero value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the distance wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is brutu tragic hero determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to distance learning point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against techniques in writing the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of distance learning its reproduction if it is to antigone civil essay be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to courses be set to work in the complex system of the school help process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at distance learning, school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. Caesar Essay Tragic Hero. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in distance learning courses, the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to international competition the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for distance the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in hero, one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of learning labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of distance its subjection to public law essay competition the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in distance learning courses, the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and practice of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the learning question of the civil disobedience reproduction of the relations of production. Distance. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. Thesis On Adoption. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and courses the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the essay politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an learning courses edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on high help, their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.

The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an learning courses index of school effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in distance courses, the economic base. Given this index of international law essay competition effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in distance learning courses, the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the public competition base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is learning courses a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of julius hero effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the courses structure of high every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to distance learning me that it is possible and competition desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by distance learning courses, this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in thesis statement, the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on learning, the basis of reproduction. In Writing An Essay. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the distance courses questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is antigone civil disobedience essay not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is distance learning courses explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the statement on adoption ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to distance learning ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the julius tragic hero specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and courses necessity I have recognized in techniques, relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in distance learning courses, the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and thesis above this ensemble, the head of distance learning State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on high, the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. Learning Courses. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in high school homework help, the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and learning courses quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the civil disobedience essay nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in courses, speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).

As such, one might and in high homework help, my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of courses terms the equivalent of essay a kind of distance ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by antigone essay, returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is courses still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the different techniques in writing shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the distance decisive principle of every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the brutu tragic hero State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of learning repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on international law essay, Franco; it casts light on distance learning courses, all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and different techniques extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of learning political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the techniques an essay theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about courses which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Practice Writing. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the distance courses mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the statement seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of courses State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by thesis statement on adoption, bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the distance courses Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the thesis on adoption State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of courses 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of caesar brutu tragic hero State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and distance learning Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and brutu hero state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by distance learning courses, the classes (or alliance of international law essay competition classes or of fractions of distance classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the antigone state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the learning courses state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and julius brutu action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the distance learning courses decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Thesis On Adoption. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in distance courses, their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. Julius. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the distance learning following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the different an essay Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Distance Learning. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by practice essay gmat, violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. Distance. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to thesis statement on adoption the immediate observer in the form of learning courses distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the high help cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the learning ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Statement. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is learning courses bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for homework help the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. Distance. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and international law essay competition valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the distance courses law’: the State, which is the essay writing gmat State of the ruling class, is distance neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. Thesis On Adoption. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of distance our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of julius caesar essay brutu hero any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. Distance. What distinguishes the ISAs from the techniques in writing (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to distance confuse the public law essay Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by distance, ideology both to writing gmat ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is distance essential to essay writing gmat say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only distance learning ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the public cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by distance learning courses, ideology, according to civil whether it is a matter of the distance courses (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in thesis statement on adoption, detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an distance learning courses understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of statement alliances between classes or class fractions), and distance learning therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is antigone civil disobedience realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into distance learning, the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at in writing an essay, the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and courses proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the homework proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of distance learning courses bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in different techniques in writing an essay, the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to distance learning courses the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is essay brutu tragic hero necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and distance learning courses the State Apparatus on caesar essay, the other.

But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by distance courses, repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?

In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for high homework help the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and learning ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by high homework help, repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the learning courses (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of different techniques in writing an essay State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to distance contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the thesis on adoption unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the courses class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in practice, contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the learning relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of statement on adoption ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the learning courses State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the practice writing gmat State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the distance Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the techniques in writing latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the learning relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the international law essay repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of distance learning Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of high school homework production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. Distance Courses. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on julius caesar essay hero, to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the courses different political factions and international Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and distance bankers’ guilds and practice essay writing the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the distance theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to antigone disobedience essay the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the learning courses national popular Army) but also to attack the caesar essay number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and distance learning courses the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of public competition bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by distance learning courses, the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on thesis statement, the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in learning, the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in thesis statement on adoption, 1848 and for decades after the fall of the learning courses Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from julius caesar tragic hero it, in other words, to ensure not only learning its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the practice essay writing gmat following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the distance courses Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in caesar essay brutu hero, mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the courses educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the public international law essay bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the courses petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to antigone civil pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to learning courses ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the civil essay previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the distance courses dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to different techniques say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of learning nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is high school help of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in distance learning courses, sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is essay dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the distance Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the practice essay writing Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of distance Rome, the julius essay brutu tragic hero Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and learning courses then for years, the practice essay writing years in which the child is learning courses most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of antigone civil disobedience essay ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Courses. Another portion of high homework scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to learning courses provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of practice writing exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of distance learning all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the julius essay tragic hero role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the distance courses workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the different techniques in writing an essay professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the courses Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on public law essay, the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in learning courses, Good Books, in films and public law essay even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the distance learning children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for practice essay writing gmat the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of distance courses their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to techniques turn the distance few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and different techniques in writing the practices in which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. Distance Learning Courses. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the thesis most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the distance learning School, which makes the public international law essay competition School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by learning courses, the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the public law essay Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in distance learning, conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the high school help family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the distance courses dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the civil disobedience relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.

When I put forward the distance courses concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to essay brutu hero it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. Distance Learning. When Marx took up the julius essay tragic hero term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to learning courses face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon julius essay, a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the distance 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). High School Homework. As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of distance learning courses all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of practice gmat particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the distance learning class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and techniques class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is learning courses one of the public law essay elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the distance courses other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. Thesis On Adoption. as nothingness. Learning. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of antigone ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in distance courses, other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the international eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the distance learning reality of the day. This is exactly the different techniques an essay status of learning philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an statement on adoption imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the learning only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of high school help concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is distance learning courses outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by writing gmat, who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the courses contrary, for school homework help it is merely the distance pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the high school help positivist and historicist thesis of distance courses The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in writing, general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is distance courses true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in statement on adoption, which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in distance, the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is competition theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the learning two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is public international law essay competition eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the courses extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for high school help word, and distance learning courses write ideology is essay eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in distance courses, general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in civil disobedience, general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the distance courses history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Practice Essay. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. Distance. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only caesar tragic be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of distance learning that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of caesar interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the learning courses imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the essay tragic hero theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). Distance Learning. The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of disobedience essay ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in distance learning, fact obey the Priests and public international Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of learning courses existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on in writing, a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. Learning Courses. It, too, seeks and statement on adoption finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of distance men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an international alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is learning courses reflected in essay writing, the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of distance learning existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to antigone a thesis which I have already advanced: it is distance learning courses not their real conditions of competition existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is learning courses their relation to thesis statement on adoption those conditions of existence which is represented to distance courses them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of thesis on adoption every ideological, i.e. Courses. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the julius brutu representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of learning courses production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from caesar essay brutu them. What is distance learning represented in julius tragic hero, ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of distance courses those individuals to the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and thesis statement must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to distance courses the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the practice writing gmat question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the learning authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on antigone disobedience essay, this thesis by courses, saying that the antigone civil disobedience ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the distance learning courses ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the julius brutu tragic hero Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of distance them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Techniques In Writing. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of distance existence, in other words, in the last instance, to in writing an essay the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to distance learning courses ideas endowed by thesis, definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in courses, which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in question behaves in such and julius essay brutu such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in learning courses, all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the thesis on adoption term) and naturally repents and so on. Learning Courses. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the antigone civil disobedience Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and distance believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to school help his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in distance, the actions of high school homework help his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is learning because he does something else, which, still as a function of the an essay same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in courses, his head as well as those he proclaims, and techniques in writing that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out distance, that these practices are governed by thesis on adoption, the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of learning courses ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of an essay things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in distance learning, addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.

And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in statement on adoption, still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is distance learning concerned, the existence of the ideas of gmat his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the distance materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the public law essay competition sign of the cross, or of the distance learning mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and public law essay competition simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on learning courses, the contrary survive, and thesis statement on adoption new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to courses the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of techniques an essay a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on distance learning, which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to antigone civil disobedience my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by distance, the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and homework help this destination for ideology is courses only made possible by the subject: meaning, by essay gmat, the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only distance appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the public international competition subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in learning courses, Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of practice essay gmat existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is distance courses essential to realize that both he who is thesis on adoption writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and distance the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in high help, ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is distance no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is international a different question which I shall leave on distance, one side for thesis statement on adoption the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in distance courses, ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. Essay Brutu Tragic Hero. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and distance courses I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of antigone disobedience ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of distance courses ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by essay tragic hero, saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in learning courses, France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and writing these concrete illustrations, I only wish to learning point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by antigone civil disobedience essay, your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of learning courses our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. School Homework Help. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Distance Courses. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to practice essay dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. Distance Learning. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in essay writing gmat, order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to distance learning courses a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and brutu tragic concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the distance courses individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in public international law essay, the street, the hailed individual will turn round. Distance Courses. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and thesis statement on adoption that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is distance really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and practice writing gmat one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to distance present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and writing an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the distance hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. Techniques In Writing An Essay. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in distance courses, the street), in statement on adoption, reality takes place in learning, ideology. School Homework Help. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by distance learning courses, definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. International Law Essay. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only learning courses applies to others, never to different techniques in writing an essay oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at distance learning courses, the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and julius essay brutu self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in learning courses, which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to writing making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by distance learning, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Public Law Essay Competition. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to distance courses the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is tragic hero always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to distance the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in techniques in writing, what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to learning drop the school ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in learning courses, which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is high school help ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. Learning Courses. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the essay tragic hero rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of learning courses sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to civil is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to learning everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the law essay Word of learning God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). Techniques In Writing. It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world!

This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by distance learning courses, interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the essay writing gmat appeal, i.e. Distance Learning Courses. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is different techniques in writing me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in distance courses, this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to essay hero the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the distance learning courses fact that there can only be such a multitude of different techniques possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by courses, writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in caesar essay tragic, what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud.

And the Lord cried to learning courses Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and practice writing gmat I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for learning courses himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the public international competition individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and courses makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the statement Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the learning courses Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the high homework subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to courses ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to julius brutu hero the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21]

Let us decipher into distance learning, theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the essay writing gmat Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the learning Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in antigone essay, Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about distance courses ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the law essay competition mutual recognition of subjects and courses Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of caesar essay brutu hero universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of distance learning courses cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of antigone civil disobedience (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is learning courses true that it is international competition so and learning courses not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the statement on adoption prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the distance learning courses quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the thesis statement term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the distance learning courses effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in practice writing, order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the distance courses Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’.

There are no subjects except by and for essay brutu hero their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by distance, themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the civil essay ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to distance courses be so if things are to high school help be what they must be, and learning let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in high school help, the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in learning courses, the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the thesis posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in courses, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is brutu hero really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the courses individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to julius caesar essay brutu tragic hero the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to learning courses the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is disobedience necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the learning courses realization of the reproduction of the relations of practice writing gmat production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction.

But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by distance learning, the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of different techniques an essay production are relations of courses exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. Thesis. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of distance learning labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of international this class struggle. Courses. To adopt the point of view of practice gmat reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of distance learning view of the julius essay brutu tragic class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in learning, a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of writing class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the learning point of school view itself however real, is still an abstract one.

In fact, the State and courses its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the homework ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of distance courses ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by thesis statement on adoption, the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of learning State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is antigone civil disobedience realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is learning courses still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an public competition important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the learning courses ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.

Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for practice essay gmat it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the distance learning point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in statement on adoption, a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the courses forms of class struggle for which the techniques ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is courses also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. Julius Brutu. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the courses social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of gmat existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of distance courses two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.

3. Homework Help. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the distance only one who went any distance in antigone disobedience, the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to distance the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from caesar essay brutu tragic ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation.

8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs. 10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. Learning Courses. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to statement on adoption A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in distance learning, ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by julius, virtue of the distance courses second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in thesis statement, the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by distance, the materiality of the processes of school homework help production and circulation. Distance. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Different. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is distance ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of disobedience ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and distance of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of thesis statement Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of learning courses Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the antigone civil essay material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to learning courses Spinoza.

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Close to Retirement and Out of a Job. Today, it isn’t at all uncommon for distance people to move from julius hero, job to job every few years. A lot has changed since the days when people used to stay working in the same position and for the same company from their first day of distance learning, work until retirement, and most hiring managers are understanding of the fact that resumes will often reflect multiple job changes for applicants now. So long as those changes aren’t occurring too sporadically, it can even be seen as a strength when you have varied experience as a result of those shifts. But the closer you get to retirement, the essay writing gmat more advisable it may be to stay working for distance the same company. That’s because as much as we all hate to admit it, and as illegal as it may be, age discrimination does occur, and it can sometimes be harder to find a new position when you have a retirement on the horizon. As understanding as hiring managers are of previous job changes, they aren’t usually as keen to hire someone who they know up front will only be around for the short term.

So whenever possible, staying the international law essay competition course is usually a good idea as retirement nears. But when you don’t have a say in the matter, how can you boost your chances of avoiding that discrimination and landing a new job? If you are nearing retirement, that likely means you have spent decades building up a reputation in the industry and making a ton of networking contacts along the way. Now is the time to fall back on distance learning, all of that hard work you have put in up to this point. Reach out to practice those in your network and let them know you are looking. Contact managers you have worked for learning courses in the past, those who had a favorable opinion of you and are more likely to keep you in thesis mind for any openings they have now.

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Yes, you can and distance, should pursue your dreams. Absolutely! But if that dream is writing, you need to recognize that establishing yourself, building a reputation and acquiring long-standing clients (or finishing and polishing that novel) take time. Techniques. You need to have a steady stream of income while you work towards that dream, otherwise you are likely going to fall flat on your face. So take the leap by distance courses, committing to this dream (starting a blog and working to bring in freelance work) but not by throwing in the towel on everything else right away.

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Making and maintaining those connections with others in your industry can mean getting a heads up when new openings are around the corner and having an internal recommendation for position that might have a lot of competition. Obviously, if you are currently employed, you want to statement on adoption be careful about who you let know that you are looking elsewhere. But good networking means knowing who your friends are and learning, being able to find your “in” to corporations where you would really like to get your foot in the door. Even if you aren’t currently looking, you should always be trying to thesis make those ties – because you never know when they could come in handy down the line. Pay attention to job postings and to distance a company’s preferred method of civil disobedience, applying. A lot of job seekers make the learning mistake of thinking that all they have to do to on adoption get an interview is turn in distance learning a really great resume and cover letter. In some cases, this is absolutely true. But if a job posting dictates filling out an application as well, you need to be sure you are doing so to practice essay completion. Don’t write “see resume” on every line or skip the application entirely, purely because you believe your resume covers all the questions asked. Follow a company’s protocol and show you have respect for their way of distance, doing this by applying with their preferred method. This includes paying attention to deadlines and international, filling out those applications online when requested – many companies today like to maintain online databases of applicants for future job openings.

Let’s say you have been looking for a job for distance courses a while; couch surfing at the homes of kind of supportive friends and family while you try to antigone civil essay work towards your dream career. Or maybe you have a job, but it certainly isn’t the dream – so you’ve been wistfully looking elsewhere, without much luck or interest from employers in distance what you have to offer. What are you doing wrong? The reality is, you aren’t the only job seeker asking themselves this question. But what you might be lacking is that third party insight that could help to get you exactly where you want to be. Which is where a career coach comes in. People are relying more and more on matchmakers and relationship coaches to help them find “the one” in terms of love – so why shouldn’t the same logic apply to finding that match in your career? If you have been searching to no avail, it might be time to practice essay writing enlist the distance learning help of a coach who can give you that extra boost you need.

Just as with dating, success in a job search has a lot to do with attitude. Your resume could speak volumes to law essay what you have to distance learning courses offer, but if you lack the confidence to express that same level of expertise in high school homework your interviews – you will almost always be passed over for the job. Even when you might otherwise be a perfect fit. The flip side of that, of distance, course, is when applicants have a confidence that spills over into arrogance. Writing. No one wants to work with the person who thinks they are too good for distance learning courses any give job, either. A career coach can help you to hone your attitude, and to exude the right level of brutu hero, confidence, without turning hiring managers off.

They can aid in working through any job search anxiety you may have, as well as creating realistic expectations for the task at hand. Plenty of job applicants make the distance learning courses mistake of applying to any and every opening they find. Particularly when a person has been out of work for a while, there is a desperation that takes over – and that has them sending the school homework same exact cover letter and resume to learning each and every opening, because they are focused on quantity over quality. A career coach will help you to better define what you are looking for, and to know where to writing look in order to find those opportunities. Distance Learning. They will also help you to refine your resume and cover letter so that it is job specific, thereby increasing your chances of techniques an essay, getting a foot in the door. Which brings us to courses the presentation. Yes, making your resume career specific is absolutely important – but so is ensuring that your resume format best exemplifies what you have to offer. Career coaches will work with you to understand what hiring managers are looking for, and how to present yourself in practice essay writing gmat a way that will be irresistible to recruiters. Then, they will guide you in your in-person presentation as well. Because it isn’t just about what you put on paper; but also about how you can back that information up in reality. An overwhelming majority of people suffer from learning courses, anxiety surrounding public speaking and statement on adoption, interview situations.

You aren’t alone if the idea of sitting in front of a hiring manager and selling yourself makes you feel uneasy. But a good career coach will go over tools you can use to help dispel that anxiety, while also working with you on your interview skills until you feel confident in your ability to convince any hiring manager of your value. So if you’ve been searching for a while, it might be time to consider a little extra help. While a career coach won’t ever be able to just hand you a job, they can provide the guidance you need to not only define what it is you want out of your dream career, but to also go out and get it for yourself!

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essay from violence The first concern is that “violence can have a number of adverse effects on courses, children and even adults”.[3] The second concern provides proof for public, the first by adding more detail. The NTVS states that from viewing violence for an amount of time, three types of harmful influences will develop in individuals. These harmful influences are “an increased fear of becoming victimized by violence”, “desensitization to violence” and “learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors”.[4] The NTVS later explains that. But, in reality acting out is distance courses, violence. There is no-good guy. Antigone Disobedience Essay? How do children convert the information on television and use it in play? At different ages, children watch and understand television in different ways, depending on distance courses, the length of their attention span, the way in on adoption, which they process information, the amount of mental effort they invest, and their own life experiences. These variables must be examined to gain an understanding of how television violence affects children at different ages Essay about Violence on Television. In 1948, there were barely 100,000 television sets in use in the United States.

By 1973, 96 percent of the homes in the United States had one or more T.V. sets, and the average set was estimated to be turned on courses, for more than six hours a day (Cater 9). Practice Essay Writing? Little attention has been given to how long young children begin watching television. The only major study of the beginnings of television use was conducted in 1961 by Schramm, Lyle, and Parker. They found that 14 percent of. versus 20-25 acts per hour on Saturday morning”. Research on courses, television and children has proven that children who are exposed to violence become immune to the horror of violence (“Children”, 2011).

They develop a false sense that violence solves problems and they begin imitating these acts in an essay, real life. Distance Courses? Many children depending on their home lives can identify with the good violence acts performed by super heroes as well as the bad violence acts performed by the villains in most shows like Power Rangers. Essay on Violence On Television: Violence Is Everywhere. you can get a nice five minute break for kicking the essay writing not out of someone during. You have got to love it when the learning courses crowd is louder over the thirty second fight than they are during the rest of the game. For those who think violence is only restricted to TV Land, well there is violence in our high school as well(shocker, huh?). Well every once in a while we get to witness a lovely fist-fight between two or more students, and homework help, the occasional unwilling faculty member.

Those brawls aren't. Children, Television, and Violence Essay. Three out of five programs portray violence on television. Learning? Even some of the shows I watched as a child could also be considered violent. For example, let??s take GI JOE into consideration. Sure there were battle scenes when fighting, gunfire, and explosions were evident, but the antigone civil show seemed to have a sense of distance worth you might say. At the end of every episode, there was some supplemental factor. Some of the practice essay writing star characters or leaders from the show would give kids advise about different situations. Television Violence and Its Effects on distance, Children Essay. aggressive actions. (Office) Many television shows do not portray the harmful consequences of violence, and if they do, it is in public law essay competition, a unrealistic way.

Kids are being programmed with the idea that violence is the way you get what you want. The disadvantages to violence on television far outweigh the advantages-- which are none. Research suggests that television is poisoning our children, and we are allowing this to learning happen. Thesis Statement? Some argue that television violence, plays little or no part in distance learning, the rise. The violence in the show has led New Zealand and two of the major networks in Canada to ban the program from their daily schedules. Nancy Carlson-Paige of statement on adoption Lesley College said in the December 1, 1994 Boston Globe, Locally, teachers see evidence that Power Rangers interferes with normal childhood development. It threatens to undermine children’s mental health because of the way it influences their play (Meltz pg. A1). Chris Boyatzis of California State University at Fullerton completed the first.

Public reaction against distance learning courses brutality and murder has forced sponsors, agencies and networks to crack down hard.? That line was printed in a 1960 issue of TV Guide; proving that the concern of practice essay violence is distance learning, not a new one (Levine, 7). It has also been pointed out essay writing gmat that ?violence has always been a part of human history, from the Bible to public punishment in distance learning, Colonial America, to the news stories we see and hear today? (Levine, 26.) The problem that we come to is how can it be deciphered if the public portrays. Television Violence Negatively Impacts Children Essay. homes had a television. Today, the opposite is true; only two percent of high school homework homes do not have a television. (Murray, 1) Television is learning courses, used to inform, entertain, and educate the public. High School Homework Help? Children make up a large part of television viewers. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) states that American Children watch an average of three to four hours of television daily. (American, 1) Unfortunately many children are left home alone after school, thus their television viewing is not. Should Sex and courses, Violence in Television and Movies be Restricted?

Researches viewed 945 films to add up scenes of violence from a sampling of box office hits from 1950 to civil 2012. They found that violence within American films has more than doubled in that time period. Learning? One of the authors of the study, Mr. Romer, said “violence sells. We recognize that, and the movie industry realizes it.” He went on essay writing, to say that “we treat sex as R, we should treat extreme gun violence as R.” After the actor Jim Carrey dropped out of the distance learning courses children’s movie “Kick Ass 2”, he went. Television and Media - TV Violence and Children#x27;s Behavior Essay. the world around them. Because they are exposed to so much violence on essay, television, they are starting to expect violence to happen to them. Our children are beoming more afraid everyday. This is distance learning courses, going to manifest itself in many ways. Children who are fearful are defensive.

If they are already expecting a violent act to happen to them, tney they are going to be overly prepared to defend themselves and even more likely to initiate violence so that they can avoid becoming victims. Children who are. Essay about Television Violence and Its Effect on Children. homicide rates doubling 10 to 15 years after the introduction of television even though the study was taken at different times in each country (Centerwall). Another study showed that eight year old boys who watched the high help most violent programming were the most likely to get into fights or problems with the police (Eron). If parents knew what their children were watching maybe they could help to point out the shortcomings in television. Music is also a large part of children's lives today. A recent. Essay on Violence against distance courses Women on Television and in Movies. women experience violence from someone close to them.

In 2007, 64 percent of the female homicide cases reported included a suspect that was a family member or intimate partner of the victim. Practice Writing? A spouse, or ex-spouse, killed 24 percent of the victims, 21 percent were killed by a boyfriend or girlfriend, and 19 percent by another family member (Catalano 1-7). Distance Learning Courses? Horror Films Started It All To find out why so many of the TV shows and antigone civil, movies people watch contain so much violence, and violence against women. Violence in Television, Movies, and Video Games Should Not Be Censored. often isn't any other explanation. When people are distressed by an incomprehensible crime, such as the one recently committed in Jonesboro, they want an excuse for why it happened. When one can't be found, they are quick to distance blame it on the violent television programming or the video game with the thesis statement most blood in distance courses, it. About the effects of on adoption video games over the society, Nadeau (2005) argues that violent video games do not provoke violent behavior in children as well as adults. Nadeau refers to statistics. Television, the Desensitizer Essay. town, Notel, which did not have television in comparison to communities that did own televisions.

The double-blind study revealed that two years after the introduction of television, rates of distance learning physical aggression among children in Notel had increased by 160 percent” (Centerwall). These startling numbers indicate that individuals react when they are exposed to violence on television. The National Television Violence Study reports that “perpetrators of violence go unpunished in 73 percent of. Television Harmful to antigone civil essay Students Essay. Seen regularly, television soon becomes a regular practice used to dodge schoolwork and studying.

Lastly, with over courses ninety channels on the television, children are subjected to a myriad of images, themes, and languages that are often unsuitable for their age level. Caesar Essay Brutu Tragic Hero? Inappropriate themes can encourage aggressive or brash behavior, and obscene or frightening images can stir up nightmares in distance, children. I remember as a child seeing the Hitchcock movie, Marnie. There was a scene where the protagonist. This kind of violence is international, not a new emerging behavior to humans. Distance? Violence has existed since history can recall, it has served humans as a way to defends themselves against predators and enemies throughout times. With the increasing cases of youth violence in caesar brutu hero, our society, such as homicides, school shootings, gang affiliation, etc. it is imperative to know what is behind youth violence, and what is triggering or evoking at risk youth and to know how is the media correlated. Distance Learning? “Over the past 30 years there. Is Television Ruining America? Essay.

rating system to international law essay inform the public about the content of a movie or television show would certainly help with making decisions about what your children view. Learning Courses? As it stands today, there are relatively few television shows, and even fewer movies, that are suitable for adults or children to practice essay view. Even television today is filled with nearly pornographic sex and gratuitous violence. While there is not really any harm in watching some television, there can be great. Therefore, someone had rightly said, When Television is courses, good, nothing is better, but remember, when it is bad, nothing is worse! It is, indeed, an anesthetic pain of the essay gmat modern world.

It has been successful in destroying the distance learning courses peace and harmony in many homes. Also, its influence on children has been very bad. It has made a child from an irresistible force to an immovable object. Not to forget, how it takes away the privacy out international of the lives of some. Courses? The sex, violence, rapes, murders, cheap dances and obscene. Essay about public international law essay The Effects of Television on distance learning, Society.

Sex and violence has also become an disobedience, all too common problem in television today. Every television show on distance, TV is public competition, resorting to sex and violence to make money. The creators of these television shows don’t take into consideration how many children actually watch their shows and frankly they don’t care. These companies are only after one thing and that is distance, how much money they can make. They base their success on the amount of viewers they get because the more viewers they attract the more money they rake. Essay on Watching Television: Social Stereotype. that watching television makes them more into it and they are not exposed to the outer world making them fat, lazy and addicted. Today people want to stay healthy, in shape and have the sportsmen spirit and according to them television is the practice distraction in that goal so they considered bad. Distance Learning Courses? And the second one is the influence it creates among the psychology of people watching it and mostly children as they have the ability to grasp things easily they can grasp the idea of an essay violence and war easily.

it, why not me?’ Much of this type of thinking evolves into the thought process of children. One must take into consideration the age differences in distance learning, which research is being done as well as what they think as younger or older children that watch television. As a seventeen year old, if I were to essay start watching a Jackie Chan film, or anything along the lines of Kill Bill, it would not affect me so much. For one, I am old enough to know that these movies are unrealistic and distance learning, mature enough to realize. that violence is often presented in ways that could harm viewers. Antigone Disobedience Essay? Perpetrators go unpunished in courses, 73% of all violent scenes. This should be of antigone civil disobedience essay great concern because when violence is presented without punishment, and oftentimes with rewards, viewers are more likely to learn that violence is distance, successful. Antigone Essay? In addition to the perpetrators going unpunished, in 47% of courses violent scenes no harm is actually shown to the victim.

In 58% of scenes no pain is shown. In only 16% of programs that portray violence the. There are many surveys and commissions have explored the high amount of violence in films and the effect it has on courses, the audience. However, these efforts have generally failed to come up with evidence establishing a causal link between cinematic and real violence. For example, Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel quote various reports on the effects of television violence and conclude that the child who is emotionally disturbed will learn violence from brutal images in high school, TV programs but they virtually dismissed the. Michigan supports this claim that North American children are indeed affected by the violence they watch on television. The Toronto Star states that the five year-old boy who did the learning courses shooting admittedly enjoyed watching “violent movies and TV shows” (14). In addition to mimicking hostile behaviour they view on different in writing an essay, television, the sheer number of violent acts seen by young people is responsible for desensitizing them to violence (Landau 38). Distance Courses? Consequently, juveniles are at a high predisposition to committing. E: everyone all the way to A: adults. Games with violence usually get T: teens or an M: mature.

This form of rating is the equivalent to the rating systems used for high school homework help, motion pictures and television. Today this rating system is a standard across all platform of home video gaming. Learning? It is used for all video games including games for the home PC. In December 2001, Surgeon General of the United States David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., led a study on violence in youth and determined that while the impact of. Television shows for of all ages of people are more often than not a fantasy world, but younger children do not understand that their favorite character is not real and does not exist in the real world. Because children one to four do not understand between fantasy and reality, one may find children crawling down storm drains looking for them [Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles] (Minow LaMay, 1995: 33).

This is an example that clearly represents that children do not understand that their favorite characters. Effects of Excessive Television Viewing Essay. kids to become more aggressive or desensitized to violence. Many times, TV forgets to put the consequences that happen if there is violence. High? By this drama and by the violence that is distance courses, shown on the news, many kids are scared of the world and tend to have nightmares. Excessive television viewing can lead the kid to drugs, alcohol and cigarettes because they see people doing these things. Statistics show that kids who watch five or more hours of television a day are significantly more likely to start smoking.

Violence in public law essay competition, Public Schools Essays. Because children are “…bombarded daily by distance learning, a broad array of violent messages in the media” (including shootings at schools and crime dramas on television), they are in fact receiving “mixed messages” and hence are left to decide “…what is accurate, what is real, and what it all means” (Chapin, 2008, 461). Chapin discovered (through “multiple studies”) that many students have an “optimistic bias” – they believe they are “less vulnerable” than others are to “health risks” – and they operate intellectually. The Growth of the Television and Television Networks Essay example. the 3rd meeting under the conference champions agreement which still exists today as part of the Bowl Championship Series and the conferences now known as the Big Ten and Pac 12. The National Football League, long known as the darling of different an essay sports television, would broadcast its first game as well in 1939. Learning Courses? On October 22, an school help, 8 man crew led by play-by-play announcer Skip Waltz would transmit that day’s game from distance learning courses, Ebbets Field in civil essay, Brooklyn, NY which featured the Philadelphia Eagles losing to distance learning courses the Brooklyn. Essay on Television Associated with Childhood Obesity. varies based on age and gender.” Generally speaking, the television itself does not cause obesity in children; it is how television viewing affects your child.

According to the AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) children who view more than four hours of caesar brutu tragic hero television each day are likelier to learning courses be overweight. Thesis Statement On Adoption? Children who view violence on television tend to be more aggressive and at the same time the child fears the outside world. Characters on learning, television also portray smoking, drinking, risky behaviors, and. Argumentative Essay -Media Violence. hours of julius brutu tragic hero TV weekly, seeing as many as 8,000 murders by the time he or she finishes elementary school at age 11, and worse, the killers are depicted as getting away with the murders 75% of the time while showing no remorse or accountability.

Such TV violence socialization may make children immune to distance learning brutality and aggression, while others become fearful of living in such a dangerous society. With the research clearly showing that watching violent TV programs can lead to aggressive behaviour. Constant. Relationship Between Children and Television Essay. Programs featuring intense violence and subject matter tailored for adult viewers occasionally fall into children’s view, causing a potentially negative influence or bad role model for help, the child. Even silly and outlandish humor found in distance, cartoons can prove to be a negative influence on children’s perception of physics and high school help, natural law. According to Kyla Boyse from the courses University of Michigan Health Center, parents can take several steps in protecting and supervising their children. One way is for parents. Media and Youth Violence Essay example. particular artist is doing in thesis statement on adoption, the music video.

There are quite a few negative effect of television on children. That crime on your television may be the reason children think it is all right for learning, violence acts to take place. Most people think that violence is a natural part of life, but what effect is it having on techniques, children? The effect of violence shown on television may vary depending on courses, age, length of on adoption television watching, and what they have been. Media Violence and the Effects on Youth Essays. it revealed that teens with heavy television- viewing were linked with bullying (“Media Violence”).

Also, a study of 130,296 participants, found that higher levels of aggressive behavior were considerably related to exposure to violent video games (Anderson et. al 160). Routine exposure to media violence in the middle of childhood is known to predict increased aggressiveness later on. Distance Courses? In a study of children, when both boys and girls watched more television violence, there was found to be increasing. influenced by julius brutu tragic, violence in the media. (Miller 58) In 1991, a teenager shot a Texas highway patrolman dead at point blank range. He testified at his trial that the music of Tupac Shakur made him do it.

Another incident was after the opening of the movie Boyz in the Hood. The violence ranged from distance learning courses, Chicago, where a man was fatally shot, to a theater in antigone civil, Alabama, where three teens were shot in a gang fight. Learning Courses? (Miller 61) The majority of research done on television focuses on the viewing of violence and how it. A lot of teens think that it will never happen to them even though 40% of international competition teenage girls (14 to 17) know someone their age that has suffered from dating violence. Learning? And 80% of all girls who have been physically abused in their relationship continue to date their partner. There are a few different reasons for this one is there abuser won’t let them leave the relationship and mentally destroys the victims mind and makes them think that they cannot do any better. Also some victims are deeply in love with. Essay on Crime Drama on British Television. to bring challenging, intelligent television to a wide audience. Ambition and innovation are BBC Two’s key values, and the channel aims to create programmes that inspire and excite audiences.

This to me would seem as good a choice as any to distribute dramas such as ours, however the BBC is self-regulatory and does not take risks especially risks which may be morally reprehensible or show deplorable acts of violence, bad language, etc. The. The Harmful Effect of Television on Children and Teen-agers Essay. the black homicide rate didn't show any such increase until four years later.(Kristol) Children watch and enjoy the violence they see. They want to see as much as possible according a thirteen-year-old boy in one of the surveys.

These surveys give proof that violent behavior is learned from television and statement on adoption, movies, and distance learning, improved with time and exposure to extreme amounts of violence. Then, the American public seem to cling to reality shows like Desperate Housewives, World's Scariest Police. Also, not only is their proof that the lack of non-violent television is getting to our kids, but the competition media has, (whether intentionally or not), shown in a sense, what the violence on television has done to distance courses children. Just look at little Mikey from the hit movie “Willy Wonka the antigone civil disobedience essay Chocolate Factory”. Mikey is portrayed to distance learning courses live for 2 things: television and candy. If you’ve noticed however, he’s also pretty darn fond of his two toy pistols, and “shooting” them, and such, and he thinks it’s a fine and. Violent Programs on Television Lead to Aggressive Behavior by Children. radio to television, and now with internet media, researchers have tried to explain the correlation between media and violence. This association has been easy to thesis statement on adoption support and is substantiated in every major scientific report released in the last twenty years.

It has become general knowledge to professional counselors and learning courses, educators that excessive and unsupervised exposure to writing gmat television violence increases the use of violence to resolve conflict, while it desensitizes these youth to acts of violence. This. America: Freedom And Violence Essay. less power. Media, whether it is the newspaper, television, movies, music, or the Internet has been a way to express and entertain ourselves. Our freedom of speech is regulated in some means because of profanity, pornography, and distance, other extreme cases.

We can still display a variety of violence through media. Studies show that in the past few decades the interest in in writing an essay, media violence has increased dramatically in our nation. In essence, we produce more violence in media to create profit and attract an audience. Essay about How Television Affects Children. Television programming can help a child feel more confident with themselves. When children see appropriate behavior displayed, it can teach them how to react the right way when a difficult situation comes up.

This is why it is important for parents to learning monitor their children’s viewing habits. A child’s brain is like a sponge. It can soak up everything that it sees and hears. While some people believe that there are positive effects from watching TV, there have been many studies conducted that show. The Negative Effects of Television Essay. that television helped them forget about their busy lives. Some people found television relaxing because it helped them forget about the world. Others who used the thesis on adoption terms “brainwashed” or “addicted,” felt that television provided them with good information and entertainment. However, no one thought that television lived up to his or her expectations. In chapter 16 of For Arguments for courses, the Elimination of Television, the chapter shows how people form poor judgments when watching television. Some.

Media: Source of Today#x27;s Violence? Essays. Although people may not want to admit it, we all enjoy violence, and television, movies, and video games offer a way to see the violence without actually hurting anyone. If we censor or ban it, we will be forced to find our violence elsewhere. Public Law Essay Competition? Ever since the introduction of motion pictures about learning 100 years ago, people have been arguing over the content of what we see. With the different mass introduction of television in the 50s, this issue was being raised again and learning, again and when video games invaded. Effects of Television on Children: A Chain Indicating Their Behavior. Information that children know about television influences what they acquire from it. “TV gives children an unreal perception of the world of material goods.

Like the lesson of violence, the writing lifestyle of consumption is not “taught” by television. Distance Courses? It is simply picked up and absorbed by the viewer” (Moody 50). Moreover, TV is on adoption, full of learning courses programs and commercials that depict risky behaviors such as sex and practice essay writing, substance abuse as cool, fun, and exciting (Gavin). Jersey Shore and Bad Girls’ Club both display. The Reality of Reality Television Essay. This just seems to prove that it doesn’t really matter all that much to people if what they are watching is one hundred percent real or true as long as it is interesting to distance learning courses them.

Reality television seems to be very appealing to people, although much of the content remains negative to a certain extent. Different reality shows seem to have different appealing attributes. Such as the public competition appeal of “American Idol” is the audience interaction. The people who watch it like the feeling that they. Single Parents on Television Essay.

Single parent families are the contemporary families in distance courses, the land of television. When sitcoms were first aired, the divorce rate was much lower than it is today. Now, about half of my friends come from a split-up family. Television is an international, ever-changing form of learning media. For instance, many shows can have their episode deal with controversies that have happened over the week. So when writers realize that the typical American family is no longer a husband, a wife, and two kids, they change their style. Essay on The Violence of Youth in American Society. Some of the American public believes that another cause of techniques in writing this recent level of violence is the increasing level of violence depicted on the television.

The majority of kids are big fans of cartoons, or they like watching daytime programming right after they get out of school. But for some reason American television programmers have began to cloud the adolescent mind by polluting it with scenes of violence, murder, and death. There is only so much a child should be allowed to distance see. But with.